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二维介孔氮掺杂碳/石墨烯纳米片的可控合成及其高性能微型超级电容器
杨志, 周锋, 张鸿涛, 秦洁琼, 吴忠帅
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60633-4
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石墨烯基二维介孔材料能够有效耦合石墨烯基底、功能化材料和介孔结构的优势,被认为是一种理想的微型超级电容器电极材料。基于此,本文以苯胺为前驱体,氧化石墨烯为二维导向剂,二氧化硅纳米球为介孔模板,采用双模板界面诱导自组装法制备介孔氮掺杂碳/石墨烯(mNC/G)纳米片,并实现了其介孔孔径的精确调控和电化学性能的优化。研究表明,7 nm孔径的介孔氮掺杂碳/石墨烯(mNC/G-7)展现出267 F g−1的高比电容,且应用于准固态平面微型超级电容器表现出21.0 F cm−3的体积比电容和1.9 mWh cm−3的体积能量密度,证明了该二维介孔氮掺杂碳/石墨烯纳米片在微型超级电容器应用方面具有良好的前景。
3D打印碳基微电池的技术、材料与应用进展
HE Su-jiao, ZHANG Kai-qiang, ZOU Ya-jun, TIAN Zhi-hong
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60634-6
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Next-generation of wearable and portable devices require rechargeable microbatteries to provide energy storage for micropower applications. Additive manufacturing, also known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, with its capability to build geometrically complex 3D architectures, enables the manufacturing of microbatteries with dimensional tunability, excellent shape conformability, and simultaneously high energy density and power density. Lightweight carbon materials have great advantages over other porous metals as electrode materials for rechargeable batteries, such as large specific surface area, superior electrical conductivity and high chemical stability. In recent years, by using carbon-based inks, a variety of rechargeable microbatteries with diverse types have already been successfully printed. To optimize the electrochemical performance of the printed microbatteries and extend their applicable potential, it is important to analyze the design principles with respect to 3D printing techniques, printable carbon materials, as well as promising applications. This paper provides a perspective on recent progress of four major 3D printing techniques, elaborates on conductive carbon materials in studies that address challenging issues of 3D printed microbatteries, and summarizes their applications in a series of energy storage devices and integration with wearable electronics. Current challenges and future opportunities for carbon-based microbattery fabrication via 3D printing techniques are further discussed.
碳基柔性电极用于电化学钾储存器件
WU Yu-han, WU Xiao-nan, GUAN Yin-yan, XU Yang, SHI Fa-nian, LIANG Ji-yan
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60631-0
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With the rapid growth of the flexible and wearable electronic market, flexible electrochemical energy storage technologies have made impressive strides. Nonetheless, developing flexible electrodes with low cost, superior safety, and high performance remains a great challenge. In the past few years, potassium-based electrochemical energy storage devices have captured prominent attention by virtue of the cost competitiveness and easy availability of potassium resources. Carbon materials have been widely employed as electrode materials or substrates for flexible energy storage devices due to their excellent properties, such as low weight, non-toxicity, abundance, etc. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in carbon materials (e.g. carbon nanofibers, carbon nanotubes, and graphene) for flexible electrochemical potassium storage devices, including potassium-ion batteries, potassium-ion hybrid capacitors, and K-S/Se batteries. Meanwhile, the synthetic strategies of carbon-based flexible electrodes and the achieved electrochemical performance in the reported works are outlined. Finally, challenges to the future development in this field are discussed and perspectives are given.
基于同轴碳/四元氧化物复合负极构建柔性、集成的可充电锂电池
ZOU Yi-ming, SUN Chang-chun, LI Shao-wen, BAI Miao, DU Yu-xuan, ZHANG Min, XU Fei, MA Yue
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60617-6
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The flexible battery configuration relies on the electrode's design ingenuity with the elaborate control over structural integrity, compositional consistency and shape adaption subjected with mechanical loadings. Herein, we develop coaxial arrays of quaternary oxide nanocrystallines on carbon cloth (CC@FeNiMnO4-600), with the additional capability of tailoring the N-doped carbon coating that derived from the quasi-gel tri-copolymer in the anode design. CC@FeNiMnO4-600 anode displays a large areal capacity of ~1.40 mAh cm−2 and satisfactory cycling efficiency (1 mA cm−2) by galvanostatic evaluation; the compatible interfacial electrochemistry and mechanical flexibility could be also coherently achieved even upon the contact with the solid polymer electrolyte, namely the few-layer boron nitride modified polyethylene oxide. This promising performance could be ascribed to the synergistic components, i.e., the excellent balance of the kinetic active oxide anode with the mechanical flexible coaxial architecture; additionally, the intimate PEOǁanode interfacial binding enables the facile and continuous ion transport, promoting the practical use of the solid-state prototype in the wearable electronics.
表面氧化和插层改性硬碳负极锂离子电容器的性能研究
ZHANG Lu-yao, WANG He, QIN Nan, ZHENG Jun-sheng, ZHAO Ji-gang
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60632-2
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Due to the difference of energy storage mechanism between anode and cathode materials, the power density or rate performance of lithium ion capacitor is greatly limited by anode materials. Hard carbon is a promising anode material for lithium ion capacitors. The modification of carbon materials is one of the important means of improving the electrochemical performance of lithium ion capacitor. Hard carbon intercalation composite (ZnCl2-OHC) was prepared by oxidation intercalation. The reversible capacity of half cell prepared with ZnCl2-OHC is 257.4 mAh·g−1 at current density of 0.05 A·g−1, and the capacity retention rate of full cell prepared with ZnCl2-OHC as anode and activated carbon as cathode can still reach 43.3%, which raises more than two times as compared with untreated hard carbon. At the same time, after 5000 charge-discharge cycles at the current density of 1 A·g−1, the capacity retention rate is about 98.4%. Therefore, surface oxidation and intercalation modification of hard carbon can be seen as a promising way of the improvement of anode for lithium ion capacitors in the future.
3D打印自支撑ZnSe/NC电极用于锂离子微型电池
LIU Huai-zhi, LI Xiao-jing, LI Qiang, LIU Xiu-xue, CHEN Feng-jun, ZHANG Guan-hua
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60627-9
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The rapid development of micro/nanomanufacturing and integrated microsystems is attracting increasing attention in recent years, thus requiring higher demand for the micro energy storage devices (MESDs), especially the commercialized-based microbatteries. Li-ion microbatteries (LIMBs) are the most studied MESDs, but the low mass loading and less-than-perfect energy density still hinder the further application. Herein, a 3D printed ZnSe nanoparticles with N-doped carbon (ZnSe/NC) composite electrode is designed and fabricated by the extrusion-based 3D printing and post treatment for the anode of LIMBs. The high-capacity ZnSe nanoparticles are confined into the NC, where the NC not only enhances the conductivity but also acts as a buffer layer to alleviate the volume expansion, as well as provides additional active sites for electrochemical reactions. Besides, the interconnected design of 3D printed electrode is beneficial for the fast mass transfer and ion transport. As a result, the freestanding 3D printed ZnSe/NC electrode with high mass loading of 3.15 mg cm-2 is achieved by the direct ink writing, demonstrating superior energy density and decent reversibility in high-mass-loading and high-power LIMBs. This strategy can be applied for other high-performance electrode and high-mass-loading microbatteries, opening up a new road for constructing advanced MESDs.
