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Magnetic Modification of Tea Waste for Uranium Adsorption
YANG Ai-li, YANG Sheng-ya, ZHU Yu-kuan
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60023-29
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Tea waste (TW) was crushed into powder and mixed with graphene oxide (GO) in water, followed by adjusting the pH value of the resulting suspension with ammonia, adding FeCl2·4H2O under magnetic stirring, filtration and drying to prepare a rGO/Fe3O4/TW composite. The microstructure and crystal phase of the composite were characterized by FTIR and XRD. The effects of the pH value, adsorption time and initial uranium concentration on the uranium removal rate were investigated. Results indicate that rGO/Fe3O4/TW has excellent adsorption performance with an uranium removal rate up to nearly 100% in a short time at an initial uranium concentration of 10 mg. L-1. The maximum adsorption capacity of rGO/Fe3O4/TW is 103.84 mg. g-1 while that of TW is 97.70 mg. g-1. The rGO/Fe3O4/TW adsorbed with uranium is easily separated from the solution by appying magnetic field. The isotherm and kinetics of uranium adsorption on rGO/Fe3O4/TW are best fitted by the Langmuir isotherm model and the pseudo-second-order model. The rGO/Fe3O4/TW and TW have a good reusability with an uranium removal rate of about 85% after five cycles.
Coal-based graphene as a promoter of TiO2 for photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes
LIU Guo-yang, LI Ke-ke, JIA Jia, ZHANG Ya-ting
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60018-5
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A reduced graphene oxide (H-rGO)/TiO2–composite (H-TiO2@rGO) as a catalyst for photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (Rh B) and methyl orange (MO) was prepared by hydrothermal treating a dispersant of TiO2 nanoparticles with sizes of 5-10 nm and GO obtained by the Hummers method from coal-based graphite in water. Compared with the M-TiO2@GO and M-TiO2@rGO composites by a wet mixing method, results indicated that the TiO2 nanoparticles in H-TiO2@rGO were uniformly decorated on both sides of rGO sheet, forming a stacked-sheet structure while apparent aggregation of TiO2 nanoparticles was found in both M-TiO2@GO and M-TiO2@rGO. Therefore, H-rGO@TiO2 had the highest catalytic activity towards degradation of Rh B and MO under visible light irradiation among the three, where the incorporation of rGO into TiO2 helps to narrow the band gap of TiO2, inhibit the recombination rate of electron–hole pairs and provide conductive networks for electron transfer.
碳纳米管对炭纤维/聚碳酸酯复合材料界面结合性能的影响
刘玉婷, 李璐, 王嘉沛, 费滢洁, 刘牛顿, 吴刚平
当前状态:  doi: 10.19869/j.ncm.1007-8827.20180092
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为改善炭纤维和聚碳酸酯界面结合性能,本文制备了含碳纳米管的水性聚碳酸酯上浆剂和水性聚氨酯上浆剂,通过上浆工艺将碳纳米管引至炭纤维表面。分别采用单丝段裂法和定向纤维增强聚合物基复合材料垂直方向拉伸两种方法从微观和宏观两个角度研究了上浆剂种类及碳纳米管含量对复合材料界面结合性能的影响。结果表明:上浆剂可明显改善炭纤维/聚碳酸酯复合材料界面结合性能,由于优异的成膜性,聚氨酯上浆剂改善效果更明显;碳纳米管的加入对复合材料的界面性能有一定改善,在微观评价方法中,碳纳米管改善效果显著,因为碳纳米管可有效阻止界面滑移;在宏观评价中,碳纳米管改善效果不明显,主要上浆剂的界面粘结发挥作用。
Preparation of N/P Co-Doped Waste Cotton Fabric-Based Activated Carbon for Supercapacitor Application
HUANG Ling, WANG Shuai, ZHANG Yu, HUANG Xianghong, PENG Junjun, YANG Feng
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60023-27
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Transforming waste resources into energy storage materials is a new way to turn waste into treasure and solve the problem of energy shortage and environmental pollution in current society. In this paper, nitrogen/phosphorus co-doped activated carbon material was synthesized from the waste cotton fabric by one-step carbonization and activation in molten salt system combined with ammonium polyphosphate co-doping technology. The morphology, structure and composition of the materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nitrogen adsorption desorption (BET), Raman spectroscopy (Raman) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge/discharge (GCD) were used to test the supercapacitor performance of the prepared materials. The results show that the waste cotton fabric, which is mixed with ammonium polyphosphate in the ZnCl2/KCl molten salt medium, then treated by carbonization and activation under high temperature, generates the nitrogen/phosphorus co-doped activated carbon with the specific surface area of 751 m2·g−1. In the three-electrode system, the specific capacitance is as high as 423 F·g−1 (at a current density of 0.25 A·g−1), and its capacitance retention is as high as 88.9% of the initial capacitance after 5000 cycles at a current density of 5 A·g−1. Meanwhile, when the material was assembled into a symmetrical supercapacitor, its best energy density can achieve 28.67 Wh·kg−1 at a power density of 200 W·kg−1. According to these results, converting waste cotton fabric resources into energy storage materials has succeeded in achieving high value-added reuse of waste textiles.
Electrochemical behaviors of nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers derived from polyacrylonitrile precursor at different pyrolysis temperatures in lithium sulfur batteries
YAO Shan-shan, HE Yan-ping, ARSLAN Majeed, ZHANG Cui-juan, SHEN Xiang-qian, LI Tian-bao, QIN Shi-biao
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60023-28
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Three-dimensional (3D) of nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers (NCFs) derived from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) polymer were successfully synthesized by a combined electrospinning/carbonization technique. NCFs can be obtained under appropriate pyrolysis temperature and were employed as positive current collector containing Li2S6 catholyte solution for lithium sulfur (Li-S) batteries. The physical and electrochemical behaviors of the NCFs were investigated and found that the electrochemical performances of the NCFs are dependent on the pyrolysis temperatures. Results show that NCFs carbonized at 900 ℃ delivered a reversible capacity of 875 mAh·g−1 at a high sulfur loading of 4.19 mg·cm−2 and retained at 707 mAh·g−1 after 250 cycles at 0.2 C. The coulombic efficiency of NCFs-900@Li2S6 electrode is almost 98.55% over the entire cycling. Additionally, the capacity retention of electrode reaches 81.53% even at a high current density of 1C for over 150 cycles.
