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介孔炭材料应用于电化学催化的研究进展
梁振金, 洪梓博, 解明月, 顾栋
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60575-4
摘要(729) HTML(397) PDF(148)
摘要:
由于介孔炭材料具有高比表面、均一可调的孔径尺寸和形貌、良好的导电性和化学稳定性等优点,已被广泛应用到催化、吸附、分离和电化学储能等领域。近年来,多组分的掺杂与复合使介孔炭材料拥有可调变的功能性,已成为材料领域研究的一个热点。本文首先介绍介孔炭材料的合成,包括软模板法、硬模板法和无模板法等。接着论述介孔炭及其复合材料在电化学催化领域的应用,主要包括杂原子掺杂介孔炭材料以及介孔炭材料与金属化合物的复合材料在电化学催化氧还原(ORR)、析氧(OER)、析氢(HER)等领域的研究进展。此外还论述了此类材料在电催化有机合成上的应用。最后对介孔炭及其复合材料在电化学催化上的发展趋势进行了展望。
优化碳质涂层以消除高性能硅阳极的电化学界面极化
QI Zhi-yan, DAI Li-qin, WANG Zhe-fan, XIE Li-jing, CHEN Jing-peng, CHENG Jia-yao, SONG Ge, LI Xiao-ming, SUN Guo-hua, CHEN Cheng-meng
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60580-8
摘要(311) HTML(163) PDF(41)
摘要:
Ordered and disordered carbons have been commonly used as coating materials for silicon (Si) anodes, however the effect of carbons with different crystallinities and pore structures on their electrochemical performance remains controversial. We used pitch and phenolic resin (PR) as the precursors of ordered and disordered carbon, respectively, to prepare carbon-coated silicon (Si@C) with strictly controlled carbon contents and surface functional groups. Their electrochemical behavior was investigated. An ordered crystalline structure is favorable for electron transport, and mesopores and macropores are conducive to the diffusion of lithium ions. Such a coating with a small pore volume is an excellent buffer for the expansion of Si, and the electrode maintains structural integrity for 50 cycles. A disordered porous structure is less robust and produces a large polarization, which produces continuous volume expansion with cycling and leads to inferior electrochemical performance. As a result, the capacity and capacity retention after 100 cycles at 0.5 A g−1 of Si@C-Pitch are respectively 8 times and 1.9 times those of Si@C-PR. This study provides theoretical guidance for the selection of carbon materials used in Si@C anodes.
硬炭微球/MXene柔性薄膜负极应用于高性能钠离子存储
CAO Hai-liang, YANG Liang-tao, ZHAO Min, LIU Pei-zhi, GUO Chun-li, XU Bing-she, GUO Jun-jie
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60616-4
摘要(138) HTML(84) PDF(33)
摘要:
Hard carbon is considered the most promising anode material for sodium-ion batteries, but its volume change during sodiation/desodiation limits its cycle life. Hard carbon microspheres (HCSs) with no binder were composited with a MXene film to form an electrode and its sodium storage properties were studied. The microspheres were prepared using Shanxi aged vinegar as a liquid carbon source. Two-dimensional Ti3C2Tx MXene (T is a functional group) was used as a multifunctional conductive binder to fabricate the flexible electrodes. Remarkably, because of the three-dimensional conductive network, the HCS/Ti3C2Tx film electrode has a high capacity of 346 mAh g−1, excellent rate performance and outstanding cycling stability over 1 000 cycles. This remarkable electrochemical performance indicates that the flexible film is a very promising anode for next-generation sodium-ion batteries.
碘化钾调控孔结构的石墨烯及其电化学电容器应用
罗明宇, 徐若谷, 石颖, 王宇作, 李峰
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(23)60714-0
摘要(12) HTML(2) PDF(6)
摘要:
较低的体积能量密度限制了当前电化学电容器的应用,而提高体积能量密度的关键在于发展具有致密化储能特性的多孔碳材料。目前,毛细致密化已成为平衡多孔碳密度和孔隙率从而提高材料体积比电容的主要方法,但仍在孔结构的精细调控方面存在不足,制约了毛细致密化多孔碳与高电压离子液体的兼容性。本文提出了碘化钾辅助的毛细致密化策略,通过在石墨烯网络中预载碘化钾来控制毛细致密化过程,实现了对孔结构的有效调控。同时电化学性能表征结果表明碘化钾具有增加离子可及表面积和提供赝电容的作用。基于此,所制备的碘化钾/石墨烯材料的密度可达到0.96 g cm−3,在离子液体中的体积比电容可达到115 F cm−3。由该材料所组装的电化学电容器可以提供19.6 Wh L−1的体积能量密度。
sp2碳用于3D打印技术综述:材料、性能和应用
Satendra Kumar, Manoj Goswami, Netrapal Singh, Sathish Natarajan, Surender Kumar
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60651-6
摘要(73) HTML(23) PDF(15)
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Three dimensional (3D) printing is a modern technology in the 4th engineering revolution that has the possibility to transform existing production methods. It offers a novel production method of layered manufacturing and layer-by-layer stacking based on the forming principle, which radically simplifies the manufacturing process and enables large-scale customizable production. However, there are still numerous issues with this new technology. Except pure graphene, sp2 carbons can be 3D printed with little difficulty because of their hydrophilicity. The hydrophobic nature of pure graphene makes it difficult to print and process in water-based media. Thanks to the advancement of capillary inks, which allow for the 3D printing of pure graphene. The current review focuses on the most recent developments in 3D printing of sp2 carbons. A concise overview of 3D printing technologies is presented, followed by a summary of 3D printed sp2 carbons and their diverse applications. Finally, perspectives and opportunities for this new field are discussed.
硫掺杂炭材料在钠离子电池负极中的研究进展
谢金明, 庄容, 杜宇轩, 裴永伟, 谭德明, 徐飞
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60630-9
摘要(857) HTML(102) PDF(78)
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钠离子电池因资源丰富及成本低等优势,在大规模储能领域备受关注。炭材料作为钠离子电池实用化进程中的关键负极材料,具有高容量、低嵌钠平台、易调控且稳定性好等特点,引起了研究者的广泛关注。掺杂原子可改善炭材料的微观与电子结构,是提升储钠性能的有效途径。常见的杂原子包括N、S、O、P、B等,其中硫原子因其较大的半径能显著扩大层间距、增加缺陷与活性位点,被广泛用于炭负极材料的掺杂改性。本文综述了近年来硫掺杂炭材料的设计制备及在钠离子电池负极中的研究进展,分析了硫掺杂对碳结构的调控机理与改善电池性能的作用机制,最后针对目前面临的挑战和可能的解决方案进行了总结和展望,以期推动硫掺杂炭负极材料在钠离子电池中的实用化进程。
Ni(OH)2/石墨相氮化碳/石墨烯三元复合材料的制备及电化学性能
王艳敏, 马倩, 刘斌, 崔金龙, 张永强, 赫文秀
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60625-5
摘要(58) HTML(66) PDF(30)
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通过水热法制备Ni(OH)2/石墨相氮化碳(g-C3N4)/石墨烯(RGO)三元复合材料,研究了Ni(OH)2∶g-C3N4∶RGO质量比对复合材料结构、形貌和电化学性能的影响。通过X射线衍射仪(XRD)、扫描电子显微镜(SEM)、傅里叶转换红外光谱仪(FT-IR)、氮气物理吸脱附仪、透射电子显微镜(TEM)等测试手段表征材料的微观结构和还原程度,采用循环伏安(CV)、恒流充放电(GCD)及电化学交流阻抗(EIS)测试复合材料的电化学性能。结果表明:当Ni(OH)2∶g-C3N4∶RGO=16∶1∶1(质量比)时三元复合材料为三维片层空间互相交错结构,氧化峰和还原峰的电位差ΔE为0.218 V。当电流密度为1 A/g时,复合材料的比电容为516.9 F/g,充放电3000次循环后,容量保持率达74.3%,显示出良好的电化学性能。
煤基石墨烯促进TiO2光催化降解有机物
LIU Guo-yang, LI Ke-ke, JIA Jia, ZHANG Ya-ting
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60047-1
摘要(668) HTML(374) PDF(60)
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Graphene oxide (GO) obtained by the Hummers method from coal-based graphite was composited with TiO2 by hydrothermal and wet mixing methods to obtain (H-rGO)/TiO2 and M-TiO2/rGO composites, respectively, which were used as catalysts for photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (Rh B) and methyl orange (MO). Compared with the M-TiO2/GO and M-TiO2/rGO composites, the TiO2 nanoparticles in H-TiO2/rGO were more uniformly decorated on both sides of rGO sheets, forming a stacked-sheet structure while apparent aggregation of TiO2 nanoparticles was found in both M-TiO2/GO and M-TiO2/rGO. H-rGO@TiO2 had the highest catalytic activity towards degradation of Rh B and MO under visible light irradiation among the three, where the incorporation of rGO into TiO2 helps to narrow the band gap of TiO2, inhibits the recombination rate of electron–hole pairs and provides conductive networks for electron transfer.