基于镍钴层状双氢氧化物生长在氧化铟锡纳米线和碳布复合物上的高性能微型锌电池
LI Xi-juan, LIU Guo, WU Qing-feng, WANG Xu-Kun, SUI Xin-yi, WANG Xin-ge, FAN Zi-ye, XIE Er-qing, ZHANG Zhen-xing
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60629-2
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Human needs have promoted the fast-growing of micro-energy storage devices, and there is an urgent need to develop miniaturized electronic devices with excellent performance, green and safety. Planar interdigitated rechargeable Zn micro batteries (MBs) have been widespread concerned thanks to their ease of series-parallel integration, mechanical flexibility and removal of traditional separators in recent years. Herein, we synthesized an aqueous-based high-safety Zn//NiCo-LDH@ITO NWs@CC MBs using laser etching technology. Benefiting from the highly conductive ITO NWs@CC current collector, the interdigitated MBs with Zn foil as anode and NiCo-LDH as cathode exhibit satisfactory performance. The planar interdigitated MBs deliver a high specific capacity of 453.5 mAh g−1 (correspond to 0.56 mAh cm−2) in alkaline water-based electrolyte at 1 mA cm−2. Notably, the Zn//NiCo-LDH@ITO NWs@CC MBs show excellent energy density (798.4 μWh cm−2, correspond to 649.9 Wh kg−1) and power density (4.1 mW cm−2, correspond to 3282.7 mW kg−1). Also, MBs exhibit impressive long-term cycling stability (216% capacity retention after 4000 cycles at 5 mA cm−2). Furthermore, MBs in series-parallel and lighting tests further illustrate the perfect conformance of the device. Therefore, the fast and simple Zn MBs with in-plane interdigital shape provide a reference for the next-generation high-performance, green-friendly, and scalable planar micro-energy storage systems.
炭材料在柔性锌离子电池中的研究进展
WU Li-sha, ZHANG Ming-hui, XU Wen, DONG Yan-feng
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60628-0
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The ever-growing demands on wearable devices stimulate the surging evolution of advanced flexible energy storage devices. Aqueous rechargeable zinc ion batteries (ZIBs) have gained remarkable research enthusiasm due to their low cost and intrinsic safety. Carbon materials featuring excellent conductivity, high mechanical strength, and light weight, can be employed to construct flexible ZIBs (FZIBs). Herein, we systematically review the recent advances in carbon materials (e.g., carbon nanotubes, carbon fibers, graphene) for high-performance FZIBs, during which FZIBs are firstly divided as one-dimensional cable-shaped, two-dimensional planar, and three-dimensional sandwiched FZIBs, and then the construction strategies of different types of FZIBs and enhanced electrochemical performance are specially emphasized, meanwhile, the vital roles of carbons are elaborated as conductive materials and current collectors for cathodes, current collectors and host materials for anodes, and modifiers for functional separators. Lastly, challenges and perspectives of advanced carbon materials for next-generation FZIBs are briefly discussed.
硫掺杂碳材料在钠离子电池负极中的研究进展
谢金明, 庄容, 杜宇轩, 裴永伟, 谭德明, 徐飞
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60630-9
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钠离子电池因资源丰富及成本低等优势,在大规模储能领域备受关注。碳材料作为钠离子电池实用化进程中的关键负极材料,具有高容量、低嵌钠平台、易调控且稳定性好等特点,引起了研究者的广泛关注。掺杂原子可改善碳材料的微观与电子结构,是提升储钠性能的有效途径。常见的杂原子包括氮、硫、氧、磷、硼等,其中硫原子因其较大的半径能显著扩大层间距、增加缺陷与活性位点,被广泛用于碳负极材料的掺杂改性。本文综述了近年来硫掺杂碳材料的设计制备及在钠离子电池负极中的研究进展,分析了硫掺杂对碳结构的调控机理与改善电池性能的作用机制,最后针对目前面临的挑战和可能的解决方案进行了总结和展望,以期推动硫掺杂碳负极材料在钠离子电池中的实用化进程。
咖啡渣成型制备生物质炭及其CH4/N2分离性能研究
高雨舟, 徐爽, 王成通, 张雪洁, 刘汝帅, 陆安慧
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60626-7
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本文以咖啡渣为原料,硅酸钠为粘结剂和造孔剂,通过挤条成型技术制备柱状炭前驱体,经高温炭化活化和碱洗除硅,获得高强度柱状多孔炭吸附剂(CGCs),研究其CH4/N2的吸附分离性能。红外分析结果显示CGC-1.5含有丰富的含氧官能团。CGCs的比表面积和孔容积随着前驱体中硅酸钠含量的增加而增大,其中9 wt%硅酸钠溶液与原料质量比为1.5的样品CGC-1.5的比表面积为527 m2·g−1,总孔容为0.33 cm3·g−1。氮吸附等温线和CO2吸附等温线分析结果表明CGCs含有丰富的微孔、介孔以及(个别样品)大孔,微孔主要集中在0.48 nm左右。在298 K和1 bar条件下CGC-1.5对CH4的平衡吸附量为0.87 mmol·g−1,CH4/N2 (3/7)的IAST分离选择性达到10.3,优于多数生物质基多孔炭固体吸附剂和晶态材料。双组份动态穿透测试结果证实该材料在常压和加压条件均具有优异的CH4/N2动态分离性能,298 K时1.1 bar和5 bar条件下的动态选择性分别达到10.4和17.9,经过10次吸-脱附循环测试,吸附量保持不变。CGC-1.5的机械强度高达123 N·cm−1,具有潜在的工业应用前景。
Ni(OH)2/石墨相氮化碳/石墨烯三元复合材料的制备及电化学性能
刘斌, 赫文秀, 张永强, 崔金龙
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60625-5
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本文通过水热法制备Ni(OH)2/石墨相氮化碳(g-C3N4)/石墨烯(RGO)三元复合材料,研究了Ni(OH)2∶g-C3N4∶RGO质量比对复合材料结构、形貌和电化学性能的影响。通过X射线衍射(XRD)、扫描电子显微镜(SEM)、傅里叶转换红外光谱(FT-IR)、氮气物理吸脱附、透射电子显微镜(TEM)等测试手段表征材料的表面微观结构和还原程度,采用循环伏安(CV)、恒流充放电(GCD)及电化学交流阻抗(EIS)测试复合材料的电化学性能。结果表明:当Ni(OH)2∶g-C3N4∶RGO=16∶1∶1(质量比)时三元复合材料为三维片层空间互相交错结构,氧化峰和还原峰的电位差ΔE为0.218 V。当电流密度为1 A/g时,复合材料的比电容为516.9 F/g,充放电3000次循环后,容量保持率达74.3%,显示出良好的电化学性能。
碳纳米管复合纤维素水凝胶的界面光热净水性能研究
王雪, 孙洋, 赵冠宇, 王旭珍, 邱介山
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60621-8
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基于低温溶剂法从大宗农林废弃物玉米芯中提取的纤维素,耦合具有优异吸光性能的碳纳米管(CNTs),构筑复合纤维素水凝胶(CNTs-CH),利用纤维素凝胶的高保水性、可降解性,以及碳纳米管的高效光热转换能力、优良的力学性能和生物相容性,将其用于太阳能驱动界面水蒸发净化领域。考察了吸光材料CNTs的不同添加量对CNTs-CH复合水凝胶的太阳能吸收率、机械性能及界面光热水蒸发效率的影响。最优条件下,CNTs添加量仅需0.2 wt.%,此CNTs-CH复合纤维素水凝胶的平均蒸发速率可达到~1.52 kg m−2 h−1,太阳能-蒸汽转换效率约92%;在海水中连续蒸发8 h,蒸发速率可保持在1.37 kg m−2 h−1左右,且无积盐现象,净化水质远高于WHO和EPA对饮用水的标准,说明CNTs-CH抗盐性能较强。此外,CNTs-CH水凝胶在强酸/碱性水溶液体系、染料废水和重金属离子污染水体中的蒸发速率可维持在1.30-1.40 kg m−2 h−1,太阳能-蒸汽效率可达到80-86%,对污染物及盐分截留率高达99.9%,蒸发效果稳定,说明CNTs-CH光热蒸发器在海水淡化和工业废水净化回用领域有广阔的应用前景。
氧掺杂氮化碳多孔纳米片高效光电催化二氧化碳还原制甲酸
WANG Hong-zhi, ZHAO Yue-zhu, YANG Zhong-xue, BI Xin-ze, WANG Zhao-liang, WU Ming-bo
当前状态:  doi: 110.1016/S1872-5805(22)60619-X
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Recycling CO2 as a renewable carbon source for the production of high-value fuels and chemicals has drawn global attention lately. Among the available CO2-recycling ways, photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) CO2 reduction reaction (CO2RR) is one of the most realistic and attractive choice, which can be realized effectively under simulated sunlight illumination and low overpotential. In the work, oxygen-incorporated carbon nitride (CN) porous nanosheets are synthesized successfully as photoanode and Bi2CuO4 as photocathode to realize the PEC CO2 reduction to formate. The electrical conductivity and the photoelectric response of prepared CN were tailored successfully by changing the oxygen source. In detail, the oxygen from the precursor could improve the conductivity because of the more negative electronegativity. However, the oxygen from the calcination atmosphere showed side effects on the photoelectric response by changing the energy band structure. Under the optimal conditions, the photocurrent density is 587 μA cm−2 and the activity of PEC CO2 reduction to formate is 273.56 µmol cm−2 h−1 (nearly 19 times than that of the conventional sample). What’s more, the CN samples showed excellent stability with a constant photocurrent for 24 hours. The present work provides a new avenue to achieve efficient PEC CO2 reduction to formate, and can be expanded to other PEC reaction by coupling different cathode catalysts.