Size-controlled synthesis of carbon microspheres from resorcinol/formaldehyde for high electrochemical performance
DU Xu, YANG Hui-Min, ZHANG Yan-Lan, HU Qing-Cheng, LI Song-Bo, HE Wen-Xiu
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60023-26
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Nanostructured phenolic resin-based carbon aerogels with abundant network structure are regarded as ideal energy storage materials for supercapacitors. However, the initial bulk form and low capacity of previously reported porous carbon aerogels are unacceptable for practical application. Herein, phenolic resin-based porous carbon spheres were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal synthetic approach. The porous carbon spheres were investigated by various characterizations, such as SEM, BET and XPS, ect. Interestingly, it was found that the number of ammonium groups, length of the alkyl chain and hydrothermal temperature played a vital rule in porous structure, size and uniformity of carbon spherical. Besides, NH+ 4 was necessary to obtain the carbon sphere and no obvious effect on the crystal structure of porous carbon spheres by varying in parameters. The samples CN-80 exhibited the highest specific capacitance of 233.8 F g−1 at the current density of 1.0 A g−1. This result showed that the higher specific surface area, porosity and defect are probably the crucial factors to improve electrode capacitance. CN-80 own excellent capacitance retention of 98% after 10000 charge/discharge cycles at 7 A g−1, indicating its good cycle stability.
Regulating the radial structure during pre-oxidation of polyacrylonitrile fibers and its effect on the mechanical properties of carbon fibers
WANG Yun-Feng, WANG Yi-Wei, XU Liang-Hua, WANG Yu
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(20)60516-9
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The radial structure of pre-oxidized fibers and its distribution directly affect the performance of the resulting carbon fibers. Optimizing the radial distribution of pre-oxidized structure and establishing the relationship between the pre-oxidized structure of polyacrylonitrile fibers and the mechanical properties of the final carbon fibers will help to optimize the pre-oxidation conditions in the preparation of high-performance carbon fibers. Herein, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, optical microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and mechanical tests were used to investigate the effect of the pre-oxidation reaction rate on the radial structural distribution of pre-oxidized fibers and the mechanical properties of the resulting carbon fibers. The pre-oxidation reaction rates were controlled by regulating the pre-oxidation temperature gradient. The results showed that the pre-oxidation degree of pre-oxidized fibers increased with both the overall and initial rates of pre-oxidation. With increasing the overall pre-oxidation reaction rate, the pre-oxidized structure was deepened into the core region of the fibers, the content of oxygen-containing functional groups increased, the thermal stability of the fibers decreased, the graphitization degree of the corresponding carbon fibers increased, but the density of the carbon fibers decreased and the mechanical properties of the carbon fibers were degraded. With increasing the initial reaction rate of pre-oxidation, the radial distribution of the pre-oxidation structure was effectively improved, the content of oxygen-containing functional groups of the pre-oxidized fibers increased slightly, their thermal stability was improved, the degree of graphitization and density of the final carbon fibers increased, and the tensile strength and tensile modulus of the final carbon fibers were markedly increased. A new type of carbon fibers with high strength, medium modulus and a relatively large diameter was obtained under the optimized pre-oxidation conditions.
Micro/mesopore carbon spheres derived from sucrose for high performance supercapacitors
SHI Jing, TIAN Xiao-dong, LI Xiao, LIU Ye-qun, SUN Hai-zhen
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60021-5
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Micro/mesopore carbon spheres as electrode materials of supercapacitors were prepared by hydrothermal carbonization followed by KOH/NaOH activation using sucrose as the carbon precursor. The effects of KOH and NaOH activation parameters on the specific surface area, pore size distribution and electrochemical performance of the carbon spheres were investigated. Results indicate that the use of NaOH leads to the development of mesopores while the use of KOH is favorable to increase specific surface area and micropore volume. The pore size distribution of carbon spheres could be adjusted by varying the fraction of NaOH in the activation agent. A balanced capacitance and rate performance of the supercapacitor electrode in both 6 mol L−1 KOH aqueous electrolyte and 1 mol L−1 MeEt3NBF4/PC electrolyte is achieved when the carbonized product is activated at a mass ratio of NaOH+KOH/ carbonized product of 3∶1 with a NaOH/KOH mass ratio of 2∶1. As-prepared porous carbon delivers a capacitance of 235 F g-1 at 0.1 A g-1 and capacitance retention rate of 81.5% at 20 A g-1 in the 6 mol L−1 KOH aqueous electrolyte. In 1 mol L−1 MeEt3NBF4/PC, the cell based on the porous carbon delivers the highest energy and power output of 30.4 Wh kg−1 and 18.5 kW kg−1, respectively.
Effect of surface functionalization on the surface and interfacial properties of thermoplastic-coated carbon fibers in poly (ether ether ketone) matrix composites
SU Ya-nan, ZHANG Shou-chun, ZHANG Xing-hua, JING De-qi
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60023-25
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Hydroxyl- and amino- functionalized carbon fibers (CF-OH and CF-NH2) were prepared by surface oxidation with mixed acid and grafting with ethylenediamine, respectively. The functionalized CFs were sized with a sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) sizing agent to prepare CF-OH-SPEEK and CF-NH2-SPEEK. The effect of surface functionalization on the surface properties of CFs and the interfacial properties in PEEK maxtrix composites were investigated. Results show that the numbers of surface functional groups and wettability of CFs increase significantly after surface functionalization. There are chemical reactions between CFs and the sizing agent, which improve the interfacial adhesion between CFs and the sizing agent. The interfacial shear strengths of CF-OH-SPEEK and CF-NH2-SPEEK reinforced PEEK matrix composites are increased by 6.2 and 14.0%, respectively, as compared with that with CFs desized and sized with SPEEK. The surface functionalization is beneficial to improve the interfacial adhesion of thermoplastic-coated CF/PEEK composites.