炭纸衬底上化学气相沉积直立型二维过渡金属硫化物及其电催化产氢性能
王克, 汤飞, 姚孝璋, HitanshuKumar, 干林
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60078-1
摘要(45) HTML(26) PDF(11)
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以MoS2为代表的二维过渡金属硫化物近年来在电催化水分解产氢反应(HER)中表现出良好的电催化活性而受到广泛关注。但二维过渡金属硫化物的导电性一般较差、且催化活性位常在有限的边缘位置,成为限制其催化性能的重要因素。本文通过化学气相沉积方法研究了在炭纸基底上直接生长3种过渡金属硫化物(MoS2、NbS2和WS2)构筑一体化催化电极,以提高整个电极的导电性。通过优化生长工艺,实现了炭纸表面3种过渡金属硫化物的直立型生长并对电催化产氢反应表现出良好的催化性能,尤其是WS2表现出新颖的纳米片/纳米纤维层次结构,其对产氢反应表现出最佳的催化性能。在此基础上,对炭纸上生长的过渡金属硫化物通过阴极电化学活化处理的方式引入硫缺陷,从而提高其HER活性。结合透射电子显微镜和原位电化学拉曼光谱仪研究了二维过渡金属硫化物在电化学活化前后的结构变化尤其是所产生的硫缺陷的微观结构,为其产氢性能的提升提供合理的解释。
利用煤矸石作为还原剂和碳/陶瓷组分制备单质Co负载的陶瓷复合微波吸收材料
LI Guo-min, SHI Shu-ping, ZHU Bao-shun, LIANG Li-ping, ZHANG Ke-wei
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60064-1
摘要(151) HTML(91) PDF(69)
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In the context of sustainable development, tackling the severe solid waste pollutions has become extremely urgent. Herein, the solid waste gangue was used to synthesize the ceramic-based microwave absorbing composites decorated with Co particles by a novel synthesis method, where the magnetic Co particles were uniformly loaded in the ceramic matrix by pelletizing gangue accompanied by spraying a solution containing Co2+, followed by in-situ carbothermal reduction using the fixed carbon in gangue as the reduction agent. The Co contents in ceramic composites are precisely controlled by adjusting the Co2+ concentration in the solutions. The fixed carbon in gangue is partially consumed and there are residue carbons in the composites, which have more defects as compared with that in gangue and play an important role as an dielectric constitute. Compared with gangue, the optimized composite exhibits excellent microwave absorbing properties with the minimum reflection loss value of −48.2 dB and the effective absorbing band of 4.3 GHz under a coating thickness of 1.5 mm. which is mainly attributed to the enhanced magnetic loss and multiple interface polarization in the composite. Such use of gangue in this work can effectively realize the resource utilization and production of low-cost and light-weight of microwave absorbing materials.
咖啡渣成型制备生物质炭及其CH4/N2分离性能
高雨舟, 徐爽, 王成通, 张雪洁, 刘汝帅, 陆安慧
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60626-7
摘要(71) HTML(69) PDF(19)
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本文以咖啡渣为原料,硅酸钠为黏结剂和造孔剂,通过挤条成型技术制备柱状炭前驱体,经高温炭化活化和碱洗除硅,获得高强度柱状多孔炭吸附剂(CGCs),研究其CH4/N2的吸附分离性能。红外光谱分析结果显示CGC-1.5含有丰富的含氧官能团。CGCs的比表面积和孔容积随着前驱体中硅酸钠含量的增加而增大,其中9%硅酸钠溶液与原料质量比为1.5的样品CGC-1.5的比表面积为527 m2·g−1,总孔容为0.33 cm3·g−1。氮吸附等温线和CO2吸附等温线分析结果表明CGCs含有丰富的微孔、介孔以及(个别样品)大孔,微孔主要集中在0.48 nm左右。在298 K和0.1 MPa条件下CGC-1.5对CH4的平衡吸附量为0.87 mmol·g−1,CH4/N2 (3/7)的IAST分离选择性达到10.3,优于多数生物质基多孔炭固体吸附剂和晶态材料。双组份动态穿透测试结果证实该材料在常压和加压条件均具有优异的CH4/N2动态分离性能,298 K时0.11 MPa和0.5 MPa条件下的动态选择性分别达到10.4和17.9,经10次吸-脱附循环测试,吸附量保持不变。CGC-1.5的机械强度高达123 N·cm−1,具有潜在的工业应用前景。
氧掺杂氮化碳多孔纳米片高效光电催化CO2还原制甲酸
WANG Hong-zhi, ZHAO Yue-zhu, YANG Zhong-xue, BI Xin-ze, WANG Zhao-liang, WU Ming-bo
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60619-X
摘要(115) HTML(66) PDF(27)
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Using CO2 as a renewable carbon source for the production of high-value-added fuels and chemicals has drawn global attention lately. Photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) CO2 reduction (CO2RR) is one of the most realistic and attractive way, which can be realized effectively under sunlight illumination at low overpotential. Here, oxygen-incorporated carbon nitride (CNs) porous nanosheets were synthesized, which were used as photoanodes with Bi2CuO4 as the photocathode to realize the PEC CO2 reduction to formate. The electrical conductivity and the photoelectric response of CNs were tailored by changing the oxygen source. The oxygen obtained from the oxygen-containing precursor could improve the conductivity due to the more negative electronegativity. The oxygen obtained from the calcination atmosphere has lower photoelectric response due to the energy band structure. Under the optimal conditions, the CN has a photocurrent density of 587 μA cm−2 and an activity of PEC CO2 reduction to formate of 273.56 µmol cm−2 h−1, which is nearly 19 times higher than that of the conventional sample. Moreover, the optimal CN sample shows excellent stability with the photocurrent kept constant for 24 h. This work provides a new avenue to achieve catalysts efficient for PEC CO2 reduction to formate, which may be expanded to different PEC reactions using different cathode catalysts.ode catalysts.
纳米TiO2构筑于多通道炭纤维实现室温钠-硫电池中多硫化物的高效吸附
YE Xin, LI Zhi-qi, SUN Hao, WU Ming-xia, AN Zhong-xun, PANG Yue-peng, YANG Jun-he, ZHENG Shi-you
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60607-3
摘要(93) HTML(57) PDF(34)
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With the rapid development of electric vehicles and large-scale power grids, lithium-ion batteries inevitably face the dilemma in that the limited energy density and high cost fail to meet the growing demand. Room temperature sodium-sulfur (RT Na-S) batteries, which have the potential to replace lithium-ion batteries, have become the focus of attention. However, the challenging problem of poor cycling performance arising from “shuttle effect” of the reaction intermediates (sodium polysulfides) needs to be addressed. We report a method to incorporate TiO2 nano particles into multichannels of electrospun carbon fibers (TiO2@MCCFs) to stabilize sulfur compounds to produce high-performance RT Na-S batteries. The TiO2@MCCFs were prepared by electrospinning followed by heat treatment, which were infiltrated by molten sulfur to fabricate S/TiO2@MCCF cathode materials. The addition of TiO2 nanoparticles enhances the affinity to polysulfides and promotes the conversion of polysulfides to lower order products, which was verified by DFT calculations. The S/TiO2@MCCF cathode with a S content of 54% has improved electrochemical performance with a specific capacity of 445.1 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at 0.1 A g−1 and a nearly 100% Coulombic efficiency. Even at 2 A g−1, the cathode still exhibits a capacity of 300.5 mAh g−1 after 500 cycles, demonstrating excellent rate and cycling performance. This work provides a new way to construct high performance RT Na-S battery cathodes.
椰壳基硬炭作为钾离子电池负极材料的结构及其电化学性能
HUANG Tao, PENG Da-chun, CHEN Zui, XIA Xiao-hong, CHEN Yu-xi, LIU Hong-bo
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60069-0
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Biomorphic hard carbons have attracted widely interest as anode materials for potassium ion batteries (PIBs) recently owing to their high reversible capacity. But, the high preparation cost and poor cycle stability significantly hinder their practical applications. In this study, coconut shell-derived hard carbon (CSHCs) were prepared from waste biomass coconut shell using a one-step carbonization method, which were used as anode materials for potassium ion batteries. The effects of the carbonization temperature on the microstructures and electrochemical properties of the CSHCs were investigated by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and cyclic voltammetry, etc. Results indicate that the CSHC carbonized at 1 000 °C (CSHC-10) possesses a suitable graphite microcrystalline size, pore structure and surface defect content, which exhibits the best electrochemical performance. Specifically, it presents a high reversible specific capacity of 254 mAh·g−1 at 30 mA·g−1 with an initial Coulombic efficiency of 75.0%, and the capacity retention rates are 87.5% after 100 cycles and 75.9% after 400 cycles at 100 mA·g−1, demonstrating its excellent potassium storage performance.
石墨炔:一种新型二维炭材料的合成、改性与应用
张婷, 王宇晶, 于灵敏, 士丽敏, 柴守宁, 何炽
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60653-X
摘要(68) HTML(43) PDF(9)
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石墨炔是一类由sp和sp2杂化碳原子共同组成的新型二维材料。高度共轭及碳环大小可调的分子结构赋予石墨炔特异的物理化学性能,也为其功能化改性及应用提供了便利。近十年来,关于石墨炔的理论及实验研究正在广泛开展,在多个领域取得了一系列重要进展。本文首先对石墨炔性质进行了简要介绍,总结了不同形貌石墨炔的主要合成方法,包括Glaser-Hay交叉偶联、化学气相沉积法、范德华外延生长法、爆炸法、界面限域合成法及双极电化学法等。然后,对金属、非金属原子掺杂、修饰改性及其对石墨炔性能影响的理论计算和实验研究进行了综述;并就石墨炔基材料在环境、能源、生物医学等主要领域的研究进展进行了阐述和总结。最后,探讨了石墨炔发展亟待解决的问题和面临挑战。该综述能够为开展石墨炔相关研究提供有价值的前沿信息和方法参考。
炭纤维增强环氧树脂复合材料的化学回收与再利用研究进展
TIAN Zi-shang, WANG Yu-qi, HOU Xiang-lin
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60652-8
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Carbon fiber reinforced epoxy resin composites (CFRCs) have been used in automotive and aerospace fields due to their excellent mechanical properties. The recycling of CFRCs attracts attention worldwide in recent years. Chemical recycling is a more promising method, which can selectively destroy the specific bond of resin to achieve controllable degradation. Matrix epoxy resins are degraded into monomers or oligomers, and high-value carbon fibers can be recycled. Therefore, we focus on summarizing the progress of chemical recovery method, mainly including super- and subercritical fluids, oxidation, solvolysis, alcoholysis, electrochemical recycling and so on. In addition, the insertion of reversible chemical bonds into the resin to prepare recyclable resins is beneficial for recyling and reuse of components in CFRCs. Therefore, we also briefly introduce the synthesis and depolymerization mechanism of recyclable thermosetting resins. Finally, the possible development directions of chemical recovery of CFRCs and preparation of high-performance recyclable epoxy resins are proposed.