氮掺杂聚丙烯腈基中空碳纤维用于锂硫电池正极
NIU Jing-yi, JING De-qi, ZHANG Xing-hua, SU Wei-guo, ZHANG Shou-chun
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60615-2
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Hollow-shaped porous carbon fiber for Li-S batteries electrodes is prepared by KOH activation using polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as the precursor. The obtained porous carbon fiber has a high specific surface area of 2491 m2·g−1 and a large pore volume of 1.22 cm3·g−1. And it exhibits an initial specific capacity of 330 mAh·g−1 at current density of 1 C. To further improve electrochemical performance, the fiber precursor is modified using hydrazine hydrate to prepare nitrogen doped hollow-shaped porous carbon fiber. The modified fiber shows a specific surface area of 1690 m2·g−1, a pore volume of 0.84 cm3·g−1 and a high nitrogen content of 8.81 at%. Since nitrogen doping can increase the polarity and adsorption capacity, the initial specific capacity of the nitrogen doped porous carbon fiber can be increased to 420 mAh·g−1 at current density of 1 C.
硬碳微球/MXene柔性薄膜负极应用于高性能钠离子存储
CAO Hai-liang, YANG Liang-tao, ZHAO Min, LIU Pei-zhi, GUO Chun-li, XU Bing-she, GUO Jun-jie
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60616-4
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Hard carbon is considered as the most promising negative electrode for sodium-ion batteries, but the volume change during sodiation/desodiation limits the cycle life. Herein, a binder- and current-collector-free hard carbon microspheres/MXene film electrode is constructed and its sodium storage properties are also studied. The monodispersed hard carbon microspheres (HCS) were prepared using Shanxi aged vinegar as a liquid carbon source. In addition, two-dimensional Ti3C2Tx MXene nanosheets were used as multifunctional conductive binders to fabricate flexible electrode. Remarkably, benefiting from the three-dimensional conductive network, the Ti3C2Tx bonded HCS film electrode shows high capacity of 346 mAh g−1, excellent rate performance and outstanding cycle stability over 1000 cycles. The remarkable electrochemical properties indicate that such film is a very promising flexible electrode for next-generation flexible secondary rechargeable batteries.
金属有机骨架(ZIF-8@ZIF-67)衍生的Co/N共掺杂碳基催化剂在氧还原反应(ORR)中的应用研究
ZHANG Ya-ting, LI Si-yi, ZHANG Na-na, LIN Gang, WANG Rui-qi, YANG Meng-nan, LI Ke-ke
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60609-7
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Carbon-based oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts are considered a potential substitution for the expensive platinum-based ORR catalysts in the aspect of energy conversion. Recently, metal and nitrogen codoped carbon materials (M-N-C) formed by transition metals and nitrogen-doped carbon materials have attracted much attention from researchers due to their low cost and excellent activity. Herein, a cobalt- and nitrogen-codoped porous carbon material (Co-N@CNT-C800) is prepared via a simple one-step pyrolysis method by well-designed carambola-shaped MOFs (ZIF-8@ZIF-67). The obtained Co-N@CNT-C800 consists of many carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with substantial Co doping and N doping. A large surface area (428 m2·g−1) and a favorable three-dimensional structure are also observed. The obtained Co-N@CNT-C800 exhibits excellent performance in half-wave potential and limited current density in alkaline media with a value of 0.841 V and 5.07 mA·cm−2, respectively. In addition, Co-N@CNT-C800 also shows excellent electrochemical stability and methanol tolerance compared with commercial Pt/C materials. The proposed strategy inspires a effective way to fabricate low cost and high activity electrocatalysts used for energy conversion.
Incorporation of nano-TiO2 into multichannel carbon fibers for enhanced adsorption of polysulfides in room temperature sodium-sulfur batteries
YE Xin, LI Zhi-qi, SUN Hao, WU Ming-xia, AN Zhong-xun, PANG Yue-peng, YANG Jun-he, ZHENG Shi-you
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60607-3
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With the rapid development of electric vehicles and large-scale power grids, lithium-ion batteries will inevitably face the dilemma that the limited energy density fails to meet the growing demand and the cost keeps rising. Room temperature sodium-sulfur (RT Na-S) batteries, which have the potential to replace lithium-ion batteries, have become the focus of attention. However, the challenging problem of poor cycling performance arising from “shuttle effect” of the reaction intermediate sodium polysulfides needs to be addressed. Herein, we report the incorporation of nano-TiO2 into multichannel carbon fibers (TiO2@MCCFs) to stabilize sulfur and realize high performance RT Na-S batteries. The TiO2@MCCFs are prepared by electrospinning and heat treatment, which then act as matrix to fabricate S/TiO2@MCCFs cathode through melt-diffusion method. The addition of TiO2 nanoparticles enhances the affinity for polysulfides while promoting the conversion of polysulfides to lower order products. As a result, the obtained S/TiO2@MCCFs cathode with around 54% S achieves improved electrochemical properties with the specific capacity of 445.1 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at 0.1 A g−1 as well as nearly 100% Coulombic efficiency. Even at 2 A g−1, the cathode still exhibits a capacity of 300.5 mAh g−1 after 500 cycles, demonstrating excellent rate and cycling performance. The enhanced effect of the incorporation of nano-TiO2 on the adsorption capacity of carbon-based materials is verified by combining characterization and theoretical calculations. This work provides a new path to construct high performance RT Na-S battery cathodes by theoretical and experimental aspects, respectively.