Preparation of heteroatoms doped carboxylic acid functionalization carbon materials for efficient sorption of U(VI)
LIU Yan, LIU Xiao-peng, YING Dai, WANG Yun, YUAN Ding-zhong, LIU Jin-biao, CHEW Jia-wei
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60023-24
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In this work, carboxyl-functionalized carbonaceous material doped with N, P and O (denoted as CS-COOH) was fabricated by calcining a precursor, polyphosphazene, for adsorption applications. Employing TEM, SEM, XPS and FTIR techniques, the structure of CS-COOH was determined. The CS-COOH was also investigated for the adsorption of U(VI) from an aqueous solution. The results show that the adsorption kinetics was fitted well by the pseudo-second-order model and the maximum adsorption capacity determined by the Langmuir model at 298 K was 402.9 mg/g. In addition, the CS-COOH exhibited good adsorption results after five adsorption-desorption cycles. According to the XPS analysis, the enhanced U(VI) adsorption capacity was mainly attributed to the carboxyl groups and strong covalent bonds between heteroatoms with uranyl ions.
The microstructural characteristics of high thermal conductive mesophase pitch-based carbon fibers
YE Chong, WU Huang, ZHU Shi-peng, FAN Zhen, HUANG Dong, HAN Fei, LIU Jin-shui, YANG Jian-xiao, LIU Hong-bo
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60023-9
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The microstructural characteristics of the high thermal conductive (500−1127 W·m−1·K−1) mesophase pitch-based carbon fibers were compared based on characterization by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, SEM and TEM. The relationship between microstructural characteristics and thermal conductivity was obtained. The results show that a radial structure is always accompanied by a split structure and high thermal conductivity. La has a more significant impact on the thermal conductivity than Lc, and ID/IG value on the cross section obtained from Raman spectra can be used as an essential index to evaluate the thermal conductivity of the carbon fibers. The microstructural characteristics including large graphite crystallite size, high preferred orientation degree along the axis direction, and few crystallite defects contribute to the high thermal conductivity of the carbon fibers.
Towards Dye Extraction Using A Three-Dimensional Graphene-Carbon Nanotubes Magnetic Aerogel
Zu Rong Ang, Ing Kong, Rachel Shin Yie Lee, Cin Kong, Akesh Babu Kakarla, Ai Bao Chai, Wei Kong
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60023-23
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A novel hybrid aerogel which can be magnetically extracted from water so filtration is unnecessary was developed. The hybrid (3DmGT-PVA) consists of 3D magnetic graphene-carbon nanotubes, which attracts dye, chained to polyvinyl alcohol, can be extracted from the water. Results indicated that a mass ratio of 12∶1 iron (III) chloride hexahydrate (FeCl3·6H2O) to graphene oxide (GO) and oxidized carbon nanotubes (O-CNT) mixture maximized adsorption capacity (qe=71.03 mg g−1 on methylene blue (MB)) and had a magnetic strength of MS=3.519 emu g−1. 3DmGT-PVA was shown to adsorb the most common dyes, crystal violet (CV, η=8.9%), methyl orange (MO, η=4.2%) and the mixture of MB, MO and CV (cocktail, η=11.1%). It was found that 3DmGT-PVA can be reused for three regeneration cycles, with a regeneration efficiency of over 82%. Finally, this aerogel was proved to be not toxic to the living organism, strongly proposing that this 3DmGT-PVA shows great promise as a means of treating industrial wastewater.
Synthesis and application of hollow carbon spheres for electric double-layer capacitors
XU Kuang-liang, LIU Jing, YAN Zhao-xiong, JIN Mei, XU Zhi-hua
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(20)60517-0
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Supercapacitors have gradually become an important energy storage device. Based on mechanisms of energy storage, supercapacitors are generally categorized into pseudocapacitors and electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs). Nowadays, the electrodes are mainly carbon materials in commercial EDLCs. Hollow carbon spheres (HCSs) have attracted extensive attention in the electrode materials of EDLCs owing to their large specific surface area, high electrical conductivity, excellent electrochemical stability and high mechanical strength. Progress in the preparation of HCSs including the hard templating method, soft templating method, template-free methods and modified Stöber method, along with the electrochemical performance of the corresponding HCSs in EDLCs is reviewed. The correlation of the specific surface area, pore size and doped foreign atoms to the electrochemical performance of HCSs is summarized, which will shed some light on the preparation of HCSs with low-cost and high-performance for uses in supercapacitors and other fields.
Properties and microstructures of A3-3 matrix graphite for pebble fuel elements after high temperature purification at different temperatures
Zhou Xiangwen, Zhang Kaihong, Yang Yang, Wang Lei, Zhang Jie, Lu Zhenming, Liu Bing, Tang Yaping
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60022-7
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Matrix graphite (MG) was purified by high temperature purification (HTP), and their properties and microstructures were measured and analyzed to investigate the effect of HTP temperature on the property improvement of A3-3 MG as a pebble fuel element, and to optimize the purification temperature. Results showed that all the properties of MG specimens purified at temperatures from 1600 to 1900 ℃ met the technical requirements. X-ray diffraction analysis results showed that the microstructures of MG after HTP were significantly improved. With increasing the purification temperature from 1600 to 1900 ℃, MG gradually became ordered, the microstructures became better gradually for improving the comprehensive performance. The ash content decreased abruptly after HTP at 1600 ℃, but changed little when the purification temperature rose from 1600 to 1900 ℃. The microstructure improvement at high temperatures played a decisive role in increasing the oxidative corrosion resistance of MG. Therefore, HTP is very important and necessary, and cannot be canceled in the production of pebble fuel elements. This study provides an important reference to determine an optimal HTP temperature of pebble fuel elements for improving the production efficiency and reducing production cost in the commercial production of pebble fuel elements in the future.