无烟煤基石墨的制备及储锂性能
LI Yuan, TIAN Xiao-dong, SONG Yan, YANG Tao, WU Shi-jie, LIU Zhan-jun
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60057-4
摘要(296) HTML(213) PDF(74)
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In this work, graphites with various microstructures were prepared by cost-effective anthracite and industrial silicon powder as precursor and catalyst, respectively. The mechanism of catalytic reaction and the electrochemical properties of the as-prepared coal-based graphite as lithium anode were investigated. The correlation between structure and properties of graphite was discussed. The results demonstrate that the as-obtained sample with 5% silicon catalyst (G-2800-5%) exhibits the best overall lithium storage performance. In detail, G-2800-5% displays the best graphite structure with graphitization degree of 91.5%. As anode materials, a high reversible capacity of 369.0 mAh g−1 can be achieved at 0.1 A g−1. Meanwhile, the reversible capacity of 209.0 mAh g−1 can be obtained at the current density of 1 A g−1. It also delivers good cyclic stability with the retention rate of 92.2% after 200 cycles at 0.2 A g−1. The highly developed graphite structure, which is favorable to the formation of stable SEI and reduces lithium ion loss should be responsible for the superior electrochemical performance.
静电纺丝纳米炭纤维的电容去离子化技术用于海水淡化
Bethwel K Tarus, Yusufu A C Jande, Karoli N Njau
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60645-0
摘要(195) HTML(74) PDF(22)
摘要:
Capacitive deionization (CDI) has rapidly become a promising approach for water desalination. The technique removes salt from water through applying an electric potential between two porous electrodes to cause adsorption of charged species on the electrode surfaces. The nature of CDI favors the use of nanostructured porous carbon materials with high specific surface area and appropriate surface functional groups. Electrospun carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are quite ideal as they have high specific surface area and surface characteristics for doping/grafting with electroactive agents. Compared with powdered materials, CNF electrodes are free-standing and don’t require binders that increase resistivity. Hierarchically structured CNFs with an appropriate distribution of mesopores and micropores have better desalination performance. Compositing CNFs with faradaic materials enhances ion storage by additional pseudocapacitance besides the electric double layer capacitance. Herein, the use of electrospun CNFs as electrodes for CDI is summarized with emphasis on the major precursor materials used and structure modification, and their relations to the performance in salt electrosorption.
原位化学转化法封装硫于分级微-纳炭/碳化钼用于高性能锂硫电池
CHEN Xin-Rong, YU Xiao-Fei, HE Bin, LI Wen-Cui
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(23)60713-9
摘要(14) HTML(11) PDF(1)
摘要:
Tailor-made fabrication of sulfur host is very effective for solving the main challenges of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries, such as the shuttle effect and sluggish redox kinetics, due to that sulfur host as a reactor for redox reactions determines the electrochemical properties of the sulfur cathode. Under this guidance, sulfur is in-situ confined in a hollow thin-walled C/Mo2C reactor with size smaller than 7 nm, in which these nanosized primary particles are connected each other to form secondary microsized particles. In such composites, the nanoscale sulfur core and continuous conductive network can facilitate lithium-ion and electron transport. Moreover, the microporous C/Mo2C shell can mitigate the outward diffusion of polysulfides via the physical/chemical obstruction and enhance redox kinetics by effectively catalytic conversion of polysulfides. Stem from these merits, the S@C/Mo2C cathode materials can achieve a high reversible capacity of 1210 mA h g−1 at 0.5 C with a low capacity fading rate of 0.127% per cycle over 300 cycles and high rate performance (780 mA h g−1 at 3.0 C). The present work may shed light on designing advanced sulfur host for Li-S batteries with high rate performance and high cycle stability.
Effects of Polyurethane Sizing Agent on Interfacial Properties of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polyurethane Composites
LI Sheng-xia, YANG Chang-ling, YAO Li-li, WU Bo, LU Yong-gen
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(23)60705-X
摘要(10) HTML(14) PDF(1)
摘要:
An anodized carbon fiber tow is sized continuously. The effects of aqueous polyurethane as the sizing agent for enhancing the interfacial properties of carbon fiber reinforced polyurethane composite is investigated based on interlaminar shear strength (ILSS), elemental and functional group analysis, thermal gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The results show the polyurethane as the sizing agent of carbon fiber can significantly improve the interfacial properties of the composites. The ILSS of the sized carbon fiber reinforced composite is increased by 17.5%, from 39.5 MPa to 46.4 MPa compared with that the oxidized carbon fiber reinforced. Treating the sized carbon fiber reinforced composite at 170 °C can further increase the ILSS by 9.5%, to 50.8 MPa. It is considered the sizing agent can form chemical binding with the oxygen-contained functional groups on the oxidized carbon fiber surface and form hydrogen bonds with the matrix resin. After heat treatment at 170 °C, the blocking groups in the sizing agent are unblocked to reveal the isocyanate roots that react with the carbamate of the matrix to form allophanate. It can be concluded that the polyurethane sizing agent is suitable for improving the interface performance of carbon fiber reinforced polyurethane resin composites. Unsealing the sizing agent at high temperature treatment after curing can further improve the interface performance of the composite.
萘系中间相沥青分子结构对其炭纤维性能的影响
XU Hui-tao, GUO Jian-guang, LI Wen-long, LI Xuan-ke
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(23)60709-7
摘要(15) HTML(18) PDF(2)
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Mesophase pitch-based carbon fibers (MPCFs) have the characteristics of high modulus, low resistivity and high thermal conductivity, so it has broad application prospects in many fields. High-performance carbon fibers were prepared from naphthalene-based mesophase pitches synthesized by HF/BF3 catalytic one-step method (AR-MP) and AlCl3 catalytic two-step method (N-MP), respectively. These two mesophase pitches, and spun pitch fibers, pre-oxidized fibers carbonized fibers and graphitized fibers produced from them were characterized by TG-MS, FT-IR, 13 C-NMR, MALDI-TOF-MS, XRD, SEM and elemental analysis. The molecular structures and properties of mesophase pitches prepared by different catalytic polymerization processes were compared, and the effects of molecular structure differences of mesophase pitches on the structure and properties of carbon fibers were further explored. In comparison to N-MP, AR-MP possesses a rod-like semi-rigid molecular configuration containing more naphthenic structures and methyl side chains. The pre-oxidized fibers derived from AR-MP show better carbon layer orientation, thus their graphitized fibers have higher thermal conductivity of 716 W/m·K. N-MP with higher aromaticity possesses a disc-like rigid molecular configuration. Therefore, the graphitized fibers prepared from N-MP have higher tensile strength of 3.47 GPa due to their fewer resulted defects during the preparation. The molecular structures of AR-MP and N-MP have an obvious influence on the structure and properties of their graphited fibers.
Topography changes and microstructural evolution of nuclear graphite (IG-110) induced by Xe26+ irradiation
ZHANG He-yao, SONG Jin-liang, YIN Hui-qin, TANG Zhong-feng, LIU Zhan-jun, LIU Xiang-dong
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(23)60708-5
摘要(7) HTML(9) PDF(0)
摘要:
As a key material in nuclear reactors, nuclear graphite is affected by the high-flux irradiation in the reactor, and its irradiation behavior is an important factor for the reactor operation. In order to understand the irradiation behavior of nuclear graphite, IG-110 nuclear graphite, as a representative of nuclear graphite, was chosen to study the evolution of morphology and microstructure caused by 7 MeV Xe26+ irradiation. The topography and microstructure changes of IG-110 were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and nano-indentation, respectively. The ridge-like structure on the surface of the IG-110 graphite, mainly the binder region, and the roughness increases slowly. As the irradiation damage dose increases, the ridge-like structure also appears in the filler region. The shrinkage of pores increases and its distribution is discrete. The roughness also increases rapidly as the pores close. The changes in topography and microstructure of IG-110 graphite caused by irradiation are attributed to the expansion of graphite along the C-axis direction. Defect density and the degree of in-plane disorder in the graphitic structure increases with the increase of irradiation damage dose. The mechanical properties of IG-110 graphite increase with increasing neutron fluence due to dislocation pinning and a closure of the fine pores. At higher irradiation dose, the mechanical properties reduce, which is attributed to the generation of internal porosity or amorphous structure.
锂离子电池硅炭负极材料的制备与电化学性能研究
YUAN Li-ye, LYU Chun-xiang, LYU Xiao-xuan, YUAN Shu-xia, ZHANG Meng, CAO Li-juan, YANG Yu
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(23)60707-3
摘要(16) HTML(12) PDF(4)
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The phenolic resin was coated on the surface of nano-Si by microencapsulation technology, and then carbonized under the Ar protection to prepare nano-Si@C nanocomposite. Firstly, four mass ratios of phenolic resin to nano-Si (1∶2, 1∶4, 1∶6, 1∶8) were employed to prepare nano-Si@C nanocomposites. The obtained average thickness of amorphous carbon coating was 7, 4.5, 3.7, 2.8 nm, respectively. By comparing the cycling and rate capability, the best electrochemical performance was obtained when the mass ratio of phenolic resin to nano Si was 1∶4, that is, the amorphous carbon coating was 4.5 nm.. The electrochemical properties of optimized nano-Si@C nanocomposite was then evaluated comprehensively, which exhibited excellent electrochemical performance as anode material for Li-ion batteries. Under a current density of 100 mAg−1, the nano-Si@C nanocomposite delivered a first discharge specific capacity of 2382 mAhg−1, first charge specific capacity of 1667 mAhg−1, and a first coulombic efficiency of 70%. Moreover, the discharge specific capacity of 835.6 mAhg−1 could be retained after 200 cycles with a high coulombic efficiency of 99.2%. In addition, nano-Si@C nanocomposite also demonstrated superior rate performance. Under the current densities of 100, 200, 500, 1000 and 2000 mAg−1, the average discharge specific capacities were 1716.4, 1231.6, 911.7, 676.1, and 339.8 mAhg−1, respectively. When the current density returned to 100 mAg−1, the specific capacity restored to 1326.4 mAhg−1.