An Innovative and Efficient Preparation of Mesocarbon Microbeads by The Delayed Capillary Breakup Method and Their Electrochemical Performance
DONG Si-lin, YANG Jian-xiao, CHANG Sheng-kai, SHI Kui, LIU Yue, ZOU Jia-ling, LI Jun
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60606-1
摘要(61) HTML(36) PDF(12)
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An innovative and efficient preparation method of mesocarbon microbeads (MCMBs) was developed based on the dripping behavior and rheological theory of pitch during the melt-spinning process, named as the delayed capillary breakup (DCB) method. In this work, the MCMBs were prepared by the DCB method with different receiving solvents (water or tetrahydrofuran (THF)), and their microstructure evolutions were compared systematically. Moreover, the MCMBs were further activated with KOH at 750 °C or graphitized at 2800 °C to prepare the A-MCMBs or G-MCMBs, and their electrochemical performance as electrode materials for electronic double layer capacitors (EDLC) or lithium-ion batteries (LIB) was investigated, respectively. The results showed that both MCMB-W prepared from water and MCMB-T prepared from THF had great spherical structure with the size of 1~2 μm. In addition, A-MCMB-T had a high specific surface area (1391 m2 g−1), micropore volume (0.55 cm3 g−1) and mesopore volume (0.24 cm3 g−1), exhibiting 30% higher specific capacitance than the original material, and its capacitance retention was also significantly improved when it was used as an electrode material for EDLC. Moreover, G-MCMB-T had high graphitization degree (0.895) and orderly lamellar structure, which demonstrated high specific capacity of 353.5 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at 100 mA g−1 when it was used as an electrode material for LIB. Therefore, this work proposed and verified a new preparation method of MCMBs, which could provide a strategy for designing and developing traditional energy storage materials.
由乙烯焦油制备碳质前驱体的氧化反应机理及其反应动力学
GUO Tian-rui, CHEN Rong-qi, GAO Wei, WANG Yan-li, ZHAN Liang
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60597-3
摘要(78) HTML(83) PDF(33)
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To obtain excellent carbonaceous precursors, the oxidation reaction mechanism and kinetics of ethylene tar were investigated. The oxidation process of ethylene tar was divided into three stages (350-550 K, 550-700 K and 700-900 K) according to the thermogravimetric curve. To reveal the oxidation reaction mechanism of ethylene tar, the components of evolved gases at different stages were further analyzed online by mass spectrometry and infrared technology. Then, based on the thermogravimetric curve of ethylene tar at different reaction temperatures, the whole reaction process was divided into four parts to perform kinetics simulation calculation. With the help of the iso-conversional method (Coats-Redfern) to analyze the linear regression rates (R2) between 17 common reaction kinetics models and experimental data, the optimal reaction kinetics model for expressing oxidation process of ethylene tar was determined. The results show that: (1) In the oxidation process, the side chains of aromatic compounds firstly react with oxygen to form alcohols and aldehydes, leaving peroxy-radicals to aromatic rings. After that, the aromatic compounds with peroxy-radicals undergo polymerization/condensation reaction to form larger molecular. (2) The fourth-order of reaction model is adopted to describe the first three parts of the oxidation process, and the activation energies are 47.330 kJ·mol−1, 18.689 kJ·mol−1 and 9.004 kJ·mol−1 respectively. The three-dimensional diffusion model is applied to the fourth part of the oxidation process, and the activation energy is 88.369 kJ·mol−1.
Se encapsulated into honeycomb 3D porous carbon with Se-C bonds as superb performance cathodes for Li-Se Batteries
XIA Zhi-gang, ZHANG Jing-jing, FAN Mei-qiang, LV Chun-ju, CHEN Zhi, LI Chao
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60596-1
摘要(47) HTML(22) PDF(3)
摘要:
Li-Se Batteries has been considered as promising lithium-ion batteries due to their super volumetric energy density and high electrical conductivity of Se. However, the development of Li-Se batteries application is impeded by the boring volume expansion and polyselenide dissolution of electrodes during cycling, as well as the low selenium loading. A feasible and effective approach to settle these three issues is to keep selenium into a carbon host with sufficient pore volume and simultaneously enhance the interfacial interaction between selenium and carbon. A novel cathode material of Se encapsulated into honeycomb 3D porous carbon (HPC@Se) with Se-C bonds for Li-Se Batteries is synthesized by impregnating Se into the tartrate salt derived honeycomb 3D porous carbon. The pore volume of the obtained honeycomb 3D porous carbon is up to 1.794 cm3 g−1, which allows 65%wt selenium to be uniformly encapsulated. Moreover, the strong chemical bonds between selenium and carbon are beneficial for stabilizing selenium, thus further relieving its huge volume expansion and polyselenide dissolution as well as promote the charge transfer during cycling. As expected, HPC@Se cathode presents fantastic cyclability and rate performance. After 200 cycles, its specific capacity remained at 561 mA h g−1 (83% of the theoretical specific capacity) at 0.2 C. And the capacity recession is just 0.058 percentage each cycle. Besides, HPC@Se cathode can also demonstrate a considerable capacity of 472.8 mA h g−1 under the higher current density of 5 C.
Structure and Electrochemical properties of coconut shell-based hard carbon as anode materials for potassium ion batteries
HUANG Tao, PENG Da-chun, CHEN Zui, XIA Xiao-hong, CHEN Yu-xi, LIU Hong-bo
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60069-0
摘要(667) HTML(313) PDF(52)
摘要:
Biomorphic hard carbon recently attracted widely interest as anode materials for potassium ion batteries (PIBs) owing to their high reversible capacity, but high preparation cost and poor cycle stability significantly hinder its practical application. In this study, coconut shell-derived hard carbon (CSHC) was prepared from waste biomass coconut shell using a one-step carbonization method, which was further used as anode materials for potassium ion batteries. The effects of carbonization temperature on the microstructure and electrochemical properties of the CSHC materials were investigated by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and cyclic voltammetry, etc. The results suggested that the coconut shell hard carbon carbonized at 1 000 °C (CSHC-10) possessed suitable graphite microcrystallines size, pore structure and surface defect content, which exhibited the best electrochemical performance. Specifically, CSHC-10 presented a high reversible specific capacity of 254 mAh·g−1 at 30 mA·g−1 with an initial Coulombic efficiency of 75.0%, and the capacity retention was 87.5% after 100 cycles and 75.9% after 400 cycles at 100 mA·g−1. The CSHC with high capacity and good cycling stability demonstrates to be an excellent potassium storage material.
Rational construction of Co-loaded ceramic composites by recycling gangue for microwave absorption
LI Guo-min, SHI Shu-ping, ZHU Bao-shun, LIANG Li-ping, ZHANG Ke-wei
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60064-1
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In the context of sustainable development, tackling the severe solid wastes pollution has become extremely urgent. Herein, the solid waste gangue was successfully recycled to synthesize the ceramic based composite microwave absorbing materials decorated with Co particles through a novel synthesis method. The magnetic Co particles were uniformly loaded in the ceramic matrix by the pelletizing process with gangue and Co2+ following by the in situ carbothermal reaction, and the Co content in ceramic composites can be precisely controlled by adjusting the Co2+ concentration. Furthermore, compared with gangue, the obtained composites displayed optimized performance, the minimum reflection loss value reached −48.2 dB and the effective absorbing band was measured to be 4.3 GHz with the coating thickness of 1.5 mm, which is mainly attributed to the enhanced magnetic loss and multiple interface polarization. Such innovative design of recycling gangue in this work can effectively realize the resource utilization of gangue, which is also beneficial for the low-cost and light-weight of microwave absorbing materials as well.