Carbon nanotubes with the defects from the graphite-like phosphorus exhibit high activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction
AI Jie, LIU Zi-wu, SUN Mao-mao, LIU Ling, WANG Quan-de
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60023-10
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The phosphorus-doped carbon materials as one of novel carbon catalysts towards the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) have attracted considerable attention over the past years, however, the role of C-P species in them in the HER activity is still not revealed up to now. To explore the effect of C-P species in carbon-based catalysts on their HER performance, we prepared four phosphorus-doped carbon nanotubes (PDCNTs) with different distributions of graphite-, pyridine- and pyrrole-like three P species and explored the correlations between their HER activity and three C-P contents. Results show that one prepared PDCNTs with an overpotential of 0.266 V at the current density of 10 mA/cm−2 exhibit much high HER activity in acid medium. Meanwhile, density functional theory calculations reveal that the pentagon- and nine-membered ring defects from the destruction of graphite-P mainly bring the HER performance, providing a deep insight into the HER on the surface of phosphorus-containing carbon catalysts.
A wet granulation to dense graphite particles for high volumetric lithium-ion storage
ZHANG Jia-peng, WANG Deng-ke, ZHANG Li-hui, LIU Hai-yan, LIU Zhao-bin, XING Tao, MA Zhao-kun, CHEN Xiao-hong, SONG Huai-he
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60023-22
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Graphite is the most widely used anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), and increasing the sphericity and density of graphite is the main way to further improve energy density of LIBs. Herein, we report a simple preparation of high tap-density graphite granules by the high-shear wet granulation. In this way, we densified two kinds of graphite into granule, namely wet-granulation graphitic onion-like carbon (WG-GOC) and wet-granulation artificial graphite (WG-AG). It is found that, compared with the original graphite before granulation, the tap density of WG-GOC increases by ca.34%, and WG-AG increases by ca.44%. Therefore, when as the anode of LIBs,, the volumetric capacities of WG-GOC and WG-AG have increased by ca.35% and ca.55%, respectively, at the current density of 50 mA g−1. In addition, the rate performance of WG-GOC also has been significantly improved. The volumetric capacity of WG-GOC increased by 169.1% at the current density of 2000 mA g−1. The significant improvement of electrochemical performance benefits from the higher tap density of the prepared graphite granules. Hence, we developed a facile wet-granulation to prepare high tap-density graphite anodes, which conducive to the development of high volumetric capacity.
A sustainable strategy to prepare porous carbons with tailored pores from shrimp shell for use as the supercapacitor electrode materials
Gao Feng, Xie Ya-qiao, Zang Yun-hao, ZHOU Gang, QU Jiang-ying, WU Ming-bo
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60019-7
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Highly efficient synthesis of nitrogen-doped carbons with different porous structures is reported using shrimp shell as the carbon and nitrogen source, and its CaCO3 component as the hard template and the activator. The content of CaCO3 in shrimp shell can be tuned easily in the range of 0-100% by leaching with an acetic acid solution for different times. CaO derived from decomposition of CaCO3 acts as the activator and template to tailor the pore sizes of the carbons. CO2 derived from decomposition of CaCO3 also plays an activating role. Their specific surface areas, pore volumes, ratios of micropore volumes to total pore volumes can be adjusted in the range of 117.6-1137 m2 g-1, 0.14-0.64 cm3 g-1, and 0-73.4%, respectively. When used as the electrodes of supercapacitor, the porous carbon obtained with a leaching time of 92 min exhibits the highest capacitances of 328 F g-1 at 0.05 A g-1 in a 6 M KOH electrolyte and 619.2 F g-1 at 0.05 A g-1 in a 1 M H2SO4 electrolyte. Its corresponding energy density at a power density of 1470.9 W kg-1 is 26.0 Wh kg-1. This work provides a low cost method for fabricating porous carbons to fulfill the high-value-added use of biomass.
中文目录
2021, (2): 1-1.  
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英文目录
2021, 36(2): 1-5.  
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综合评述
石墨烯/聚合物纳米复合材料去除水中废油污染物的研究进展
冯昭璇, 徐亚男, 岳维勋, Karin H.Adolfsson, 吴明铂
2021, 36(2): 235-252.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60023-19
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Frequent oil spill accidents and the massive discharge of industrial oily sewage have destroyed the ecological balance and threatened marine life. Graphene (G) and graphene oxide (GO) have emerged as important materials in the field of oil/water separation because of their remarkable physicochemical properties including high specific surface area, low density, high porosity and tailorable surface functionality. To take full advantage of G and GO, their incorporation with polymers to build functional G/polymer and GO/polymer composites has recently gained increasing popularity because of their improved oil clean-up capability, outstanding mechanical performance, relatively low cost and adjustable surface chemical composition. Tremendous efforts have contributed to the development of G/polymer and GO/polymer composite oil clean-up sorbents and filtration membranes in 3D structural forms such as aerogels, foams, sponges and membranes. In this review, a comprehensive picture from the basic theory of the surface wettability to the recent advances in G/polymer and GO/polymer composite oil clean-up sorbents and filtration membranes are highlighted. The strategies for oil recovery and regeneration of the sorbents are also summarized. Current challenges and future research directions in this topic are provided, aimed at providing new perspectives for in-depth exploration in this field.
钾离子电容器阳极材料的进展与展望
李桐, 赵涵, 李崇兴, 余维清, 石元昌, 王儒涛
2021, 36(2): 253-277.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60023-20
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Potassium-ion capacitors (PICs) are promising energy storage devices, which are competitive with lithium-ion and sodium ion capacitors. PICs combine the advantages of a battery-type anode and a capacitive cathode, resulting in a low cost, high energy density, high power density and long cycle life. However, there is still a mismatch between the anode and cathode materials for achieving the optimum specific capacity and kinetics in PICs. Early studies have shown that the careful selection of electrode materials and their optimization is an effective way to solve this problem. We focus on the development of PIC anode materials including insertion-type and conversion-type materials. The insertion-type materials include carbon materials (graphite, soft carbons, hard carbons, etc.), K-based titanates, MXenes, and dipotassium terephthalate. The conversion-type materials include metal sulfides/selenides, metal phosphides and sodium super ionic conductor-type phosphates (NASICON). Their preparation, structural characteristics, electrochemical performance as anode materials in half-cell and PIC devices are summarized and discussed. The future prospects and challenges of PICs are also considered.