A Highly Efficient, Rapid, Room Temperature Synthesis of Coal-based Water-soluble Fluorescent Carbon Dots and Its Application in Fe3+ ion Detection
CHENG Zhong-fu, WU Xue-yan, LIU Lei, HE Long, YANG Zu-guo, CAO Chang, LV Yan, GUO Ji-xi
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(23)60706-1
摘要(11) HTML(6) PDF(0)
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The present manuscript reports a coal-based fluorescent CDs which fabricated at room temperature through a friendly method with mixture of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and formic acid (HCOOH) as an oxidant instead of concentrated acid (HNO3 or H2SO4). The prepared CDs show the excitation dependent behavior with high QY approximately 7.2%. The as-made CDs are water soluble, robust photo-stability, good resistance to salt solution, insensitive to pH in a range of 2.0-12.0. The coal-based CDs served as a very sensitive nano-probe for the turn-off sensing of Fe3+ ion with a minimum LOD as low as 600 nM in a dynamic range 2 to 100 μM. This efficient, rapid synthesis of coal-based CDs will not only increase high value-added utilization of coal, but also have potential application value in sensing and several another analytical applications.
Sulfonated graphene improves wear resistance of pantograph carbon slider materials under normal and wet conditions
ZHANG Si-si, TU Chuan-jun, LI Xiang, SONG Teng-hui, XIAN Yong, LIU Xin-long, SUN Heng, CHEN Yi-xing
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(23)60704-8
摘要(6) HTML(7) PDF(0)
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In this study, a novel pantograph carbon slider (PCS) was designed by incorporating a sulfonated graphene (SG). This enhanced the mechanical and wear performances of the slider. The PCS was prepared through mold pressing, hot extrusion and roasting. A mock current-carrying wear test showed that the wear rate of the PCS reinforced by 1 wt % SG was lower by 50.0% in the normal environment and 51.0% in the rainy weather environment, compared with the control group. In addition, the flexural strength of samples with SG was higher by 41.8% compared to those without SG. Moreover, the dragging effect of SG decreased that number of random cracks and increased the compactness of fracture surface of slider materials. These changes markedly inhibited the electro-erosion of the PCS, thus improving mechanical and wear resistance significantly.
碳基材料电磁波吸收性能优化研究进展
LI Wenyi, GAO Mingyang, MIAO Yang, WANG Xiaomin
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(23)60703-6
摘要(126) HTML(20) PDF(9)
摘要:
The development of high-performance electromagnetic wave absorbing materials (EWAMs) posed a prospective way to solve electromagnetic wave radiation issues in both military and civil fields. The desirable EWAMs feature strong absorption intensity, broad bandwidth, lightweight, thin thicknesses as well as other exceptional properties such as oxygen resistance, wear resistance, high-temperature resistance and high strength. In these regards, carbon-based materials, including carbon nanostructures and carbonaceous composites have become the significant participants of EWAMs, standing out for their unique structures and properties compared with the other absorption materials. In this review, we summarized the recent inspiring achievements in carbon-based EWAMs involving different dimensional (0D, 1D, 2D and 3D) carbon nanostructures and various types of carbonaceous composites (binary dielectric-carbon composite, binary magnetic-carbon composite and heterogeneous composite). Firstly, the influential factors affecting the electromagnetic microwave absorption (EWA) performances involving conductivity $\sigma $, permittivity $\varepsilon $and permeability $ \mu $ were discussed based on the EWA mechanisms. Secondly, the representative reports and corresponding mechanisms about improving the EWA performance of carbon-based EWAMs were highlighted and analyzed in detail such as self-modification and composite structure construction. Finally, the current modification strategies and research prospects of carbon-based EWAMs were summarized and outlined.
The synthesis of iron-nitrogen sites embedded in electrospun carbon nanofibers with superior ORR activity in alkaline and acidic media
XU Xiang-xiang, ZHANG Nian-chao, WANG Jun-ying, WANG Jun-zhong
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60649-8
摘要(40) HTML(26) PDF(1)
摘要:
Metal-nitrogen carbon catalysts have received great attention in the field of gas-involving electrocatalysis due to their high activity, large specific surface area and efficient gas diffusion pathways. Carbon nanofibers embedded with iron-nitrogen active sites were synthesized through an electrospinning approach followed by high-temperature treatment. We found that the introduction of g-C3N4 can enhance the anchoring of iron-nitrogen sites in the nanofiber, thus avoiding the formation of inorganic nanoparticles during high-temperature annealing. Compare with Fe3C/CNFs prepared without g-C3N4, Fe/CNFs showed an outstanding 4e oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity in both alkaline and acidic media. Furthermore, as air electrodes in Zn-air batteries, Fe/CNFs catalyst exhibit excellent performance with an open-circuit voltage of up to 1.49 V, a power density of 146 mW cm−2 and a specific capacity of 703 mAh gZn−1.This work proposes an effective strategy to prepare metal-nitrogen-carbon catalysts for energy-related electrocatalytic applications.
碳纤维/聚醚酮酮湿法复合诱导非晶态粘附以增强界面剪切强度的研究
ZHANG Feng, LI Bo-lan, JIAO Meng-xiao, LI Yan-bo, WANG Xin, YANG Yu, YANG Yu-qiu, ZHANG Xiao-hua
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60646-2
摘要(92) HTML(63) PDF(16)
摘要:
Interfacial adhesion between carbon fiber (CF) and polyetherketoneketone (PEKK) is the key factor to affect the mechanical performances of their composites, and thus it is very critical to impregnate PEKK into CF bundles as efficiently as possible. Here we report that owing to the high dissolubility, PEKK can be introduced onto CF surfaces via a wet strategy. The excellent wettability of PEKK guarantees a full covering and tight binding on CFs, making it possible to evaluate the interfacial shear strength (IFSS) with the microdroplet method. Furthermore, the interior of CF bundles can be completely and uniformly filled with PEKK by the solution impregnation, leading to a high interlaminar shear strength (ILSS). The maximum IFSS and ILSS can reach 107.8 and 99.3 MPa, respectively. Such superior shear properties are ascribed to the amorphous PEKK confined in the limited spacing between CFs.
三维炭包覆Ni/NiO纳米片与石墨烯片的多级复合材料实现高电容贡献锂离子存储
JIANG Shang, MAO Miao-miao, PANG Ming-jun, YANG Hui, WANG Run-wei, LI Ning, PAN Qi-liang, PANG Min, ZHAO Jian-guo
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60647-4
摘要(86) HTML(39) PDF(9)
摘要:
In the paper, Ni/NiO nanoparticles coated with a conductive carbon layer were synthesized by hydrothermal method. They were subjected to mild gradient calcination in argon, followed by partial oxidation in oxygen. Unique 3D consecutive electron conductive network as well as synergetic effect of Ni, NiO, carbon layer and graphene sheets can effectively alleviate a large volume expansion, which can restrain the electrode crushing and aggregation, and improve the conductivity. Moreover, Ni nanoparticles can reversibly decompose Li2O during delithiation procedure, which remarkably increases the reversible capacity of Ni/NiO@C/GN anodes. Thanks to these advantages, the Ni/NiO@C/GN hybrid material has better lithium-ion storage performance than Ni/NiO/C. Compared with the initial cycle (711.6 mA h g−1), the reversible capacity of 772.1 mA h g−1 can be maintained after 300 repetitions. The property assessment enables Ni/NiO@C/GN materials to be used in the next generation of large-capacity, high-rate, stable and environmentally friendly lithium-ion batteries.
基于天然三维多孔电极电化学氧化碳点制备及其钠电应用
李瑞林, 赵宗彬, 冷昌宇, 李勇, 艾李申, 孙洋, 王旭珍, 邱介山
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60644-9
摘要(33) HTML(36) PDF(5)
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碳点(CDs)是一种新兴的碳纳米材料,由于其高比表面积、良好的分散性、丰富的表面官能团、低生物毒性和光致发光特性而受到了研究者的广泛关注,然而,低成本、大规模和绿色合成CDs仍然面临挑战。本工作基于生物质玉米芯特殊的天然孔隙结构,经过直接碳化制备具有定向、贯通微纳米孔道的多孔三维电极材料,内外表面同时发生电化学氧化高效制备CDs,1 A恒电流下,每克电极材料制备CDs速率达到了79.83 mg h−1 ,将制备得到的CDs与氧化石墨烯(GO)水热复合得到复合气凝胶CDs/rGO材料,经过热处理后应用于钠离子电池,在1 A g−1下循环1000圈仍保持263.3 mAh g−1的容量。从生物质玉米芯出发简单高效制备碳点,为CDs的大规模绿色制备和应用提供了新的途径和思路。
高韧性低粘度碳纳米管/聚醚酰亚胺/聚醚醚酮纳米复合材料的研究
SONG Jiu-peng, ZHAO Yan, LI Xue-kuan, XIONG Shu, LI Shuang, WANG Kai
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60643-7
摘要(73) HTML(51) PDF(6)
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Polyether ether ketone (PEEK) has favorable mechanical properties. However, its high melt viscosity limits its applications because it is hard to process. In this study, PEEK nanocomposites modified with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and polyether imide (PEI) were prepared using a direct wet powder blending method. The melt viscosity of the nanocomposites decreased by approximately 50%. Under optimal conditions, the addition of CNTs and PEI resulted in a synergistic increase in the toughness of the nanocomposites. The elongation at break increased by 129%, and the fracture energy increased by 97%. The uniformly dispersed CNTs/PEI powder reduces the processing difficulty of PEEK nanocomposites without affecting the heat resistance. The nanocomposites prepared by this method have lower melt viscosity. This improvement of the properties of PEEK would facilitate its use in the preparation of thermoplastic composites by powder impregnation or laser sintering technology.