煤基石墨烯促进TiO2光催化降解有机物
LIU Guo-yang, LI Ke-ke, JIA Jia, ZHANG Ya-ting
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60047-1
摘要(518) HTML(298) PDF(36)
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A reduced graphene oxide (H-rGO)/TiO2-composite (H-TiO2@rGO) as a catalyst for photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (Rh B) and methyl orange (MO) was prepared by hydrothermal treating a dispersant of TiO2 nanoparticles with sizes of 5-10 nm and GO obtained by the Hummers method from coal-based graphite in water. Compared with the M-TiO2@GO and M-TiO2@rGO composites by a wet mixing method, results indicated that the TiO2 nanoparticles in H-TiO2@rGO were uniformly decorated on both sides of rGO sheet, forming a stacked-sheet structure while apparent aggregation of TiO2 nanoparticles was found in both M-TiO2@GO and M-TiO2@rGO. Therefore, H-rGO@TiO2 had the highest catalytic activity towards degradation of Rh B and MO under visible light irradiation among the three, where the incorporation of rGO into TiO2 helps to narrow the band gap of TiO2, inhibit the recombination rate of electron–hole pairs and provide conductive networks for electron transfer.
高性能无烟煤基石墨的制备及其储锂性能研究
LI Yuan, TIAN Xiaodong, SONG Yan, YANG Tao, WU Shijie, LIU Zhanjun
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60057-4
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In this study, cost-effective anthracite and industrial silicon powder were used as precursor and catalyst, respectively, to prepare graphite with various structure, during which the catalytic mechanism was analyzed. The results demonstrate that the as-obtained sample with 5% silicon catalyst (G-2800-5%) exhibits the best overall lithium storage performance. In detail, G-2800-5% display the best graphite structure with graphitization degree of 91.5%. As anode materials, a high reversible capacity of 369.0 mAh g−1 can be achieved at 0.1 A g−1. Meanwhile, the reversible capacity of 209.0 mAh g−1 can be obtained at the current density of 1 A g−1. It also delivers good cyclic stability with a 92.2% retention after 200 cycles at 0.2 A g−1. The highly developed graphite structure, which is favorable to the formation of stable SEI and reduced lithium ion loss should be responsible for the superior electrochemical performance.
氢氧化钾处理中间相碳微球应用于高倍率钾离子电池负极
XIAO Nan, GUO Hong-da, XIAO Jian, WEI Yi-bo, MA Xiao-qing, ZHANG Xiao-yu, QIU Jie-shan
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60059-8
摘要(438) HTML(147) PDF(38)
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Graphite is one of the most promising anode materials for potassium-ion batteries (PIBs) due to its low cost and stable discharge plateau. However, its poor rate performance still needs to be improved. Herein, a novel graphitic anode was designed from commercial mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) by KOH treatment. Through limited oxidation and slight intercalation, an expanded layer with enlarged interlayer spacing formed on the surface of MCMB, by which the K+ diffusion rate was significantly improved. When served as the PIB anode, this modified MCMB delivered a high plateau capacity below 0.25 V (271 mAh g−1), superior rate capability (160 mAh g−1 at 1.0 A g−1), excellent cycling stability (about 184 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at 0.1 A g−1), and high initial coulombic efficiency with carboxymethyl cellulose as binder (79.2%). This work provides a facile strategy to prepare graphitic materials with superior potassium storage property.
目录
2022年4期中文目次
2022, 37(4): 1-1.  
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2022年4期英文目次
2022, 37(4): 2-7.  
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综合评述
选择透过性石墨烯基薄膜在海水淡化领域中的应用
高祎甫, 王瑶, 周栋, 吕伟, 康飞宇
2022, 37(4): 625-640.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60618-8
摘要(176) HTML(76) PDF(46)
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以石墨烯为代表的二维材料因其优异且易于调控的选择透过性,被广泛用于制备具有纳米孔或纳米通道的薄膜,在物质分离特别是海水淡化领域表现出广阔的应用前景。本文综述了石墨烯及其衍生物,包括单层石墨烯、多孔石墨烯和氧化石墨烯,在海水淡化领域中的研究进展与应用。在对石墨烯的本征属性概述的基础上,分别讨论了具有一维纳米孔的多孔石墨烯薄膜和具有二维纳米通道的层状氧化石墨烯薄膜的离子输运与选择透过特性。着重分析了不同制备工艺及其对石墨烯基薄膜选择透过性的影响,石墨烯基薄膜对多种溶液的选择透过性及其调控方法和机理,以及石墨烯基薄膜在海水淡化领域中的应用及其现有局限性。最后,对本领域未来的发展前景进行了展望。
多维度炭材料在高性能锌-空气电池中的先进设计策略
应佳萍, 郑冬, 孟诗博, 尹瑞连, 戴晓婧, 冯锦秀, 毋芳芳, 施文慧, 曹澥宏
2022, 37(4): 641-657.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60623-1
摘要(94) HTML(27) PDF(27)
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Zn-air batteries (ZABs) featuring high safety, low-cost, high specific capacity and environmentally friendliness have attracted much attention and emerged as a hot topic in energy storage devices. However, the sluggish kinetics of the oxygen evolution/reduction reactions (OER/ORR) at the air electrode and the non-negligible dendritic growth at the anode have hindered their large scale applications. Carbon materials with low-cost, good electrical conductivity, chemical stability and bifunctional OER/ORR activities have been widely studied for ZABs in the past few years. This review begins with a discussion of the basic working principle of ZABs, followed by an introduction of various carbon materials which focuses on their roles and superior properties in the applications of ZABs. This review also discusses the essential roles of multi-dimensional carbon materials as major components of ZABs, i.e., air electrodes, zinc anodes and separators, in improving the performance of ZABs. Finally, prospects for the future use of carbon materials to improve ZAB performance are explored.
生物质炭材料在金属锂负极中的应用
刘奥, 刘铁峰, 袁华栋, 王垚, 刘育京, 罗剑敏, 佴建威, 陶新永
2022, 37(4): 658-674.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60620-6
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金属锂具有超高理论容量和最低还原电位,被认为是高能量密度电池负极材料的“圣杯”。然而,由于金属锂无宿主、锂枝晶不可控生长、固态电解质界面膜(SEI膜)不稳定以及“死锂”累积等一系列问题,严重制约着金属锂负极的实用化进程。生物质炭材料具有高机械强度、高导电性、高比表面积和良好的化学稳定性等特性,是金属锂宿主材料的理想候选者之一。本文综述了近年来利用生物质炭材料构建金属锂沉积骨架的研究进展。通过讨论生物质炭材料的结构、孔隙大小、孔隙率及亲锂基团修饰等对抑制金属锂枝晶生长,构筑循环稳定金属锂负极的影响,总结生物质炭材料的合理设计和应用,提出了生物质炭材料未来发展的趋势以及所面临的挑战。
碳基材料在低温硫化氢选择性氧化中的研究进展:从污染物到储能材料
孙明慧, 王旭珍, 赵宗彬, 邱介山
2022, 37(4): 675-694.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60622-X
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Carbon materials for the room-temperature selective oxidation of H2S have attracted growing attention in recent years. The recent development of carbon-based desulfurization catalysts is reviewed, including activated carbon modified by alkalis, porous carbon doped with nitrogen or modified with functional groups, and carbon composites with other species such as alkaline metal oxides. The oxidation mechanisms for H2S on the various catalysts are discussed, and the important function of carbon in desulfurization are emphasized, including its large specific area, porous structure and adjustable surface chemistry. In addition to the catalytic oxidation of H2S, the extended use of the spent catalysts, sulfur/carbon composites, as sulfur cathode materials for high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries, is discussed as a way to add extra value to the sulfur-containing pollutants. Finally, the outlook for using carbon-based materials for room-temperature desulfurization and the key challenges to its large-scale use are explored.