藻类生物炭材料的设计合成及其在能源与环境领域中的应用进展
侯政琦, 罗鸣宇, 杨奕廷, 周继承, 刘立成, 蔡进军
2021, 36(2): 278-303.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60023-18
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Porous carbons with well-developed pores, tunable microstructures and stable chemistry play a significant role in energy storage and environmental pollution control. Biomass is a carbon precursor that is abundant, low cost, sustainable and carbon neutral, and is promising for the large-scale production of porous carbons. Among the various types of biomass, algae usually contain abundant cellulose and heteroatoms, which are suitable precursors for heteroatom-doped carbons. Recent advances in synthesis methods for algae-based porous carbons are reviewed and their pore formation mechanisms discussed. Their potential applications in adsorption, catalysis and energy storage are highlighted, and strategies for improving their performance are proposed. Future research trends and challenges for algae-based carbons are discussed, especially as they relate to their low-cost production and performance improvement.
光电催化新星:γ-石墨双炔的制备和应用
孙婷, 高凤雨, 唐晓龙, 易红宏, 于庆君, 赵顺征, 解锡舟
2021, 36(2): 304-321.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60023-17
摘要(53) HTML(24) PDF(19)
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Photoelectrocatalysis is a sustainable process that plays a central role in clean energy production and pollution removal. Due to the constraints of current photoelectrocatalysts such as instability and scarcity, scientists have resorted to carbon nanomaterials that are more stable and abundant. It has been found that γ-graphdiyne (GDY), the most stable carbon phase among graphynes that contains a diacetylene bond, has some striking properties such as well-ordered pores, non-uniform electronic structure, easily tunable bandgap and excellent photoelectric performance. It has become a new “star” as a highly active photoelectrocatalyst. Its properties, synthesis strategies and photoelectrocatalytic applications are reviewed. Five reaction systems are summarized based on the phase state of the precursors and catalysts, which include liquid-solid, liquid-liquid, gas-liquid, gas-solid, and solid-gas systems. The roles GDY play in photoelectrocatalysis itself, or as a support for single atom catalytic species are discussed. Problems for current research work are discussed and future research trends are proposed.
MOF材料自模板炭化制备纳米多孔炭的研究进展
张潜, 薛春峰, 王金鑫, 黄瑞超, 郝晓刚, 李开喜
2021, 36(2): 322-335.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60023-14
摘要(31) HTML(11) PDF(21)
摘要:
Nanoporous carbons (NPCs) are widely used in gas adsorption, catalysis and electrochemistry because of their high specific surface area, good thermal and chemical stability, etc. Although a lot of work has been done, there are still great challenges in the fabrication of NPCs. Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) with tailorable structures have the advantages of a regular and adjustable pore size, high porosity and high specific surface area, and have proved to be ideal precursors for the preparation of NPCs. To better grasp the state of the art in the preparation of NPCs, we review recent research progress on the fabrication of NPCs by the carbonization of MOFs, with a focus on the carbonization of different combinations of MOFs and guest precursors, both to tune the resulting pore sizes/textures and surface chemical structures/species and to improve the electrical conductivity and structural stability of the product in different applications.
石墨烯及其复合材料在锂硫电池中抑制穿梭效应的应用进展
李丽波, 单宇航
2021, 36(2): 336-349.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60023-12
摘要(136) HTML(47) PDF(35)
摘要:
The lithium sulfur battery has a high theoretical capacity of 1675 mAh g-1, and is cheap and environmentally friendly, which make it a very promising secondary battery. However, its cycling stability cannot meet the requirements of industrialization due to the shuttle effect caused by the dissolution of polysulfides in the discharge process, the insulating nature of sulfur and the volume expansion of the sulfur cathode. Graphene has an excellent electrical conductivity, an extremely large specific surface area, good mechanical flexibility, and thermal and chemical stability, making it and its derivatives promising candidates to modify both the electrodes of an all-solid-state lithium-sulfur battery and the separator. The mechanisms, by which graphene and its derivatives inhibit the shuttle effect are summarized. The graphene network is very favorable for improving electron transfer rate, limiting volume expansion and facilitating lithium ion migration in the sulfur cathode of all-solid-state lithium-sulfur batteries. As modifiers of the separator, the hexagonal layer structure of graphene and its derivatives forms channels for lithium-ion transport and sulfur capture. Development strategies for using graphene and its derivatives in lithium-sulfur batteries are proposed.
生物质衍生石墨烯和类石墨烯炭用于能源储存与转换的研究进展
欧阳丹丹, 胡立兵, 王刚, 代斌, 于锋, 张丽莉
2021, 36(2): 350-372.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60023-21
摘要(40) HTML(27) PDF(16)
摘要:
Graphene and graphene-like carbons (G-carbons) have many excellent properties, such as a high specific surface area, and good electrical and thermal conductivities. Recent advances in the synthesis of large amounts of G-carbons from biomass are discussed, including the types of biomass materials used as the precursors and the various synthesis routes. The latter include high-temperature graphitization, growth on substrates, template-assisted synthesis, template-free catalysis, a g-C3N4-derived approach, plasma-assisted synthesis, and laser-induced synthesis. The uses of G-carbons in electrochemical energy storage and conversion, and sensing are also discussed.
