Rational construction of Co-loaded ceramic composites by recycling gangue for microwave absorption
Abstract: In the context of sustainable development, tackling the severe solid wastes pollution has become extremely urgent. Herein, the solid waste gangue was successfully recycled to synthesize the ceramic based composite microwave absorbing materials decorated with Co particles through a novel synthesis method. The magnetic Co particles were uniformly loaded in the ceramic matrix by the pelletizing process with gangue and Co2+ following by the in situ carbothermal reaction, and the Co content in ceramic composites can be precisely controlled by adjusting the Co2+ concentration. Furthermore, compared with gangue, the obtained composites displayed optimized performance, the minimum reflection loss value reached −48.2 dB and the effective absorbing band was measured to be 4.3 GHz with the coating thickness of 1.5 mm, which is mainly attributed to the enhanced magnetic loss and multiple interface polarization. Such innovative design of recycling gangue in this work can effectively realize the resource utilization of gangue, which is also beneficial for the low-cost and light-weight of microwave absorbing materials as well.
Table 1. Microwave absorption performance of some reported absorbent systems.
Ref. Co@C-700 −17.0 14.1 2.7 2.6 27 Ni0.8Co0.2@C −27.0 5.7 3.5 5.0 28 Ce1.2MM0.8Co17 −32.0 7.4 2.4 1.8 29 Co/NGN −38.5 11.5 3.6 2.5 30 C/Co-600 −40.0 8.4 4.0 2.8 31 Co/C@V2O3 −40.1 15.2 4.6 1.5 19 CoNi@(CoO-NiO) −24.5 17.8 3.0 1.7 32 CoCB800 −20.6 16.1 3.8 1.3 33 CoG700 −35.2 16.2 4.3 1.5 This work
 YAO Yong-gang, WANG Wen-long, GE Zhi, et al. Hydration study and characteristic analysis of a sulfoaluminate high-performance cementitious material made with industrial solid wastes[J]. Cement and Concrete Composites,2020,112:103687. doi: 10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2020.103687  Alieh Saedi, Ahmad Jamshidi Zanjani, Ahmad Khodadadi Darban. A review on different methods of activating tailings to improve their cementitious property as cemented paste and reusability[J]. Journal of Environmental Management,2020,270:110881. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.110881  QI Jiang-tao, YAN Wen, CHEN Zhe, et al. Preparation and characterization of microporous mullite-corundum refractory aggregates with high strength and closed porosity[J]. Ceramics International,2020,46(6):8274-8280. doi: 10.1016/j.ceramint.2019.12.056  Kuz'Min M P, Larionov L M, Kondratiev V V, et al. Use of the burnt rock of coal deposits slag heaps in the concrete products manufacturing[J]. Construction and Building Materials,2018,179:117-124. doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.05.222  ZHANG Yu-zhuo, WANG Qing-he, ZHOU Mei, et al. Mechanical properties of concrete with coarse spontaneous combustion gangue aggregate (SCGA): Experimental investigation and prediction methodology[J]. Construction and Building Materials,2020,255:119337. doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.119337  LI Dan, WU Dai-she, XU Fei-gao, et al. Assessment of soil and maize contamination by TE near a coal gangue–fired thermal power plant. Environ[J]. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment,2020,192(8):541. doi: 10.1007/s10661-020-08510-z  Eldeeb A B, Brichkin V N, Bertau M, et al. Solid state and phase transformation mechanism of kaolin sintered with limestone for alumina extraction[J]. Applied Clay Science,2020,196:105771. doi: 10.1016/j.clay.2020.105771  CHEN Zong-ping, XU Chuan, MA Chao-qun, et al. Lightweight and flexible graphene foam composites for high-performance electromagnetic interference shielding[J]. Advanced Materials,2013,25(9):1296-1300. doi: 10.1002/adma.201204196  WANG Xi-xi, SHU Jin-cheng, CAO Wen-qiang, et al. Eco-mimetic nanoarchitecture for green EMI shielding[J]. Chemical Engineering Journal,2019,369:1068-1077. doi: 10.1016/j.cej.2019.03.164  CAO Mao-sheng, SHU Jin-cheng, WANG Xi-xi, et al. Electronic structure and electromagnetic properties for 2D electromagnetic functional materials in gigahertz