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一种石墨高效剥离成石墨烯的新策略
CHAI Lin, CUI Xiao-jing, SU Li-juan, SHAO Xiao-jie, ZHANG Ning, WANG Ying-xiong, QI Yong-qin, TENG Na, HOU Xiang-lin, DENG Tian-sheng
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60100-2
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Ultrasonication is regarded as the most convenient and cleanest approach for graphene preparation from graphite. However, its yields were low for large quantities of graphite in solvent. The exfoliated graphite after ultrasonication could hardly be further exfoliated into graphene, which led to a great deal of waste. Thus, a new strategy for efficient exfoliation of the exfoliated graphite into graphene was investigated by combining ultrasonication and grinding treatment. It was found that the exfoliated graphite by ultrasonication could be well further exfoliated into graphene again after combining ultrasonication and grinding treatment with a graphene yield of 4.73 wt%. It could be attributed to the destruction of the regular stacking of graphite layers and the scrolled and folded edges of graphite sheets, and provided the wedging point for solvent to overcome the interlayer forces between the neighboring graphite layers. Moreover, the obtained graphene sheets were all less than 10 layers. This work provided a new strategy for efficient exfoliation of graphite into few-defects graphene on a large scale.
表面官能化对热塑性涂层改性炭纤维表界面性质的影响
SU Ya-nan, ZHANG Shou-chun, ZHANG Xing-hua, JING De-qi
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60049-5
摘要(124) HTML(58) PDF(13)
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Hydroxyl- and amino- functionalized carbon fibers (CF―OH and CF―NH2) were prepared by surface oxidation with mixed acid and grafting with ethylenediamine, respectively. The functionalized CFs were sized with a sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) sizing agent to prepare CF―OH―SPEEK and CF―NH2―SPEEK. The effect of surface functionalization on the surface properties of CFs and the interfacial properties in PEEK maxtrix composites were investigated. Results show that the contents of polar functional groups and wettability of CFs increase significantly after surface functionalization. There are chemical reactions between CFs and the sizing agent, which improve the interfacial adhesion between CFs and the sizing agent. The interfacial shear strengths of CF―OH―SPEEK and CF―NH2―SPEEK reinforced PEEK matrix composites are increased by 6.2% and 14.0%, respectively, as compared with that of desized-SPEEK CFs. The surface functionalization is beneficial to improve the interfacial adhesion of thermoplastic-coated CF/PEEK composites.
定长炭纤维增强树脂复合材料的制备及其各向同性力学性能
向雨欣, 申克, 吴昊, 何智成, 李轩科
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60094-X
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利用长度为30 mm的定长炭纤维均匀分散在乙烯基树脂基体内,制备出不同纤维体积分数的片状模塑料(SMCs),再通过真空热压成型工艺得到面内力学各向同性的定长炭纤维增强树脂基复合材料(CFRP)。研究了不同纤维体积分数(15%–40%)对复合材料拉伸和弯曲强度的影响,以及纤维体积分数与材料面内力学各向同性特征的关系。力学性能测试结果与断面分析表明:纤维体积分数在25%–30%时,纤维在树脂中分散性良好,各方向拉伸强度离散系数仅为2%,各向同性特征最为显著;随着炭纤维体积分数的增加,复合材料的拉伸及弯曲强度均呈现出先增大后减小的趋势,并分别在25%和30%时达到最大值(141.4 MPa和549.0 MPa)。与纤维体积分数在15%时相比,力学性能分别提高了112.8%和129.6%。
基于还原氧化石墨烯的非纳西丁电化学检测研究
MENG Xiao-tong, ZHU De-jing, JIANG Yu-hang, CAO Yue, SI Wei-meng, CAO Jun, LI Qiu-hong Li, LI Jiao, LEI Wu
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60087-2
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It is known that the electrochemical determination of phenacetin, a widely used analgesic, is challenging for the interference of these electroactive intermediates acetaminophen (APAP). Phenacetin has been proved being electroactive in 1980s, but the electrochemical determination have not been widely reported. We studied the electrochemical behavior on electrochemical reduced graphene (ERGO) modified electrode, and the comparative experiment was performed on ERGO several nitrogen-doped graphene. ERGO was proved possessing higher current response and lower oxidation potential, A detection limit of 0.91 μM was established. It suggested ERGO modified electrode is a desirable phenacetin sensor. The redox mechanism of phenacetin was interfered via electrochemical experiments, and the reaction under different pH value was proposed. Acetaminophen was considered the main intermediate. The interfering between acetaminophen and phenacetin was studied, the main electroactive intermediate acetaminophen was proved not interfered the determination of phenacetin. But phenacetin was considered interfered with the response of APAP obviously, suggesting that simultaneous detection of phenacetin and APAP via DPV is not reliable. Interference experiment results further illustrated that usual species, such as Cu2+, Al3+, methanol, ethylene glycol, glucose, and ascorbic acid, hardly caused interference.