碳纳米管复合纤维素水凝胶的界面光热净水性能研究
王雪, 孙洋, 赵冠宇, 王旭珍, 邱介山
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60621-8
摘要(218) HTML(100) PDF(43)
摘要:
基于低温溶剂法从大宗农林废弃物玉米芯中提取的纤维素,耦合具有优异吸光性能的碳纳米管(CNTs),构筑复合纤维素水凝胶(CNTs-CH),利用纤维素凝胶的高保水性、可降解性,以及碳纳米管的高效光热转换能力、优良的力学性能和生物相容性,将其用于太阳能驱动界面水蒸发净化领域。考察了吸光材料CNTs的不同添加量对CNTs-CH复合水凝胶的太阳能吸收率、机械性能及界面光热水蒸发效率的影响。最优条件下,CNTs添加量仅需0.2 wt.%,此CNTs-CH复合纤维素水凝胶的平均蒸发速率可达到~1.52 kg m−2 h−1,太阳能-蒸汽转换效率约92%;在海水中连续蒸发8 h,蒸发速率可保持在1.37 kg m−2 h−1左右,且无积盐现象,净化水质远高于WHO和EPA对饮用水的标准,说明CNTs-CH抗盐性能较强。此外,CNTs-CH水凝胶在强酸/碱性水溶液体系、染料废水和重金属离子污染水体中的蒸发速率可维持在1.30-1.40 kg m−2 h−1,太阳能-蒸汽效率可达到80-86%,对污染物及盐分截留率高达99.9%,蒸发效果稳定,说明CNTs-CH光热蒸发器在海水淡化和工业废水净化回用领域有广阔的应用前景。
氮掺杂聚丙烯腈基中空碳纤维用于锂硫电池正极
NIU Jing-yi, JING De-qi, ZHANG Xing-hua, SU Wei-guo, ZHANG Shou-chun
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60615-2
摘要(134) HTML(60) PDF(22)
摘要:
Hollow-shaped porous carbon fiber for Li-S batteries electrodes is prepared by KOH activation using polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as the precursor. The obtained porous carbon fiber has a high specific surface area of 2491 m2·g−1 and a large pore volume of 1.22 cm3·g−1. And it exhibits an initial specific capacity of 330 mAh·g−1 at current density of 1 C. To further improve electrochemical performance, the fiber precursor is modified using hydrazine hydrate to prepare nitrogen doped hollow-shaped porous carbon fiber. The modified fiber shows a specific surface area of 1690 m2·g−1, a pore volume of 0.84 cm3·g−1 and a high nitrogen content of 8.81 at%. Since nitrogen doping can increase the polarity and adsorption capacity, the initial specific capacity of the nitrogen doped porous carbon fiber can be increased to 420 mAh·g−1 at current density of 1 C.
金属有机骨架(ZIF-8@ZIF-67)衍生的Co/N共掺杂碳基催化剂在氧还原反应(ORR)中的应用研究
ZHANG Ya-ting, LI Si-yi, ZHANG Na-na, LIN Gang, WANG Rui-qi, YANG Meng-nan, LI Ke-ke
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60609-7
摘要(350) HTML(193) PDF(55)
摘要:
Carbon-based oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts are considered a potential substitution for the expensive platinum-based ORR catalysts in the aspect of energy conversion. Recently, metal and nitrogen codoped carbon materials (M-N-C) formed by transition metals and nitrogen-doped carbon materials have attracted much attention from researchers due to their low cost and excellent activity. Herein, a cobalt- and nitrogen-codoped porous carbon material (Co-N@CNT-C800) is prepared via a simple one-step pyrolysis method by well-designed carambola-shaped MOFs (ZIF-8@ZIF-67). The obtained Co-N@CNT-C800 consists of many carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with substantial Co doping and N doping. A large surface area (428 m2·g−1) and a favorable three-dimensional structure are also observed. The obtained Co-N@CNT-C800 exhibits excellent performance in half-wave potential and limited current density in alkaline media with a value of 0.841 V and 5.07 mA·cm−2, respectively. In addition, Co-N@CNT-C800 also shows excellent electrochemical stability and methanol tolerance compared with commercial Pt/C materials. The proposed strategy inspires a effective way to fabricate low cost and high activity electrocatalysts used for energy conversion.
An Innovative and Efficient Preparation of Mesocarbon Microbeads by The Delayed Capillary Breakup Method and Their Electrochemical Performance
DONG Si-lin, YANG Jian-xiao, CHANG Sheng-kai, SHI Kui, LIU Yue, ZOU Jia-ling, LI Jun
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60606-1
摘要(121) HTML(70) PDF(24)
摘要:
An innovative and efficient preparation method of mesocarbon microbeads (MCMBs) was developed based on the dripping behavior and rheological theory of pitch during the melt-spinning process, named as the delayed capillary breakup (DCB) method. In this work, the MCMBs were prepared by the DCB method with different receiving solvents (water or tetrahydrofuran (THF)), and their microstructure evolutions were compared systematically. Moreover, the MCMBs were further activated with KOH at 750 °C or graphitized at 2800 °C to prepare the A-MCMBs or G-MCMBs, and their electrochemical performance as electrode materials for electronic double layer capacitors (EDLC) or lithium-ion batteries (LIB) was investigated, respectively. The results showed that both MCMB-W prepared from water and MCMB-T prepared from THF had great spherical structure with the size of 1~2 μm. In addition, A-MCMB-T had a high specific surface area (1391 m2 g−1), micropore volume (0.55 cm3 g−1) and mesopore volume (0.24 cm3 g−1), exhibiting 30% higher specific capacitance than the original material, and its capacitance retention was also significantly improved when it was used as an electrode material for EDLC. Moreover, G-MCMB-T had high graphitization degree (0.895) and orderly lamellar structure, which demonstrated high specific capacity of 353.5 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at 100 mA g−1 when it was used as an electrode material for LIB. Therefore, this work proposed and verified a new preparation method of MCMBs, which could provide a strategy for designing and developing traditional energy storage materials.
由乙烯焦油制备碳质前驱体的氧化反应机理及其反应动力学
GUO Tian-rui, CHEN Rong-qi, GAO Wei, WANG Yan-li, ZHAN Liang
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60597-3
摘要(115) HTML(122) PDF(43)
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To obtain excellent carbonaceous precursors, the oxidation reaction mechanism and kinetics of ethylene tar were investigated. The oxidation process of ethylene tar was divided into three stages (350-550 K, 550-700 K and 700-900 K) according to the thermogravimetric curve. To reveal the oxidation reaction mechanism of ethylene tar, the components of evolved gases at different stages were further analyzed online by mass spectrometry and infrared technology. Then, based on the thermogravimetric curve of ethylene tar at different reaction temperatures, the whole reaction process was divided into four parts to perform kinetics simulation calculation. With the help of the iso-conversional method (Coats-Redfern) to analyze the linear regression rates (R2) between 17 common reaction kinetics models and experimental data, the optimal reaction kinetics model for expressing oxidation process of ethylene tar was determined. The results show that: (1) In the oxidation process, the side chains of aromatic compounds firstly react with oxygen to form alcohols and aldehydes, leaving peroxy-radicals to aromatic rings. After that, the aromatic compounds with peroxy-radicals undergo polymerization/condensation reaction to form larger molecular. (2) The fourth-order of reaction model is adopted to describe the first three parts of the oxidation process, and the activation energies are 47.330 kJ·mol−1, 18.689 kJ·mol−1 and 9.004 kJ·mol−1 respectively. The three-dimensional diffusion model is applied to the fourth part of the oxidation process, and the activation energy is 88.369 kJ·mol−1.
Se encapsulated into honeycomb 3D porous carbon with Se-C bonds as superb performance cathodes for Li-Se Batteries
XIA Zhi-gang, ZHANG Jing-jing, FAN Mei-qiang, LV Chun-ju, CHEN Zhi, LI Chao
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60596-1
摘要(98) HTML(59) PDF(14)
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Li-Se Batteries has been considered as promising lithium-ion batteries due to their super volumetric energy density and high electrical conductivity of Se. However, the development of Li-Se batteries application is impeded by the boring volume expansion and polyselenide dissolution of electrodes during cycling, as well as the low selenium loading. A feasible and effective approach to settle these three issues is to keep selenium into a carbon host with sufficient pore volume and simultaneously enhance the interfacial interaction between selenium and carbon. A novel cathode material of Se encapsulated into honeycomb 3D porous carbon (HPC@Se) with Se-C bonds for Li-Se Batteries is synthesized by impregnating Se into the tartrate salt derived honeycomb 3D porous carbon. The pore volume of the obtained honeycomb 3D porous carbon is up to 1.794 cm3 g−1, which allows 65%wt selenium to be uniformly encapsulated. Moreover, the strong chemical bonds between selenium and carbon are beneficial for stabilizing selenium, thus further relieving its huge volume expansion and polyselenide dissolution as well as promote the charge transfer during cycling. As expected, HPC@Se cathode presents fantastic cyclability and rate performance. After 200 cycles, its specific capacity remained at 561 mA h g−1 (83% of the theoretical specific capacity) at 0.2 C. And the capacity recession is just 0.058 percentage each cycle. Besides, HPC@Se cathode can also demonstrate a considerable capacity of 472.8 mA h g−1 under the higher current density of 5 C.
氢氧化钾处理中间相碳微球应用于高倍率钾离子电池负极
XIAO Nan, GUO Hong-da, XIAO Jian, WEI Yi-bo, MA Xiao-qing, ZHANG Xiao-yu, QIU Jie-shan
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60059-8
摘要(512) HTML(185) PDF(52)
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Graphite is one of the most promising anode materials for potassium-ion batteries (PIBs) due to its low cost and stable discharge plateau. However, its poor rate performance still needs to be improved. Herein, a novel graphitic anode was designed from commercial mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) by KOH treatment. Through limited oxidation and slight intercalation, an expanded layer with enlarged interlayer spacing formed on the surface of MCMB, by which the K+ diffusion rate was significantly improved. When served as the PIB anode, this modified MCMB delivered a high plateau capacity below 0.25 V (271 mAh g−1), superior rate capability (160 mAh g−1 at 1.0 A g−1), excellent cycling stability (about 184 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at 0.1 A g−1), and high initial coulombic efficiency with carboxymethyl cellulose as binder (79.2%). This work provides a facile strategy to prepare graphitic materials with superior potassium storage property.
2022年5期序
2022, 37(5): 1-4.  
摘要(101) HTML(22) PDF(45)
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目录
2022 年 5 期中文目次
2022, 37(5): 1-1.  
摘要(81) HTML(16) PDF(27)
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2022年5期英文目次
2022, 37(5): 2-2.  