frequency[J]. Annalen der Physik,2019,531(4):1800390. doi: 10.1002/andp.201800390  WANG Gui-zhen, GAO Zhe, TANG Shi-wei, et al. Microwave absorption properties of carbon nanocoils coated with highly controlled magnetic materials by atomic layer deposition[J]. ACS Nano,2012,6(12):11009-11017. doi: 10.1021/nn304630h  CHEN Yi-Hua, HUANG Zi-han, LU Ming-ming, et al. 3D Fe3O4 nanocrystals decorating carbon nanotubes to tune electromagnetic properties and enhance microwave absorption capacity[J]. Journal of Materials Chemistry A,2015,3(24):12621-12625. doi: 10.1039/C5TA02782A  Faisal Shahzad, Mohamed Alhabeb, Christine B Hatter, et al. Electromagnetic interference shielding with 2D transition metal carbides (MXenes)[J]. Science,2016,353(6304):1137-1140. doi: 10.1126/science.aag2421  CAO Mao-sheng, WANG Xi-xi, CAO Wen-qiang, et al. Thermally driven transport and relaxation switching self-powered electromagnetic energy conversion[J]. Small,2018,14(29):1800987. doi: 10.1002/smll.201800987  WU Zheng-chen, PEI Ke, XING Lin-Shen, et al. Enhanced microwave absorption performance from magnetic coupling of magnetic nanoparticles suspended within hierarchically tubular composite[J]. Advanced Functional Materials,2019,29(28):1901448. doi: 10.1002/adfm.201901448  XU Xue-fei, WANG Gui-long, WAN Geng-ping, et al. Magnetic Ni/graphene connected with conductive carbon nano-onions or nanotubes by atomic layer deposition for lightweight and low-frequency microwave absorption[J]. Chemical Engineering Journal,2020,382:122980. doi: 10.1016/j.cej.2019.122980  CHEN Chin-Yi, LAN G S, TUAN W H. Preparation of mullite by the reaction sintering of kaolinite and alumina[J]. Journal of the European Ceramic Society,2000,20(14):2519-2525.  Hartmut Schneider, Jürgen Schreuer, Bernd Hildmann. Structure and properties of mullite-a review[J]. Journal of the European Ceramic Society,2008,28(2):329-344. doi: 10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2007.03.017  ZHOU Chen-hui, WU Chen, LIU Dong, et al. Metal-organic framework derived hierarchical Co/C@V2O3 hollow spheres as a thin, lightweight and high-efficiency electromagnetic wave absorber[J]. Chemical Engineering Journal,2019,25(9):2234-2241.  Acharya Jiwan, Gnana Sundara Raj Balasubramaniam, Hoon Ko Tae, et al. Facile one pot sonochemical synthesis of CoFe2O4/MWCNTs hybrids with well-dispersed MWCNTs for asymmetric hybrid supercapacitor applications[J]. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy,2020,45(4):3073-3085. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2019.11.169  SONG Zhi-ming, LIU Jie-yuan, SUN Xin, et al. Alginate-templated synthesis of CoFe/carbon fiber composite and the effect of hierarchically porous structure on electromagnetic wave absorption performance[J]. Carbon,2019,151:36-45. doi: 10.1016/j.carbon.2019.05.025  Shanmugam Yuvaraj, LIN Fan-yuan, CHANG Tsong-huei, et al. Thermal decomposition of metal nitrates in air and hydrogen environments[J]. Journal of Physical Chemistry B,2003,107(4):1044-1047. doi: 10.1021/jp026961c  ZONG Pei-jie, JING Yuan, TIAN Yuan-yu, et al. Pyrolysis behavior and product distributions of biomass six group components: Starch, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, protein and oil[J]. Energy Conversion and Management,2020,216:112777. doi: 10.1016/j.enconman.2020.112777  WU Jiang-bin, MIAO Ling-lin, CONG Xin, et al. Raman spectroscopy of graphene-based materials and its applications in related devices[J]. Chemical Society Reviews,2018,47(5):1822-1873. doi: 10.1039/C6CS00915H  CAO Mao-sheng, WANG Xi-xi, CAO Wen-qiang, et al. Thermally driven transport and relaxation switching self-powered electromagnetic energy conversion[J]. Small,2018,14(29):1800987. doi: 10.1002/smll.201800987  HUANG Da-wei, LI Yan-hui, YANG Ya-ping, et al. Soft magnetic Co-based Co–Fe–B–Si–P bulk metallic glasses with high saturation magnetic flux density of over 1.2 T[J]. Journal of Alloys and Compounds,2020,843:154862. doi: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2020.154862  ZHAO Huan0qin, CHENG Yan, ZHU Zhang, et al. Rational design of