阳离子碳点在癌症诊断和基因治疗一体化中的研究进展
岳林君, 卫迎迎, 樊江波, 陈琳, 李强, 杜晶磊, 于世平, 杨永珍
2021, 36(2): 373-389.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60023-11
摘要(31) HTML(23) PDF(13)
摘要:
As a type of carbon dot (CD) with a positive charge on their surface, cationic carbon dots (CCDs) can be obtained from CDs and amino-containing cationic compounds by one-step or two-step preparation. They not only retain the good fluorescence performance, low toxicity and biocompatibility of CDs, but also improve their gene delivery efficiency and cell uptake capacity. These excellent properties give CCDs potential advantages in the fields of the targeted fluorescence imaging of cancers and gene therapy. This paper reviews the preparation methods and properties of CCDs, suggesting that they can be used as good targeting carriers for imaging cancer and gene therapy. In addition, the basic principles of CCDs for cancer detection and treatment, and their uses in integrated cancer diagnosis and gene therapy are introduced. Current problems and future development trends of CCDs for this purpose are discussed.
研究论文
新型核壳结构硅碳复合负极材料的制备及电化学性能
金恒超, 孙骞, 王际童, 马成, 凌立成, 乔文明
2021, 36(2): 390-400.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60023-15
摘要(35) HTML(26) PDF(15)
摘要:
Multi-component porous Si-SiOx (pSi) consisting of Si, SiO and SiO2 was formed by the pretreatment of SiO at 950 °C for 3 h in an inert atmosphere (He) using a disproportionation reaction. Hybrids of pSi and carbon nanofibers (pSi-CNFs) with a core-shell structure were prepared by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using Fe-Ni species as the catalyst and a mixture of CO/H2/C2H4 (volumetric ratio 3∶1∶1) as the reactant for 0.5, 1 and 2 h, and were characterized by SEM, TEM, EDS, XRD, Raman spectroscopy and XPS. Results indicate that the pSi-CNF particle sizes are 5−20 μ m with the diameters of the CNFs being 5−40 nm. The CNFs are uniformly coated on the surface of the pSi to form a core-shell structure. Electrochemical performance testing shows that the reversible capacity of the pSi-CNF (0.5 h) remains at 1 411 mAh.g−1 and the capacity retention is 74% after 100 cycles at a current density of 0.2 A.g−1. The reversible capacity remains at 735 mAh.g−1 at a current density of 1 A g−1 after 300 cycles with a capacity retention of 86%. In the pSi, Si and SiO provide the electrochemical reversible capacity. The core-shell structure with the CNF coating effectively improves the conductivity of the composites, and also inhibits the volume expansion of silicon to maintain the integrity of the core shell structure.
炭纳米纤维在接近室温下对低浓度NO的催化氧化
郭泽宇, 刘宣材, 黄贺东, 杨鹏艳
2021, 36(2): 401-408.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60023-13
摘要(21) HTML(6) PDF(10)
摘要:
Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers obtained by electrospinning were used to prepare PAN-based carbon nanofibers (PCNFs) by pre-oxidation, carbonization and high-temperature treatment in NH3. The PCNFs were used for the removal of low concentrations of NO (5×10−5) near room temperature (20 °C) by catalytic oxidation. Results indicated that the PCNFs had high porosity and a large specific surface area, and their diameters could be regulated by changing the PAN concentration. The smaller the diameter of the PCNFs the more micropores were developed, and the larger the specific surface area the better the adsorption and catalytic oxidation performance.
一维炭材料一体式气体扩散层的制备及其在直接甲醇燃料电池中的应用
舒清柱, 夏章讯, 魏伟, 许新龙, 王素力, 赵红, 孙公权
2021, 36(2): 409-419.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60017-3
摘要(68) HTML(30) PDF(21)
摘要:
The gas diffusion layer (GDL) is an important component of the membrane electrode assembly of fuel cells (FCs). Its roles include supporting the catalyst layer, collecting current, and transferring and redistributing materials. A conventional GDL consists of a backing layer, typically of commercial carbon paper or carbon cloth, but it suffers from its high cost, narrow pore-size distribution, lack of flexibility and poor conductivity, and a micro-porous layer (MPL) is necessary for better gas/liquid management. A novel flexible gas diffusion layer (GDL) was prepared by vacuum filtration of a suspension of carbon fibers (CFs) and highly-dispersed multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) binder and water repellent. SEM observations, gas permeability and porosity tests indicate that there is a gradient in the concentration of highly-conductive MWCNTs in the CNT-CF GDL network that facilitates electron transport. A multi-level pore structure is formed, which is beneficial to mass transport. The PTFE is distributed uniformly, which is favorable for the discharge of condensed water from the FCs. When the GDL/CNT-CF is used in the cathode, or in both the cathode and anode in direct methanol FCs, the maximum power densities of single cells are increased by 20% and 35%, respectively, compared with those using a commercial GDL consisting of carbon paper with a MPL due to its excellent mass transfer performance.
常压烧结法制备石墨烯-铜纳米复合材料
胡增荣, 代睿, 王滴泥, 王晓南, 陈峰, 范学良, 陈长军, 廖移量, 年琼
2021, 36(2): 420-428.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60023-16
摘要(27) HTML(6) PDF(13)
摘要:
Graphene has been considered as an ideal reinforcement filler for metal matrix composites because of its ultra-high strength and stiffness, and exceptional thermal and electrical properties. Graphene-reinforced copper (Gr/Cu) nanocomposites were fabricated by ball milling followed by pressureless vacuum sintering, and were characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, Raman spectroscopy and mechanical tests. Results indicate that the graphene platelets are well dispersed in the nanocomposites without apparent damage. The graphene filler dramatically improves the hardness and reduces the coefficient of friction of the Gr/Cu nanocomposites compared to pure Cu.