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综合评述
石墨烯在平面微型超级电容器中的应用进展与展望
李虎成, 申浩瑞, 石颖, 闻雷, 李峰
2022, 37(5): 781-801.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60640-1
摘要(357) HTML(148) PDF(153)
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Micro-supercapacitors hold great promise for powering the Internet of Things devices owing to their high power density and long cycling life. However, the limited energy density hinders their practical use. Electrode materials play an important role in the performance of micro-supercapacitors. With the advantages of a large specific surface area and a high electrical conductivity, graphene has been considered a good candidate for the electrode material of micro-supercapacitors. The two-dimensional surface of graphene is parallel to the direction of transport of the electrolyte ions for micro-supercapacitors with an in-plane structure, which helps improve the ion accessibility of the electrodes. Therefore, the construction of graphene-based in-plane micro-supercapacitors has aroused great interest among researchers. Here, we summarize the recent advances in graphene and graphene-based materials for in-plane micro-supercapacitors from the perspective of electrode material design. The electrode materials include graphenes produced by chemical vapor deposition, liquid-phase exfoliation, reduction of graphene oxide, laser induction and heteroatom doping, as well as graphene-based composites, such as carbon nanotube/graphene, transition metal oxide/graphene, conducting polymer/graphene and two-dimensional material/graphene composites. Challenges and opportunities in graphene-based in-plane micro-supercapacitors are discussed, and future research directions and development trends are proposed.
锂离子电池硅(/碳)负极自修复聚合物黏合剂研究进展
武帅, 狄方, 郑金刚, 赵宏伟, 张涵, 李莉香, 耿新, 孙呈郭, 杨海明, 周卫民, 巨东英, 安百钢
2022, 37(5): 802-826.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60638-3
摘要(472) HTML(190) PDF(156)
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A silicon anode with a high specific capacity is one of the most promising candidates for developing advanced rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, the problems of low electrical conductivity, severe volume changes during use and an unstable solid electrolyte interface seriously hinder their use in LIBs. Although using the carbon materials used to construct Si/C composite anodes have demonstrated their advantages in improving the performance of Si-based anodes, the binder, another key component of the electrode, also has a significant effect on the electrochemical performance of a battery. A self-healing binder uses non-covalent and reversible covalent bonds to effectively improve the cycling stability of LIBs by repairing the internal/external damage caused by the huge volume change of a Si-based anode. As for the solid-state polymer electrolytes (SPEs) of flexible lithium batteries, the use of self-healing polymers can also quickly repair the damages or cracks in the SPEs, and have a promising prospect in the development of flexible and wearable electronics. The paper gives an overview of the synthesis, characterization and self-healing mechanisms of the self-healing polymer binders for use in Si and Si/C anodes and their recent application in flexible lithium batteries is briefly summarized. The related technical challenges and design requirements for self-healing polymer binders used in the Si and Si/C anodes of LIBs are discussed.
炭材料在柔性锌离子电池中的研究进展
武丽莎, 张明慧, 徐文, 董琰峰
2022, 37(5): 827-851.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60628-0
摘要(265) HTML(87) PDF(125)
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The ever-growing demands for wearable devices has stimulated the development of advanced flexible energy storage devices. Aqueous rechargeable zinc ion batteries (ZIBs) have gained much attention due to their low cost and intrinsic safety. Carbon materials with excellent conductivity, high mechanical strength, and light weight, can be used to construct flexible ZIBs (FZIBs). Here, we summarize the recent advances in carbon materials (e.g., carbon nanotubes, carbon fibers, graphene) for high-performance FZIBs with one-dimensional cable-shaped, two-dimensional planar, and three-dimensional sandwich configurations. Ways for constructing different types of FZIBs for better electrochemical performance are emphasized. The vital roles of carbons as the conductive materials and current collectors of cathodes, the current collectors and host materials of anodes, and modifiers of functional separators are discussed. The challenges and prospects of advanced carbon materials for next-generation FZIBs are also briefly discussed.
碳基柔性电极用于电化学钾储存器件
吴禹翰, 吴效楠, 关银燕, 徐杨, 史发年, 梁吉艳
2022, 37(5): 852-874.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60631-0
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With the rapid growth of the flexible and wearable electronics market, there have been big advances in flexible electrochemical energy storage technologies. Developing flexible electrodes with a low cost, superior safety, and high performance remains a great challenge. In recent years, potassium-based electrochemical energy storage devices have received much attention by virtue of their cost competitiveness and the availability of potassium resources. Carbon materials have been widely used as electrode materials or substrates for flexible energy storage devices due to their excellent properties, such as low weight, non-toxicity and abundance. Here, we summarize the recent advances in carbon materials (e.g. carbon nanofibers, carbon nanotubes, and graphene) for use in flexible electrochemical potassium storage devices, including potassium-ion batteries, potassium-ion hybrid capacitors, and K-S/Se batteries. Strategies for the synthesis of carbon-based flexible electrodes and their reported electrochemical performance are outlined. Finally, the challenges of future developments in this field are discussed.
自支撑碳基柔性超级电容器电极材料研究进展
赵一蓉, 刘聪聪, 卢琼琼, OMARAhmad, 潘孝军, MIKHAILOVADaria
2022, 37(5): 875-897.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60637-1
摘要(336) HTML(149) PDF(92)
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The construction of flexible supercapacitors with high electrochemical performance and excellent mechanical properties to power flexible electronics and sensors is very important. Freestanding electrodes play a crucial role in flexible supercapacitors, and carbon has been widely used in this role because of its high electronic conductivity, tunable porosity, adjustable surface area, excellent mechanical properties, low density and easy functionalization. It is also abundant and cheap. Recent progress on the fabrication of freestanding carbon electrodes based on various carbon materials for use in flexible supercapacitors is summarized, and remaining challenges and future opportunities are discussed.
3D打印碳基微电池的技术、材料与应用进展
贺素姣, 张凯强, 邹雅珺, 田志红
2022, 37(5): 898-917.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60634-6
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Next-generation wearable and portable devices require rechargeable microbatteries to provide energy storage. Three-dimensional (3D) printing, with its ability to build geometrically complex 3D structures, enables the manufacture of microbatteries of different sizes and shapes, and with high energy and power densities. Lightweight carbon materials have a great advantage over other porous metals as electrode materials for rechargeable batteries, because of their large specific surface area, superior electrical conductivity and high chemical stability. In recent years, a variety of rechargeable microbatteries of different types have been successfully printed using carbon-based inks. To optimize their electrochemical performance and extend their potential applications, it is important to analyze the design principles with respect to the 3D printing technique, printable carbon materials and promising applications. This paper provides a perspective on recent progress in the four major 3D printing techniques, elaborates on conductive carbon materials in addressing the challenging issues of 3D printed microbatteries, and summarizes their applications in a number of energy storage devices that integrate with wearable electronics. Current challenges and future opportunities for carbon-based microbattery fabrication by 3D printing techniques are discussed.
烯碳材料用于锌离子混合电容器的研究进展
周伊静, 罗金荣, 邵妍妍, 夏洲, 邵元龙
2022, 37(5): 918-935.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60642-5
摘要(192) HTML(75) PDF(91)
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Along with the emergence of wearable electronic devices, green energy devices like Zn-ion hybrid supercapacitors (ZHSCs), which are extremely safe and cheap, and have excellent stability and high power energy densities, have received great attention. Carbonenes, mainly including graphene and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), are promising materials for ZHSCs because of their exceptional electrical conductivity and excellent mechanical stability. A comprehensive overview of strategies for the modification of carbonene-based materials for ZHSCs, and a brief summary of their energy storage mechanisms is given and topics for potential research are suggested.
研究论文
二维介孔氮掺杂炭/石墨烯纳米片的可控合成及其高性能微型超级电容器
杨志, 周锋, 张鸿涛, 秦洁琼, 吴忠帅
2022, 37(5): 936-943.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60633-4
摘要(232) HTML(82) PDF(150)
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石墨烯基二维介孔材料能够有效耦合石墨烯基底、功能化材料和介孔结构的优势,被认为是一种理想的微型超级电容器电极材料。基于此,本文以苯胺为前驱体,氧化石墨烯为二维导向剂,二氧化硅纳米球为介孔模板,采用双模板界面诱导自组装法制备介孔氮掺杂炭/石墨烯(mNC/G)纳米片,并实现了其介孔孔径的精确调控和电化学性能的优化。研究表明,7 nm孔径的介孔氮掺杂炭/石墨烯(mNC/G-7)展现出267 F g−1的高比电容,且应用于准固态平面微型超级电容器表现出21.0 F cm−3的体积比电容和1.9 mWh cm−3的体积能量密度,证明了该二维介孔氮掺杂炭/石墨烯纳米片在微型超级电容器应用方面具有良好的前景。
基于同轴碳/四元氧化物复合负极构建柔性、集成的可充电锂电池
邹一鸣, 孙长春, 李少雯, 白苗, 杜宇轩, 张敏, 徐飞, 马越
2022, 37(5): 944-955.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60617-6
摘要(148) HTML(93) PDF(96)
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A coaxial anode with a carbon fiber core encapsulated in nanocrystalline FeNiMnO4 with a nitrogen-doped carbon sheath was prepared using carbon fiber cloth as the core, FeNiMnO4 nanocrystallite arrays as the first coating layer and nitrogen-doped carbon derived from F127 (a kind of triblock copolymer)-resorcinol-melamine gel as the outer layer. After annealing at 600 °C it was used as the anode material of an all solid flexible lithium ion battery using LiFePO4 as the cathode material and boron nitride modified polyethylene oxide as the electrolyte. The battery had a large areal capacity of ~1.40 mAh cm−2 and satisfactory cycling stability under different bending and strain states. Annealing below 600 °C leads to incomplete carbonization of the nitrogen-doped carbon and thus a low electrical conductivity while above 600 °C aggregation of FeNiMnO4 nanocrystallites and their detachment during cycling are observed under bending and strain.