core-shell Co@C nanotubes towards lightweight and high-efficiency microwave absorption[J]. Composites Part B Engineering,2020,196:108119. doi: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2020.108119  WANG Lei, HUANG Meng-qiu, YU Xue-feng, et al. MOF-derived Ni1−xCox@carbon with tunable nano–microstructure as lightweight and highly efficient electromagnetic wave absorber[J]. Nano-Micro Letters,2020,12(1):150. doi: 10.1007/s40820-020-00488-0  LIU Yong-he, PAN Shun-kang, CHENG Li-chun, et al. Effect of Misch-metal content on microwave absorption property of Ce2Co17 alloy[J]. Journal of Materials Science Materials in Electronics,2020,31(3):11204-11210.  Bateer Buhe, XIE-Ying, TIAN Chun-gui, et al. Cobalt nanoparticles decorated on nitrogen-doped grapheme as excellent electromagnetic wave absorbent in Ku-band[J]. Journal of Materials Science Materials in Electronics,2020,31(15):12044-12055. doi: 10.1007/s10854-020-03686-z  PENG Cheng-lei, ZHANG Ya-nan, ZHANG Bao-shan. MOF-derived jujube pit shaped C/Co composites with hierarchical structure for electromagnetic absorption[J]. Journal of Alloys and Compounds,2020,826:154203. doi: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2020.154203  NI Cui, WU Dan, XIE Xiu-bo, et al. Microwave absorption properties of microporous CoNi@(NiO-CoO) nanoparticles through dealloying[J]. Journal of magnetism and magnetic materials,2020,503:166631. doi: 10.1016/j.jmmm.2020.166631  LI Guo-min, WANG Lian-cheng, LI Wan-xi, et al. Fe, Co or Ni loaded porous activated carbon balls as lightweight microwave absorbents[J]. Chemphyschem A European Journal of Chemical Physics & Physical Chemistry,2016,16(16):3458-3467.  LI Guo-min, WANG Lian-cheng, LI Wan-xi, et al. Mesoporous Fe/C and core-shell Fe-Fe3C@C composites as efficient microwave absorbents[J]. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials,2015,211:97-104. doi: 10.1016/j.micromeso.2015.02.054  WEN Fu-sheng, ZHANG Fang, LIU Zhong-yuan. Investigation on Microwave absorption properties for multiwalled carbon nanotubes/Fe/Co/Ni nanopowders as lightweight absorbers[J]. Journal of Physical Chemistry C,2011,115(29):14025-14030. doi: 10.1021/jp202078p  YANG Hui-jing, CAO Mao-sheng, WANG Xi-xi, et al. Graphene nanohybrids: excellent electromagnetic properties for the absorbing and shielding of electromagnetic waves[J]. Journal of Materials Chemistry C,2018,6(17):4586-4602. doi: 10.1039/C7TC05869A  SUN Gen-ban, DONG Bing-xiang, CAO Min-hua, et al. Hierarchical dendrite-like magnetic materials of Fe3O4, γ-Fe2O3, and Fe with high performance of microwave absorption[J]. Chemistry of Materials,2011,23(6):1587-1593. doi: 10.1021/cm103441u  DENG Long-jiang, HAN Man-gui. Microware absorbing performances of multiwalled carbon nanotube composites with negative permeability[J]. Applied Physics Letters,2007,91(2):023119. doi: 10.1063/1.2755875  ZHANG Min, YANG Hui-jing, LI Yong, et al. Cobalt doping of bismuth ferrite for matched dielectric and magnetic loss[J]. Applied Physics Letters,2019,115(21):212902. doi: 10.1063/1.5134741  LIU Wei, TAN Shu-juan, YANG Zhi-hong, et al. Enhanced low-frequency electromagnetic properties of MOF-derived cobalt through interface design[J]. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces,2018,10(37):31610-31622. doi: 10.1021/acsami.8b10685  WANG Kan, WAN Geng-ping, WANG Gui-long, et al. The construction of carbon-coated Fe3O4 yolk-shell nanocomposites based on volume shrinkage from the release of oxygen anions for wide-band electromagnetic wave absorption[J]. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science,2018,511:307-317. doi: 10.1016/j.jcis.2017.10.018  HE Na, HE Zhi-dong, LIU Lin, et al. Ni2+ guided phase/structure evolution and ultra-wide bandwidth microwave absorption of CoxNi1-x alloy hollow microspheres[J]. Chemical Engineering Journal,2019,381:122743.  QUAN Bin, SHI Wen-hao, Samuel Jun Hoong Ong, et al. Defect engineering in two common types of dielectric materials for electromagnetic absorption applications[J]. Advanced Functional Materials,2019,29(28):1901236. doi: 10.1002/adfm.201901236