光引发合成聚丙烯腈研究
李立山, 刘沛沛, 苏亚男, 张兴华, 张寿春
2021, 36(2): 429-434.   doi: 10.19869/j.ncm.1007-8827.20190031
摘要(27) HTML(9) PDF(8)
摘要:
调控聚丙烯腈分子量及其分布一直是炭纤维制备的重要问题。本文以丙烯腈为反应单体,二甲基亚砜为溶剂,采用光引发方式结合溶液聚合方法研究聚丙烯腈的合成。分别用乌氏黏度计和凝胶色谱仪测定了聚合物的分子量和分子量分布,并用红外光谱仪以及核磁共振仪对聚合物的分子结构进行了分析。结果表明,不含化学引发剂的光引发溶液聚合方法所合成的产物为聚丙烯腈;随着反应温度的不断上升或者单体浓度的持续增加,转化率和黏均分子量均增大;与传统化学引发剂引发的丙烯腈自由基聚合相比,采用光引发丙烯腈聚合体系,能够大幅度降低聚合物的分子量分布指数,制得分子量高、分布指数较窄的聚丙烯腈。
超级电容器电极材料与电解液的研究进展
焦琛, 张卫珂, 苏方远, 杨宏艳, 刘瑞祥, 陈成猛
摘要(347) [PDF 1209 KB](3141)
摘要:
超级电容器具有高功率密度、长循环寿命、良好的低温使用性能和安全性的优点,已经广泛应用到电子产品、能量回收和储能等领域。电极材料和电解液是决定超级电容器性能的两大关键因素,超级电容器常用的电极材料包括碳质材料(活性炭、碳纳米管、石墨烯、炭纤维、纳米洋葱碳等)、金属氧化物(金属氢氧化物)、导电聚合物及复合材料等;电解液主要有水系电解液、有机系电解液与离子液体。本文综述了超级电容器电极材料与电解液的研究现状,详细介绍了电极材料、电解液的性能及优缺点,并对新型电极材料和电解液的研究趋势提出展望。
氧化石墨烯对水泥基复合材料微观结构和力学性能的影响
王琴, 王健, 吕春祥, 刘伯伟, 张昆, 李崇智
摘要(519) [PDF 2388 KB](411)
摘要:
研究了不同掺量下氧化石墨烯(GO)对水泥石以及胶砂微观结构和力学性能的影响。含16.5%水的水泥浆、0.05%GO及3倍于水泥的沙子共混物作为添加剂制备成砂浆。通过SEM、液氮吸附仪和一系列标准实验分别对水泥石的微观形态、孔隙结构、抗压抗折强度以及水泥净浆的流动度、黏度、凝结时间进行表征;考察不同GO掺量下水泥水化放热的变化情况。结果表明:GO对水泥浆有显著增稠和促凝作用;GO的掺入可以有效降低水泥的水化放热量;GO对水泥石有显著的增强增韧效果,28天龄期时,GO质量分数为0.05%的水泥石,3、7和28 d抗压强度和抗折强度同比对照组分别增加52.4%、46.5%、40.4%和86.1%、68.5%、90.5%,胶砂的抗压强度和抗折强度同比对照组分别增加43.2%、33%、24.4%和69.4%、106.4%、70.5%;GO在水泥硬化过程中对水泥石中晶体产物的产生有促进作用并能规整晶体的排布而形成针状晶体簇,改善水泥石中的孔结构,降低水泥石中微孔的体积,增加水泥石的密实度,对水泥石有显著地增强增韧效果。
抗烧蚀C/C复合材料研究进展
付前刚, 张佳平, 李贺军
摘要(733) [PDF 2126 KB](1251)
摘要:
C/C复合材料因优异的高温性能被认为是高温结构件的理想材料。然而,C/C复合材料在高温高速粒子冲刷环境下的氧化烧蚀问题严重制约其应用。因此,如何提高C/C复合材料的抗烧蚀性能显得尤为重要。笔者综述C/C复合材料抗烧蚀的研究现状。目前,提高C/C复合材料抗烧蚀性能的途径主要集中于优化炭纤维预制体结构、控制热解炭织构、基体中陶瓷掺杂改性和表面涂覆抗烧蚀涂层等4种方法。主要介绍以上4种方法的研究现状,重点介绍基体改性和抗烧蚀涂层的最新研究进展。其中,涂层和基体改性是提高C/C复合材料抗烧蚀性能的两种有效方法。未来C/C 复合材料抗烧蚀研究的潜在方向主要集中于降低制造成本、控制热解炭织构、优化掺杂的陶瓷相以及将基体改性和涂层技术相结合。
原位聚合法与溶液混合法制备石墨烯/聚酰亚胺复合材料及其性能
马朗, 王国建, 戴进峰
摘要(538) [PDF 2344 KB](1332)
摘要:
利用化学氧化还原法制备出石墨烯。通过原位聚合法及溶液混合法制备出石墨烯/聚酰亚胺复合材料,考察不同复合材料制备方法对其机械性能及导电性能的影响,并对其作用机理进行探讨。结果表明,制备的石墨烯为二维的单层或寡层材料,加入到聚酰亚胺中能够增强其机械性能及电导率。相比溶液混合法,采用原位聚合法时石墨烯在聚酰亚胺基体中分散更均匀,对其团聚作用有更好的抑制作用,制备的复合材料性能更优异。采用该法加入石墨烯的量为1.0 wt%时,拉伸强度达到了132.5 MPa,提高了68.8%;加入量增加到3.0 wt%时,电导率达6.87×10-4S·m-1,提高了8个数量级,对聚酰亚胺的性能有显著的增强作用。
工程应用C/C复合材料的性能分析与展望
苏君明, 周绍建, 李瑞珍, 肖志超, 崔红
摘要(651) [PDF 739 KB](1137)
摘要:
评价了中国40多年来在航天、航空、光伏、粉末冶金、工业高温炉领域成功应用的针刺C/C,正交3D C/C、径编C/C、穿刺C/C、轴编C/C等五类C/C复合材料的物理、力学、热学、烧蚀、摩擦磨损、使用寿命等性能及特点,并与其他国家相应材料性能进行分析对比,为建立工程应用C/C复合材料共享的数据库平台奠定基础。揭示了炭纤维预制体、炭基体类型、界面结合状态与材料性能的关联度。指出炭纤维预制体结构单元精细化研究和其结构的梯度设计,以及炭基体的优化组合匹配技术,仍是C/C复合材料性能稳定化提升的重点研究方向。