碳包覆磁性纳米粒子吸波机制及研究进展
李红盛, 吴爱民, 曹暾, 黄昊
2022, 37(4): 695-706.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60624-3
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电磁波通讯技术的快速发展,为信息高效传输提供了很大便利,但随之而来高频电子辐射问题日益严重,电磁波吸收材料成为解决电磁辐射的关键。开发“薄、轻、宽、强”的高性能电磁波吸收材料是目前吸波领域研究的重点和热点。本文主要依据传输线理论,介绍了吸波材料的隐身机理,同时总结了吸波材料的制备方法。重点阐述了碳包覆磁性纳米粒子微波隐身材料的研究进展,并讨论了该类吸波材料的未来应用前景以及发展趋势,最后对碳包覆磁性纳米隐身材料的应用以及研发方向提出了几点建议。
研究论文
高性能超级电容器用N/S共掺杂多孔炭纳米片电极材料
魏雨晨, 周健, 杨磊, 顾敬, 陈志鹏, 何孝军
2022, 37(4): 707-715.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60595-X
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The synthesis of porous carbon nanosheets without acid treatment for high-performance supercapacitors (SCs) is difficult. We report the construction of N/S co-doped porous carbon nanosheets (NS-PCNs) from coal tar pitch (CTP), using Na2S2O3·5H2O as the sulfur source and K2CO3 as an activator, under flowing ammonia at high temperature. NS-IPCN800 prepared at 800 °C is composed of two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets with abundant pores and an interconnected 3D carbon skeleton. The abundant microspores increase the number of active sites for electrolyte ion adsorption and small mesopores act as channels for fast ion transmission. The 3D carbon skeleton provides paths for electron conduction. Heteroatom doping provides an additional pseudocapacitance for the NS-IPCN electrodes. As a result the NS-IPCN800 electrode has a high capacitance of 302 F g−1 at 0.05 A g−1 in a 6 mol L−1 of KOH electrolyte, and has a high energy density of 9.71 Wh kg−1 at a power density of 25.98 W kg−1. It also has excellent cycling stability with a capacitance retention of over 94.2% after 10 000 charge-discharge cycles. This work suggests an environmentally friendly way to produce NS-IPCNs from CTP for use as high-performance SC electrode materials.
活性炭纤维布与电纺纤维的杂化及其颗粒物过滤性能
阳云龙, 李明哲, 侯诗宇, 吕瑞涛, 康飞宇, 黄正宏
2022, 37(4): 716-723.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60598-5
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Activated carbon fibers (ACFs) have high adsorption capacities and can be used in the treatment of benzene, while electrospun nanofibers are expected to be used as a filtration material. In this work, two hybrids of electrospun nanofibers and ACF cloth were prepared by electrospinning polyvinyl alcohol and polyacrylonitrile nanofibers into a phenolic resin-based ACF cloth. The filtration performance of the two hybrids was evaluated. Results indicate that there is a positive correlation between the filtration efficiency and the amount of electrospun nanofibers in the hybrid. The filtration efficiency increases with increasing air velocity, which is attributed to a piezoelectric effect introduced by the electrospun nanofibers. The hybrids have a good adsorption capacity for benzene, which suggests that the materials are promising for treating air pollution.
设计合成三维CNT/Ti3C2Tx气凝胶隔膜修饰层用于锂硫电池中多硫化锂的吸附和催化转化
尹菲, 金奇, 张喜田, 武立立
2022, 37(4): 724-733.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60085-9
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Lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries suffer from fast capacity fade and an inferior rate performance due to the shuttling of polysulfides (LiPSs) and slow redox kinetics. To solve these issues, a three-dimensional (3D) CNT/Ti3C2Tx aerogel was prepared, with Ti3C2Tx as the active matrix and CNTs as the conductive pillars, and used as a LiPS immobilizer and promoter to modify a commercial Li–S battery separator. The unique design of highly porous 3D aerogel results in the exposure of more Ti3C2Tx active sites by preventing the restacking of their sheets, which not only provides abundant charge transport paths, but also strengthens the adsorption and catalytic conversion of LiPSs. The incorporation of CNTs forms a highly conductive network to connect the adjacent Ti3C2Tx sheets, thereby improving the conductivity and robustness of the 3D aerogel. As a result, a Li–S cell using the CNT/ Ti3C2Tx aerogel-modified separator has a high rate capacity of 1 043.2 mAh g−1 up to 2 C and an excellent cycling life of over 800 cycles at 0.5 C with a low capacity decay rate of 0.07% per cycle.
石墨烯负载单原子钴催化剂的制备及其电催化二氧化碳还原反应性能
张会念, 王慧奇, 贾素萍, 常青, 李宁, 李莹, 施箫琳, 李子源, 胡胜亮
2022, 37(4): 734-742.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60061-6
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Developing highly selective, economical and stable catalysts for the electrochemical conversion of CO2 into value-added carbon products to mitigate both CO2 emission and the energy crisis is challenging. We report an efficient and robust electrocatalyst for the CO2 reduction reaction (CO2RR) by embedding CoN4 active sites in a graphene matrix. These highly dispersed CoN4 sites show an extraordinary CO2RR activity, with a high CO Faradaic efficiency of nearly 95% at −0.76 V (vs. RHE) and remarkable durability. The corresponding overpotential is 0.65 V. Our finding could pave the way for the design at the atomic scale of highly efficient electrocatalysts for the CO2RR.
基于富含木质素的生物质残渣制备超级电容器
房严严, 张千玉, 张东东, 崔立峰
2022, 37(4): 743-751.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60058-6
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Fabricating electrically conductive porous electrode for supercapacitors from abundant raw materials remains a significant challenge in the field of energy storage. 3D porous carbon with high surface areas was synthesized by high-temperature carbonization and activation of lignin from cornstalks. When used as electrode materials in supercapacitors they showed a specific capacitance of 280 F g−1 and an area-specific capacitance of 1.3 F cm−2 at a current density of 0.5 A g−1. An assembled symmetric supercapacitor showed a high energy density of 7.7 Wh kg−1 at power density of 5 200 W kg−1. It is demonstrated here that the use of lignin waste to fabricate electrode materials is feasible, affording lignin new value-added utilization.