3D打印自支撑ZnSe/NC电极用于锂离子微型电池
刘怀志, 李晓婧, 李强, 刘秀雪, 陈逢军, 张冠华
2022, 37(5): 956-967.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60627-9
摘要(235) HTML(110) PDF(93)
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The rapid development of micro/nanomanufactured integrated microsystems in recent years requires high performance micro energy storage devices (MESDs). Li-ion microbatteries (LIMBs) are the most studied MESDs, but the low mass loading of active materials and the less-than-perfect energy density hinder their further application. A 3D printed ZnSe/N-doped carbon (ZnSe/NC) composite electrode was designed and fabricated by extrusion-based 3D printing and a post-treatment strategy for use as the anode of LIMBs. The high capacity ZnSe nanoparticles are confined in the NC, where the NC not only improves the conductivity but also acts as a buffer layer to reduce the volume expansion and provide additional active sites for electrochemical reactions. The interconnected design of the 3D printed electrode is good for fast mass transfer and ion transport. A freestanding 3D printed ZnSe/NC electrode with a high mass loading of 3.15 mg cm−2 was achieved by direct ink printing, which had a superior energy density and decent reversibility in high-power LIMBs. This strategy can be used for other high-performance electrodes to achieve a high-mass-loading of active materials for microbatteries, opening up a new way to construct advanced MESDs.
基于镍钴层状双氢氧化物生长在氧化铟锡纳米线和炭布复合物上的高性能微型锌电池
李喜娟, 刘国, 吴青峰, 王旭坤, 隋心翼, 王鑫格, 范紫烨, 谢二庆, 张振兴
2022, 37(5): 968-977.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60629-2
摘要(213) HTML(113) PDF(79)
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Following the fast growth of micro-energy storage devices, there is an urgent need to develop miniaturized electronic devices with excellent performance that are both green and safe. Planar interdigitated rechargeable Zn microbatteries (MBs) have gained widespread attention in recent years due to their ease of series-parallel integration, mechanical flexibility and no need for traditional separators. We prepared a patterned cathode of NiCo layered double hydroxide (LDH)@indium tin oxide (ITO) nanowires (NWs) @carbon cloth (CC) by the chemical vapor deposition of ITO NWs on the carbon fibers in a CC, laser patterning, and finally the electrodeposition of NiCo-LDH to coat the ITO NW@carbon fibers. The cathode was combined with a patterned Zn foil anode to form a planar MB. Because of the highly conductive ITO NWs@CC current collector, the interdigitated MB had a satisfactory performance. The planar MB has a high specific capacity of 453.5 mAh g−1 (corresponding to 0.56 mAh cm−2) in an alkaline water-based electrolyte at 1 mA cm−2. After 4 000 cycles the capacity increased to 216% of the initial value due to gradual penetration of electrolyte into the three-dimensional NiCo-LDH@ITO NW@CC network. It also had excellent energy (798.4 μWh cm−2, corresponding to 649.9 Wh kg−1) and power densities (4.1 mW cm−2, corresponding to 3 282.7 mW kg−1). Furthermore, MBs connected in series-parallel in lighting tests illustrate the excellent performance of the device. Therefore, these fast and simple Zn MBs with an in-plane interdigital structure provide a reference for next-generation high-performance, environmentally-friendly, and scalable planar micro-energy storage systems.
基于二维分子刷的超结构碳纳米网络的可控制备及其柔性超级电容器性能
卢宇恒, 唐友臣, 唐克寒, 吴丁财, 马倩
2022, 37(5): 978-987.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60641-3
摘要(149) HTML(88) PDF(70)
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Three-dimensional carbon nanonetworks (3D CNNs) have interconnected conductive skeletons and accessible pore structures, which provide multi-level transport channels and thus have promising applications in many areas. However, the physical stacking of these network units to form long-range conductive paths is hard to accomplish, and the introduction of micropores and small mesopores is usually difficult. We report a simple yet efficient strategy to construct CNNs with a nitrogen-doped micro-meso-macroporous carbon nanonetwork using Schiff-base gelation followed by carbonization. Using a polyacrolein-grafted graphene oxide molecular brush as the building block and tetrakis (4-aminophenyl) methane as the crosslinking agent, the obtained molecular brush nanonetworks have a high carbon yield and largely retain the original morphology, leading to the formation of a 3D continuous nanonetwork after carbonization. The materials have a micro-meso-macroporous structure with a high surface area and a highly conductive N-doped carbon backbone. This unique structure has a large number of exposed active sites and excellent charge/mass transfer ability. When loaded on carbon cloth and used as the electrodes of a flexible supercapacitor, the CNN has a specific capacitance of 180 F g−1 at 1 A g−1 and a high capacitance retention of 91.4% after 10 000 cycles at 8 A g−1 .
界面植入卤化碳点构建高效稳定的柔性钙钛矿太阳能电池
刘晨, 贾宁, 翟计洲, 赵鹏振, 郭鹏飞, 王洪强
2022, 37(5): 988-999.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60639-5
摘要(211) HTML(85) PDF(68)
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Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite films made by low-temperature solution processing offer promising opportunities to fabricate flexible solar cells while formidable challenges regarding their environmental and mechanical stability remain due to their ionic and fragile nature. This work explores the possibility of chemical crosslinking between adjacent grains by the interfacial embedding of laser-derived carbon dots with halogen-terminated surfaces to improve the flexibility and stability of the polycrystalline films. A series of halogen-terminated carbon dots was generated in halobenzene solvents by pulsed laser irradiation in the liquid, and were then placed in the surface and grain boundaries of the perovskite film by an antisolvent procedure, where an immiscible solvent was poured onto the coating surface with a suspension containing carbon dots and perovskite precursors to cause precipitation. Strong interaction between perovskite and the carbon dots results in effective defect passivation, lattice anchoring and a change in the carrier dynamics of the perovskite films. Because of this, unencapsulated flexible perovskite solar cells after the interfacial embedding have power conversion efficiencies up to 20.26%, maintain over 90% of this initial value for 90 days under a relative humidity of 40% and have a thermal stability of 200 h even at 85 °C. The flexible devices withstand mechanical deformation, retaining over 80% of their initial values after 500 bend cycles to a radius of curvature of 4 mm.
表面氧化和插层改性硬碳负极锂离子电容器
张璐瑶, 王赫, 秦楠, 郑俊生, 赵基钢
2022, 37(5): 1000-1010.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60632-2
摘要(197) HTML(79) PDF(92)
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Due to the difference of energy storage mechanisms between the anode and cathode materials, the power density or rate performance of a lithium-ion capacitor is greatly limited by its anode material. Hard carbon is a promising anode material for lithium ion capacitors, and its modification is an important way to improve the electrochemical performance of lithium-ion capacitors. A commercial hard carbon from Kuraray Inc was modified by oxidation followed by intercalation with ZnCl2 (ZnCl2―OHC). The reversible capacity of a half-cell prepared using this material was 257.4 mAh·g−1 at 0.05 A·g−1, which is obviously higher than the unmodified one (172.5 mAh·g−1). The capacity retention of a full cell prepared using ZnCl2―OHC as the anode and activated carbon as the cathode reached 43.3% when the current density increased from 0.1 to 10 A·g−1, which is more than twice that of the untreated hard carbon. After 5 000 charge-discharge cycles at 1 A·g−1, the capacity retention of the full cell was about 98.4%. The modification of hard carbon by surface oxidation and intercalation is therefore a promising way to improve its anode performance for lithium ion capacitors.