多孔掺磷碳纳米管:磷酸水热合成及其在氧还原和锂硫电池中的应用
郭梦清, 黄佳琦, 孔祥屹, 彭翃杰, 税晗, 钱方圆, 朱林, 朱万诚, 张强
摘要(400) [PDF 2507 KB](661)
摘要:
碳纳米管优异的物理性质和可调的化学组成使其拥有广泛的应用前景。采用低温过程在碳骨架中引入磷原子预期带来可调的化学特性。本研究采用170℃下水热处理碳纳米管-磷酸混合物获得磷掺杂的碳纳米管。磷掺杂的碳管的磷含量为1.66%,比表面积为132 m2/g,热失重峰在纯氧环境下提升至694℃。当掺磷碳纳米管用于氧还原反应时,其起始电位为-0.20 V,电子转移数为2.60,反应电流显著高于无掺杂的碳纳米管。当其用作锂硫电池正极导电材料时,电极的起始容量为1106 mAh/g,电流密度从0.1 C提升至1 C时容量保留率为80%,100次循环的衰减率为每圈0.25%。
氧化石墨烯水泥浆体流变性能的定量化研究
王琴, 王健, 吕春祥, 崔鑫有, 李时雨, 王皙
摘要(387) [PDF 3710 KB](682)
摘要:
采用流变仪和激光共聚焦显微镜对不同氧化石墨烯(GO)掺量的新拌水泥浆体的流变参数以及浆体微观形态进行了定量化研究,并采用Modified-Bingham(M-B)模型和Herschel-Bulkley(H-B)模型对所测数据进行了拟合处理,提出了GO影响新拌水泥浆体的作用机理。结果表明,GO的掺入可以使新拌浆体中在减水剂作用下分散的水泥颗粒发生再次凝聚,形成重组絮凝结构,且随着GO掺量的增加,重组絮凝结构的数量越多,从而使得浆体流变性发生显著变化。一方面,新拌浆体的塑性粘度、屈服应力以及触变性随GO掺量的提高而显著增加。另一方面,GO的掺入提高了新拌浆体的临界剪切速率,使其在较大剪切速率下的流变行为仍然表现为剪切变稀;降低了浆体的剪切增稠程度,提高了浆体的稳定性。
凹凸棒石/炭对低浓度亚甲基蓝的吸附性能
吴雪平, 徐艳青, 张先龙, 吴玉程, 高鹏
摘要(610) [PDF 2861 KB](1060)
摘要:
通过水热处理凹凸棒石和纤维素获得凹凸棒石/炭纳米复合材料,研究该复合材料对亚甲基蓝的吸附性能。考察吸附条件对吸附行为的影响,以及吸附动力学和热力学研究。亚甲基蓝的吸附行为符合二级吸附速率方程,吸附等温方程符合Langmuir方程。吸附热力学参数的计算值表明,亚甲基蓝在该复合材料上的吸附是自发、吸热的过程。
石墨烯/炭黑杂化材料:新型、高效锂离子电池二元导电剂
李用, 吕小慧, 苏方远, 贺艳兵, 李宝华, 杨全红, 康飞宇
摘要(588) [PDF 954 KB](1558)
摘要:
采用CTAB为表面活性剂将氧化石墨烯和炭黑均匀分散,经水热过程将二者组装到一起,进而高温热处理得到石墨烯/炭黑杂化材料。该材料是一种具有独特结构和良好性能的石墨烯/炭黑杂化材料作为锂离子电池二元导电剂。炭黑颗粒均匀分布在石墨烯表面,可防止石墨烯片层团聚并进一步提高电子导电效率。由于炭黑可增加对电解液的吸附,促进电极内部锂离子的传输过程,最终提高锂离子电池的倍率性能。结果表明,使用质量分数5% 900 ℃热处理之后的二元导电剂的LiFePO4,在10 C时比容量为73 mAh/g,优于使用10%炭黑导电剂时的LiFePO4 (10 C比容量为62 mAh/g)。按照整个电极质量计算,前者的比容量性能比后者提高了近25%,同时在循环性能方面,前者的稳定性也优于后者。
石墨烯/聚合物复合材料的研究进展及其应用前景
曾尤, 王函, 成会明
摘要(432) [PDF 3574 KB](1546)
摘要:
随着石墨烯低成本宏量制备技术的突破,石墨烯的工业化应用进程已引起人们广泛关注。本文介绍了石墨烯在聚合物基复合材料领域的研究进展,侧重阐述石墨烯/聚合物复合材料在力学增强、导电/导热网络构建、防腐阻燃等方面的代表性研究成果,同时对商业化石墨烯产品及其复合材料应用进行了简单评述,探讨了石墨烯/聚合物复合材料领域目前存在的主要问题及未来发展趋势。
自组装软模板法制备有序中孔炭研究进展
黄正宏| 王 磊| 白 宇| 康飞宇
摘要(1689) PDF(10257)
摘要:
通过介绍自组装软模板法制备有序中孔炭的发展历程和基本原理,说明该方法具有操作简单、成本低、易于控制等优点。重点评述了自组装软模板法制备有序中孔炭在产物形貌控制和多级孔结构制备方面的研究进展,分析认为,今后的研究可以在拓展前驱体范围、提高宏观产物柔韧性以及导电性等方面得到进一步发展。
石墨烯的化学气相沉积法制备
任文才, 高力波, 马来鹏, 成会明
摘要(2111) PDF(6055)
摘要:
化学气相沉积(CVD)法是近年来发展起来的制备石墨烯的新方法,具有产物质量高、生长面积大等优点,逐渐成为制备高质量石墨烯的主要方法。通过简要分析石墨烯的几种主要制备方法(胶带剥离法、化学剥离法、SiC外延生长法和CVD方法)的原理和特点,重点从结构控制、质量提高以及大面积生长等方面评述了CVD法制备石墨烯及其转移技术的研究进展,并展望了未来CVD法制备石墨烯的可能发展方向,如大面积单晶石墨烯、石墨烯带和石墨烯宏观体的制备与无损转移等。