孔结构可控的虾壳基多孔炭的制备及其在超级电容器中的应用
高峰, 谢亚桥, 臧云浩, 周钢, 曲江英, 吴明铂
2022, 37(4): 752-763.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60046-X
摘要(90) HTML(40) PDF(29)
摘要:
The highly efficient synthesis of nitrogen-doped carbons with different pore structures is reported using shrimp shell as the carbon and nitrogen source, and its CaCO3 component as the hard template and activator. The CaCO3 content of shrimp shells can be easily changed by changing the leaching time to remove it. CaCO3 acts as the activator and template to tailor the pore sizes of the carbons. CO2 from the decomposition of CaCO3 also plays an activating role. Their specific surface areas, pore volumes, ratios of micropore volume to total pore volume can be adjusted in the ranges 117.6-1 137 m2 g−1, 0.14-0.64 cm3 g−1, and 0-73.4%, respectively. When used as the electrodes of a supercapacitor, the porous carbon obtained with a leaching time of 92 min has a high capacitance of 328 F g−1 at 0.05 A g−1 in a 6 mol L−1 KOH electrolyte and 619.2 F g−1 at 0.05 A g−1 in a 1 mol L−1 H2SO4 electrolyte. Its corresponding energy density at a power density of 1 470.9 W kg−1 is 26.0 Wh kg−1. This study provides a low cost method for fabricating porous carbons from biomass with a high added value.
基于还原氧化石墨烯的非纳西丁电化学检测
孟小桐, 朱德京, 姜宇航, 曹悦, 司维蒙, 曹俊, 李秋红, 李蛟, 雷武
2022, 37(4): 764-772.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60087-2
摘要(147) HTML(91) PDF(13)
摘要:
It is known that the electrochemical determination of phenacetin, a widely used analgesic, is challenging because of the interference of the electroactive intermediate, acetaminophen. Phenacetin was proven to be electroactive in 1980s, but its electrochemical determination has not been widely reported. This determination on an electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) electrode was investigated and compared with several nitrogen-doped graphene samples. Results indicate that ERGO has a higher current response and lower oxidation potential than nitrogen-doped graphene. An ERGO electrode as a phenacetin sensor has a detection limit of 0.91 μmol L−1. The redox mechanism of phenacetin is inferred by electrochemical experiments, and the reactions under different pH values are proposed. Acetaminophen is considered to be the main intermediate and that does not interfere with the determination of phenacetin. But phenacetin obviously interferes with the response of acetaminophen, suggesting that the simultaneous detection of phenacetin and acetaminophen is not possible. Species such as Cu2+, Al3+, methanol, ethylene glycol, glucose, and ascorbic acid do not interfere with the determination of phenacetin.
石墨磷引起的缺陷碳纳米管展现出较高的氢析出活性
艾杰, 刘滋武, 孙毛毛, 刘玲, 王全德
2022, 37(4): 773-780.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60052-5
摘要(242) HTML(124) PDF(22)
摘要:
Phosphorus-doped carbon materials are one of the novel carbon catalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) that have attracted considerable attention in recent years. However, the role of C―P species played in the HER activity is still not clear. Phosphorus-doped carbon nanotubes were prepared by chemical vapor deposition and annealed at 900, 1000 and 1200 °C to remove all or part of the phosporus, resulting in four samples with different amounts of substitutional-, pyridine- and pyrrole-like P species. The correlations between the HER activity and the contents of the three species were investigated. Results showed that the content of substitutional P decreased with annealing temperature and none was retained at 1200 °C. The HER activity increased with annealing temperature and the sample annealed at 1200 °C had the highest HER activity in an acid medium with an overpotential of 0.266 V at a current density of 10 mA cm−2. Density functional theory calculations showed that the pentagon- and nine-membered ring defects formed by the elimination of substitutional P mainly contributed to the HER activity.
超级电容器电极材料与电解液的研究进展
焦琛, 张卫珂, 苏方远, 杨宏艳, 刘瑞祥, 陈成猛
摘要(901) [PDF 1209 KB](3235)
摘要:
超级电容器具有高功率密度、长循环寿命、良好的低温使用性能和安全性的优点,已经广泛应用到电子产品、能量回收和储能等领域。电极材料和电解液是决定超级电容器性能的两大关键因素,超级电容器常用的电极材料包括碳质材料(活性炭、碳纳米管、石墨烯、炭纤维、纳米洋葱碳等)、金属氧化物(金属氢氧化物)、导电聚合物及复合材料等;电解液主要有水系电解液、有机系电解液与离子液体。本文综述了超级电容器电极材料与电解液的研究现状,详细介绍了电极材料、电解液的性能及优缺点,并对新型电极材料和电解液的研究趋势提出展望。
氧化石墨烯对水泥基复合材料微观结构和力学性能的影响
王琴, 王健, 吕春祥, 刘伯伟, 张昆, 李崇智
摘要(786) [PDF 2388 KB](431)
摘要:
研究了不同掺量下氧化石墨烯(GO)对水泥石以及胶砂微观结构和力学性能的影响。含16.5%水的水泥浆、0.05%GO及3倍于水泥的沙子共混物作为添加剂制备成砂浆。通过SEM、液氮吸附仪和一系列标准实验分别对水泥石的微观形态、孔隙结构、抗压抗折强度以及水泥净浆的流动度、黏度、凝结时间进行表征;考察不同GO掺量下水泥水化放热的变化情况。结果表明:GO对水泥浆有显著增稠和促凝作用;GO的掺入可以有效降低水泥的水化放热量;GO对水泥石有显著的增强增韧效果,28天龄期时,GO质量分数为0.05%的水泥石,3、7和28 d抗压强度和抗折强度同比对照组分别增加52.4%、46.5%、40.4%和86.1%、68.5%、90.5%,胶砂的抗压强度和抗折强度同比对照组分别增加43.2%、33%、24.4%和69.4%、106.4%、70.5%;GO在水泥硬化过程中对水泥石中晶体产物的产生有促进作用并能规整晶体的排布而形成针状晶体簇,改善水泥石中的孔结构,降低水泥石中微孔的体积,增加水泥石的密实度,对水泥石有显著地增强增韧效果。
抗烧蚀C/C复合材料研究进展
付前刚, 张佳平, 李贺军
摘要(1125) [PDF 2126 KB](1285)
摘要:
C/C复合材料因优异的高温性能被认为是高温结构件的理想材料。然而,C/C复合材料在高温高速粒子冲刷环境下的氧化烧蚀问题严重制约其应用。因此,如何提高C/C复合材料的抗烧蚀性能显得尤为重要。笔者综述C/C复合材料抗烧蚀的研究现状。目前,提高C/C复合材料抗烧蚀性能的途径主要集中于优化炭纤维预制体结构、控制热解炭织构、基体中陶瓷掺杂改性和表面涂覆抗烧蚀涂层等4种方法。主要介绍以上4种方法的研究现状,重点介绍基体改性和抗烧蚀涂层的最新研究进展。其中,涂层和基体改性是提高C/C复合材料抗烧蚀性能的两种有效方法。未来C/C 复合材料抗烧蚀研究的潜在方向主要集中于降低制造成本、控制热解炭织构、优化掺杂的陶瓷相以及将基体改性和涂层技术相结合。
原位聚合法与溶液混合法制备石墨烯/聚酰亚胺复合材料及其性能
马朗, 王国建, 戴进峰
摘要(883) [PDF 2344 KB](1348)
摘要:
利用化学氧化还原法制备出石墨烯。通过原位聚合法及溶液混合法制备出石墨烯/聚酰亚胺复合材料,考察不同复合材料制备方法对其机械性能及导电性能的影响,并对其作用机理进行探讨。结果表明,制备的石墨烯为二维的单层或寡层材料,加入到聚酰亚胺中能够增强其机械性能及电导率。相比溶液混合法,采用原位聚合法时石墨烯在聚酰亚胺基体中分散更均匀,对其团聚作用有更好的抑制作用,制备的复合材料性能更优异。采用该法加入石墨烯的量为1.0 wt%时,拉伸强度达到了132.5 MPa,提高了68.8%;加入量增加到3.0 wt%时,电导率达6.87×10-4S·m-1,提高了8个数量级,对聚酰亚胺的性能有显著的增强作用。
工程应用C/C复合材料的性能分析与展望
苏君明, 周绍建, 李瑞珍, 肖志超, 崔红
摘要(1250) [PDF 739 KB](1213)
摘要:
评价了中国40多年来在航天、航空、光伏、粉末冶金、工业高温炉领域成功应用的针刺C/C,正交3D C/C、径编C/C、穿刺C/C、轴编C/C等五类C/C复合材料的物理、力学、热学、烧蚀、摩擦磨损、使用寿命等性能及特点,并与其他国家相应材料性能进行分析对比,为建立工程应用C/C复合材料共享的数据库平台奠定基础。揭示了炭纤维预制体、炭基体类型、界面结合状态与材料性能的关联度。指出炭纤维预制体结构单元精细化研究和其结构的梯度设计,以及炭基体的优化组合匹配技术,仍是C/C复合材料性能稳定化提升的重点研究方向。
氧化石墨烯水泥浆体流变性能的定量化研究
王琴, 王健, 吕春祥, 崔鑫有, 李时雨, 王皙
摘要(678) [PDF 3710 KB](690)
摘要:
采用流变仪和激光共聚焦显微镜对不同氧化石墨烯(GO)掺量的新拌水泥浆体的流变参数以及浆体微观形态进行了定量化研究,并采用Modified-Bingham(M-B)模型和Herschel-Bulkley(H-B)模型对所测数据进行了拟合处理,提出了GO影响新拌水泥浆体的作用机理。结果表明,GO的掺入可以使新拌浆体中在减水剂作用下分散的水泥颗粒发生再次凝聚,形成重组絮凝结构,且随着GO掺量的增加,重组絮凝结构的数量越多,从而使得浆体流变性发生显著变化。一方面,新拌浆体的塑性粘度、屈服应力以及触变性随GO掺量的提高而显著增加。另一方面,GO的掺入提高了新拌浆体的临界剪切速率,使其在较大剪切速率下的流变行为仍然表现为剪切变稀;降低了浆体的剪切增稠程度,提高了浆体的稳定性。
多孔掺磷碳纳米管:磷酸水热合成及其在氧还原和锂硫电池中的应用
郭梦清, 黄佳琦, 孔祥屹, 彭翃杰, 税晗, 钱方圆, 朱林, 朱万诚, 张强
摘要(702) [PDF 2507 KB](673)
摘要:
碳纳米管优异的物理性质和可调的化学组成使其拥有广泛的应用前景。采用低温过程在碳骨架中引入磷原子预期带来可调的化学特性。本研究采用170℃下水热处理碳纳米管-磷酸混合物获得磷掺杂的碳纳米管。磷掺杂的碳管的磷含量为1.66%,比表面积为132 m2/g,热失重峰在纯氧环境下提升至694℃。当掺磷碳纳米管用于氧还原反应时,其起始电位为-0.20 V,电子转移数为2.60,反应电流显著高于无掺杂的碳纳米管。当其用作锂硫电池正极导电材料时,电极的起始容量为1106 mAh/g,电流密度从0.1 C提升至1 C时容量保留率为80%,100次循环的衰减率为每圈0.25%。
磷酸活化法活性炭孔隙结构的调控机制
左宋林
摘要(657) [PDF 3299 KB](640)
摘要:
磷酸活化法是植物纤维原料制备活性炭的主要化学活化方法。笔者系统综述了磷酸活化过程中活性炭孔隙结构的调控机制。从化学的观点,笔者提出植物纤维原料的磷酸活化在本质上是磷酸-生物高分子复合体的形成与热处理两个过程。基于这一概念,分析了植物纤维原料的组成与结构、浸渍条件等因素对磷酸-生物高分子复合体的组成与结构的影响,全面总结了植物纤维原料种类与预处理、植物细胞壁结构和结晶度、浸渍比、浸渍方式、温度和时间等组成、结构与条件对磷酸法活性炭孔隙结构的形成与发展的影响规律。在磷酸-生物高分子热处理过程中,系统总结了炭化温度、升温速率与中间停留温度等加热历程、惰性气体、氧化性气体和水蒸气等气氛对磷酸活化法活性炭孔隙结构的影响规律。最后概述了氧化性气氛和氧化试剂对磷酸活化过程的影响机理,以及磷酸活化过程中固相炭化和气相炭化对活性炭孔隙结构发展的贡献。
石墨烯/聚合物复合材料的研究进展及其应用前景
曾尤, 王函, 成会明
摘要(693) [PDF 3574 KB](1574)
摘要:
随着石墨烯低成本宏量制备技术的突破,石墨烯的工业化应用进程已引起人们广泛关注。本文介绍了石墨烯在聚合物基复合材料领域的研究进展,侧重阐述石墨烯/聚合物复合材料在力学增强、导电/导热网络构建、防腐阻燃等方面的代表性研究成果,同时对商业化石墨烯产品及其复合材料应用进行了简单评述,探讨了石墨烯/聚合物复合材料领域目前存在的主要问题及未来发展趋势。
不粘煤基活性炭作超级电容器电极材料:硼、氮掺杂对其电化学性能的影响
陆倩, 徐园园, 木沙江, 李文翠
摘要(311) [PDF 1318 KB](440)
摘要:
以新疆不粘煤为原料,三聚氰胺为氮源,硼酸为硼源,通过球磨和后续活化过程合成硼,氮掺杂及硼氮共掺杂煤基活性炭。氮吸附结果显示杂原子掺杂可提高活性炭中介孔的含量。红外和X光电子能谱结果显示,硼、氮原子存在于炭骨架中。循环伏安,恒流充放电及电化学阻抗分析说明硼、氮掺杂活性炭的电化学性能优于非掺杂活性炭。其中,硼氮共掺杂活性炭具有176 F·g-1的高比容量。循环20 000次容量保持率为96%。共掺杂活性炭优异的电化学性能归因于硼氮的协同作用。
自组装软模板法制备有序中孔炭研究进展
黄正宏| 王 磊| 白 宇| 康飞宇
摘要(1857) PDF(10267)
摘要:
通过介绍自组装软模板法制备有序中孔炭的发展历程和基本原理,说明该方法具有操作简单、成本低、易于控制等优点。重点评述了自组装软模板法制备有序中孔炭在产物形貌控制和多级孔结构制备方面的研究进展,分析认为,今后的研究可以在拓展前驱体范围、提高宏观产物柔韧性以及导电性等方面得到进一步发展。
石墨烯的化学气相沉积法制备
任文才, 高力波, 马来鹏, 成会明
摘要(2636) PDF(6109)
摘要:
化学气相沉积(CVD)法是近年来发展起来的制备石墨烯的新方法,具有产物质量高、生长面积大等优点,逐渐成为制备高质量石墨烯的主要方法。通过简要分析石墨烯的几种主要制备方法(胶带剥离法、化学剥离法、SiC外延生长法和CVD方法)的原理和特点,重点从结构控制、质量提高以及大面积生长等方面评述了CVD法制备石墨烯及其转移技术的研究进展,并展望了未来CVD法制备石墨烯的可能发展方向,如大面积单晶石墨烯、石墨烯带和石墨烯宏观体的制备与无损转移等。