Se encapsulated into honeycomb 3D porous carbon with Se-C bonds as superb performance cathodes for Li-Se Batteries
Abstract: Li-Se Batteries has been considered as promising lithium-ion batteries due to their super volumetric energy density and high electrical conductivity of Se. However, the development of Li-Se batteries application is impeded by the boring volume expansion and polyselenide dissolution of electrodes during cycling, as well as the low selenium loading. A feasible and effective approach to settle these three issues is to keep selenium into a carbon host with sufficient pore volume and simultaneously enhance the interfacial interaction between selenium and carbon. A novel cathode material of Se encapsulated into honeycomb 3D porous carbon (HPC@Se) with Se-C bonds for Li-Se Batteries is synthesized by impregnating Se into the tartrate salt derived honeycomb 3D porous carbon. The pore volume of the obtained honeycomb 3D porous carbon is up to 1.794 cm3 g−1, which allows 65%wt selenium to be uniformly encapsulated. Moreover, the strong chemical bonds between selenium and carbon are beneficial for stabilizing selenium, thus further relieving its huge volume expansion and polyselenide dissolution as well as promote the charge transfer during cycling. As expected, HPC@Se cathode presents fantastic cyclability and rate performance. After 200 cycles, its specific capacity remained at 561 mA h g−1 (83% of the theoretical specific capacity) at 0.2 C. And the capacity recession is just 0.058 percentage each cycle. Besides, HPC@Se cathode can also demonstrate a considerable capacity of 472.8 mA h g−1 under the higher current density of 5 C.
Figure 7. (a) CV profiles of HPC@Se with gradually increasing scan rates from 0.1 to 5 mV s−1, (b) b-value for the oxidation peak and reduction peak, (c) Contribution ratio of capacitance and diffusion behavior at 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 5 mV s−1 scan rates, (d) Summary of the ratio of capacitive-controlled and diffusion-controlled contribution with gradually increasing scan rates for HPC@Se electrode.
Table 1. comparison between HPC@Se (this work) and the published Se/C electrodes.
(mA h g−1)
Percentage of theoretical capacity
(678 mA h g−1)
(C, 1C = 678 mA h g−1)
Ref. HPC@Se 65% wt 561/200 cycles 82.7% 0.2 C this work Mic/Se 44.2% wt 400/500 cycles 59.0% 0.5 C  Se@LHPC 52% wt 450/500 cycles 66.4% 0.5 C  Se-HPCF 50% wt 533/50 cycles 78.6% 0.2 C  C/Se 54% wt 430/250 cycles 63.4% 100 mA g−1  Se@3D MIL-68 (Al)@MWCNTs 56% wt 453/200 cycles 66.8% 0.2 C  Se@HPCNBs 60% wt 560/100 cycles 82.6% 0.2 C 
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