基于界面膜清洗的废旧锂离子电池石墨负极的再生修复
徐义俭, 宋晓辉, 常强, 侯香龙, 孙毅, 冯绪勇, 王项如, 詹淼, 项宏发, 余彦
2022, 37(5): 1011-1020.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60648-6
摘要(176) HTML(90) PDF(84)
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石墨因其良好的导电性、适合锂脱嵌的层状结构和良好的循环稳定性,成为目前商品化锂离子电池最主要的负极材料。随着越来越多的锂离子电池、特别是动力电池进入退役期,石墨负极材料的回收处理与循环再利用引起学术界和产业界的高度重视。本文对废旧锂离子电池拆解、极片分离和清洗进行研究,对拆解得到的石墨负极进行结构分析发现:锂离子电池经长时间循环后负极表面生成厚的固体电解质界面(SEI)层,增厚的SEI层增加了电池阻抗,同时降低了石墨负极表面的润湿性。将得到的废旧石墨负极浸泡在硝酸乙醇溶液中以清洗除去表面厚的SEI层和金属杂质从而恢复其电化学性能,同时保持了电极的原始初始形貌。最后,通过电化学测试发现,修复后的石墨负极在50 mA·g−1电流密度循环60圈无容量损失,而以磷酸铁锂作正极组装全电池在0.5 C下循环100圈容量保持率达到92%。对比已报道的废旧石墨回收方法,此法过程简单,无需将石墨从铜箔表面剥离,解决了现有回收方法存在的共性问题即回收工艺复杂,而且界面洗后石墨的电化学性能得到了显著提升,为废旧石墨负极回收提供了新的思路。
超级电容器电极材料与电解液的研究进展
焦琛, 张卫珂, 苏方远, 杨宏艳, 刘瑞祥, 陈成猛
摘要(1162) [PDF 1209 KB](3331)
摘要:
超级电容器具有高功率密度、长循环寿命、良好的低温使用性能和安全性的优点,已经广泛应用到电子产品、能量回收和储能等领域。电极材料和电解液是决定超级电容器性能的两大关键因素,超级电容器常用的电极材料包括碳质材料(活性炭、碳纳米管、石墨烯、炭纤维、纳米洋葱碳等)、金属氧化物(金属氢氧化物)、导电聚合物及复合材料等;电解液主要有水系电解液、有机系电解液与离子液体。本文综述了超级电容器电极材料与电解液的研究现状,详细介绍了电极材料、电解液的性能及优缺点,并对新型电极材料和电解液的研究趋势提出展望。
氧化石墨烯对水泥基复合材料微观结构和力学性能的影响
王琴, 王健, 吕春祥, 刘伯伟, 张昆, 李崇智
摘要(841) [PDF 2388 KB](501)
摘要:
研究了不同掺量下氧化石墨烯(GO)对水泥石以及胶砂微观结构和力学性能的影响。含16.5%水的水泥浆、0.05%GO及3倍于水泥的沙子共混物作为添加剂制备成砂浆。通过SEM、液氮吸附仪和一系列标准实验分别对水泥石的微观形态、孔隙结构、抗压抗折强度以及水泥净浆的流动度、黏度、凝结时间进行表征;考察不同GO掺量下水泥水化放热的变化情况。结果表明:GO对水泥浆有显著增稠和促凝作用;GO的掺入可以有效降低水泥的水化放热量;GO对水泥石有显著的增强增韧效果,28天龄期时,GO质量分数为0.05%的水泥石,3、7和28 d抗压强度和抗折强度同比对照组分别增加52.4%、46.5%、40.4%和86.1%、68.5%、90.5%,胶砂的抗压强度和抗折强度同比对照组分别增加43.2%、33%、24.4%和69.4%、106.4%、70.5%;GO在水泥硬化过程中对水泥石中晶体产物的产生有促进作用并能规整晶体的排布而形成针状晶体簇,改善水泥石中的孔结构,降低水泥石中微孔的体积,增加水泥石的密实度,对水泥石有显著地增强增韧效果。
抗烧蚀C/C复合材料研究进展
付前刚, 张佳平, 李贺军
摘要(1172) [PDF 2126 KB](1337)
摘要:
C/C复合材料因优异的高温性能被认为是高温结构件的理想材料。然而,C/C复合材料在高温高速粒子冲刷环境下的氧化烧蚀问题严重制约其应用。因此,如何提高C/C复合材料的抗烧蚀性能显得尤为重要。笔者综述C/C复合材料抗烧蚀的研究现状。目前,提高C/C复合材料抗烧蚀性能的途径主要集中于优化炭纤维预制体结构、控制热解炭织构、基体中陶瓷掺杂改性和表面涂覆抗烧蚀涂层等4种方法。主要介绍以上4种方法的研究现状,重点介绍基体改性和抗烧蚀涂层的最新研究进展。其中,涂层和基体改性是提高C/C复合材料抗烧蚀性能的两种有效方法。未来C/C 复合材料抗烧蚀研究的潜在方向主要集中于降低制造成本、控制热解炭织构、优化掺杂的陶瓷相以及将基体改性和涂层技术相结合。
工程应用C/C复合材料的性能分析与展望
苏君明, 周绍建, 李瑞珍, 肖志超, 崔红
摘要(1334) [PDF 739 KB](1273)
摘要:
评价了中国40多年来在航天、航空、光伏、粉末冶金、工业高温炉领域成功应用的针刺C/C,正交3D C/C、径编C/C、穿刺C/C、轴编C/C等五类C/C复合材料的物理、力学、热学、烧蚀、摩擦磨损、使用寿命等性能及特点,并与其他国家相应材料性能进行分析对比,为建立工程应用C/C复合材料共享的数据库平台奠定基础。揭示了炭纤维预制体、炭基体类型、界面结合状态与材料性能的关联度。指出炭纤维预制体结构单元精细化研究和其结构的梯度设计,以及炭基体的优化组合匹配技术,仍是C/C复合材料性能稳定化提升的重点研究方向。
原位聚合法与溶液混合法制备石墨烯/聚酰亚胺复合材料及其性能
马朗, 王国建, 戴进峰
摘要(955) [PDF 2344 KB](1397)
摘要:
利用化学氧化还原法制备出石墨烯。通过原位聚合法及溶液混合法制备出石墨烯/聚酰亚胺复合材料,考察不同复合材料制备方法对其机械性能及导电性能的影响,并对其作用机理进行探讨。结果表明,制备的石墨烯为二维的单层或寡层材料,加入到聚酰亚胺中能够增强其机械性能及电导率。相比溶液混合法,采用原位聚合法时石墨烯在聚酰亚胺基体中分散更均匀,对其团聚作用有更好的抑制作用,制备的复合材料性能更优异。采用该法加入石墨烯的量为1.0 wt%时,拉伸强度达到了132.5 MPa,提高了68.8%;加入量增加到3.0 wt%时,电导率达6.87×10-4S·m-1,提高了8个数量级,对聚酰亚胺的性能有显著的增强作用。
氧化石墨烯水泥浆体流变性能的定量化研究
王琴, 王健, 吕春祥, 崔鑫有, 李时雨, 王皙
摘要(741) [PDF 3710 KB](781)
摘要:
采用流变仪和激光共聚焦显微镜对不同氧化石墨烯(GO)掺量的新拌水泥浆体的流变参数以及浆体微观形态进行了定量化研究,并采用Modified-Bingham(M-B)模型和Herschel-Bulkley(H-B)模型对所测数据进行了拟合处理,提出了GO影响新拌水泥浆体的作用机理。结果表明,GO的掺入可以使新拌浆体中在减水剂作用下分散的水泥颗粒发生再次凝聚,形成重组絮凝结构,且随着GO掺量的增加,重组絮凝结构的数量越多,从而使得浆体流变性发生显著变化。一方面,新拌浆体的塑性粘度、屈服应力以及触变性随GO掺量的提高而显著增加。另一方面,GO的掺入提高了新拌浆体的临界剪切速率,使其在较大剪切速率下的流变行为仍然表现为剪切变稀;降低了浆体的剪切增稠程度,提高了浆体的稳定性。
磷酸活化法活性炭孔隙结构的调控机制
左宋林
摘要(818) [PDF 3299 KB](696)
摘要:
磷酸活化法是植物纤维原料制备活性炭的主要化学活化方法。笔者系统综述了磷酸活化过程中活性炭孔隙结构的调控机制。从化学的观点,笔者提出植物纤维原料的磷酸活化在本质上是磷酸-生物高分子复合体的形成与热处理两个过程。基于这一概念,分析了植物纤维原料的组成与结构、浸渍条件等因素对磷酸-生物高分子复合体的组成与结构的影响,全面总结了植物纤维原料种类与预处理、植物细胞壁结构和结晶度、浸渍比、浸渍方式、温度和时间等组成、结构与条件对磷酸法活性炭孔隙结构的形成与发展的影响规律。在磷酸-生物高分子热处理过程中,系统总结了炭化温度、升温速率与中间停留温度等加热历程、惰性气体、氧化性气体和水蒸气等气氛对磷酸活化法活性炭孔隙结构的影响规律。最后概述了氧化性气氛和氧化试剂对磷酸活化过程的影响机理,以及磷酸活化过程中固相炭化和气相炭化对活性炭孔隙结构发展的贡献。
多孔掺磷碳纳米管:磷酸水热合成及其在氧还原和锂硫电池中的应用
郭梦清, 黄佳琦, 孔祥屹, 彭翃杰, 税晗, 钱方圆, 朱林, 朱万诚, 张强
摘要(772) [PDF 2507 KB](709)
摘要:
碳纳米管优异的物理性质和可调的化学组成使其拥有广泛的应用前景。采用低温过程在碳骨架中引入磷原子预期带来可调的化学特性。本研究采用170℃下水热处理碳纳米管-磷酸混合物获得磷掺杂的碳纳米管。磷掺杂的碳管的磷含量为1.66%,比表面积为132 m2/g,热失重峰在纯氧环境下提升至694℃。当掺磷碳纳米管用于氧还原反应时,其起始电位为-0.20 V,电子转移数为2.60,反应电流显著高于无掺杂的碳纳米管。当其用作锂硫电池正极导电材料时,电极的起始容量为1106 mAh/g,电流密度从0.1 C提升至1 C时容量保留率为80%,100次循环的衰减率为每圈0.25%。
石墨烯/聚合物复合材料的研究进展及其应用前景
曾尤, 王函, 成会明
摘要(787) [PDF 3574 KB](1625)
摘要:
随着石墨烯低成本宏量制备技术的突破,石墨烯的工业化应用进程已引起人们广泛关注。本文介绍了石墨烯在聚合物基复合材料领域的研究进展,侧重阐述石墨烯/聚合物复合材料在力学增强、导电/导热网络构建、防腐阻燃等方面的代表性研究成果,同时对商业化石墨烯产品及其复合材料应用进行了简单评述,探讨了石墨烯/聚合物复合材料领域目前存在的主要问题及未来发展趋势。
不粘煤基活性炭作超级电容器电极材料:硼、氮掺杂对其电化学性能的影响
陆倩, 徐园园, 木沙江, 李文翠
摘要(364) [PDF 1318 KB](492)
摘要:
以新疆不粘煤为原料,三聚氰胺为氮源,硼酸为硼源,通过球磨和后续活化过程合成硼,氮掺杂及硼氮共掺杂煤基活性炭。氮吸附结果显示杂原子掺杂可提高活性炭中介孔的含量。红外和X光电子能谱结果显示,硼、氮原子存在于炭骨架中。循环伏安,恒流充放电及电化学阻抗分析说明硼、氮掺杂活性炭的电化学性能优于非掺杂活性炭。其中,硼氮共掺杂活性炭具有176 F·g-1的高比容量。循环20 000次容量保持率为96%。共掺杂活性炭优异的电化学性能归因于硼氮的协同作用。
自组装软模板法制备有序中孔炭研究进展
黄正宏| 王 磊| 白 宇| 康飞宇
摘要(1888) PDF(10312)
摘要:
通过介绍自组装软模板法制备有序中孔炭的发展历程和基本原理,说明该方法具有操作简单、成本低、易于控制等优点。重点评述了自组装软模板法制备有序中孔炭在产物形貌控制和多级孔结构制备方面的研究进展,分析认为,今后的研究可以在拓展前驱体范围、提高宏观产物柔韧性以及导电性等方面得到进一步发展。
石墨烯的化学气相沉积法制备
任文才, 高力波, 马来鹏, 成会明
摘要(2758) PDF(6197)
摘要:
化学气相沉积(CVD)法是近年来发展起来的制备石墨烯的新方法,具有产物质量高、生长面积大等优点,逐渐成为制备高质量石墨烯的主要方法。通过简要分析石墨烯的几种主要制备方法(胶带剥离法、化学剥离法、SiC外延生长法和CVD方法)的原理和特点,重点从结构控制、质量提高以及大面积生长等方面评述了CVD法制备石墨烯及其转移技术的研究进展,并展望了未来CVD法制备石墨烯的可能发展方向,如大面积单晶石墨烯、石墨烯带和石墨烯宏观体的制备与无损转移等。