Rational design of 3D CNTs/Ti3C2Tx aerogel modified separator as a LiPS regulator for Li–S batteries
YIN Fei, JIN Qi, ZHANG Xi-tian, WU Li-li
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60085-9
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Lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries suffer from fast capacity fading and inferior rate performance due to severe polysulfide (LiPS) shuttle and slow redox kinetics. To solve these issues, three-dimensional (3D) CNTs/Ti3C2Tx aerogel was successfully prepared with Ti3C2Tx as the active matrix and CNTs as the conductive pillars, and utilized as a LiPS immobilizer and promoter to modify the commercial Li–S battery separator. The unique design of highly porous 3D aerogel structure results in the sufficient exposure of Ti3C2Tx active sites by preventing their restacking, which not only offers abundant charge transport pathways, but also strengthens the adsorption and catalytic conversion of LiPSs. Moreover, the introduction of CNTs forms a highly conductive network to connect the adjacent Ti3C2Tx sheets, thereby improving the conductivity and structure robustness of the 3D aerogel. Owing to these merits, Li–S cells using CNTs/Ti3C2Tx aerogel modified separator show a high rate capacity of 1043.2 mAh g–1 up to 2 C and an admirable cycling life over 800 cycles at 0.5 C with a low capacity decay rate of 0.07% per cycle.
三维石墨烯-碳纳米管磁性气凝胶的制备及其染料吸附性能
Zu Rong Ang, Ing Kong, Rachel Shin Yie Lee, Cin Kong, Akesh Babu Kakarla, Ai Bao Chai, Wei Kong
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60029-X
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Novel hybrid aerogels, which can be magnetically extracted from water to avoid filtration, were prepared by adding ZnCl2, NiCl2·6H2O, FeCl2·4H2O and FeCl3·6H2O into a suspension of graphene oxide and oxidzed carbon nanotubes followed by co-precipatation under basic condition, crosslinking with polyvinyl alcohol in water and freeze-drying. The hybrid aerogels consist of magnetic Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles, graphene oxide, carbon nanotubes and polyvinyl alcohol, which have active sites that attract dye molecules and can be extracted from water by applying magnetic field. Under an optimal mass ratio of the components, the optimized hybrid aerogel has a high adsorption capacity (qe=71.03 mg g−1 for methylene blue) and a moderate magnetic strength of MS = 3.519 emu g−1. Its removal efficiencies for methylene blue, methyl orange, crystal violet and their mixture with an equal mass are 70.1%, 4.2%, 8.9% and 11.1%, respectively under the same dye concentration of 0.025 mg. mL−1. It can be reused for 3 regeneration cycles with a regeneration efficiency of over 82%. Also it is not toxic to the living organism, suggesting that it is promising as an adsorbent for treating industrial wastewater.
Structure and Electrochemical properties of coconut shell-based hard carbon as anode materials for potassium ion batteries
HUANG Tao, PENG Da-chun, CHEN Zui, XIA Xiao-hong, CHEN Yu-xi, LIU Hong-bo
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60069-0
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Biomorphic hard carbon recently attracted widely interest as anode materials for potassium ion batteries (PIBs) owing to their high reversible capacity, but high preparation cost and poor cycle stability significantly hinder its practical application. In this study, coconut shell-derived hard carbon (CSHC) was prepared from waste biomass coconut shell using a one-step carbonization method, which was further used as anode materials for potassium ion batteries. The effects of carbonization temperature on the microstructure and electrochemical properties of the CSHC materials were investigated by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and cyclic voltammetry, etc. The results suggested that the coconut shell hard carbon carbonized at 1 000 °C (CSHC-10) possessed suitable graphite microcrystallines size, pore structure and surface defect content, which exhibited the best electrochemical performance. Specifically, CSHC-10 presented a high reversible specific capacity of 254 mAh·g−1 at 30 mA·g−1 with an initial Coulombic efficiency of 75.0%, and the capacity retention was 87.5% after 100 cycles and 75.9% after 400 cycles at 100 mA·g−1. The CSHC with high capacity and good cycling stability demonstrates to be an excellent potassium storage material.
Rational construction of Co-loaded ceramic composites by recycling gangue for microwave absorption
LI Guo-min, SHI Shu-ping, ZHU Bao-shun, LIANG Li-ping, ZHANG Ke-wei
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60064-1
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In the context of sustainable development, tackling the severe solid wastes pollution has become extremely urgent. Herein, the solid waste gangue was successfully recycled to synthesize the ceramic based composite microwave absorbing materials decorated with Co particles through a novel synthesis method. The magnetic Co particles were uniformly loaded in the ceramic matrix by the pelletizing process with gangue and Co2+ following by the in situ carbothermal reaction, and the Co content in ceramic composites can be precisely controlled by adjusting the Co2+ concentration. Furthermore, compared with gangue, the obtained composites displayed optimized performance, the minimum reflection loss value reached −48.2 dB and the effective absorbing band was measured to be 4.3 GHz with the coating thickness of 1.5 mm, which is mainly attributed to the enhanced magnetic loss and multiple interface polarization. Such innovative design of recycling gangue in this work can effectively realize the resource utilization of gangue, which is also beneficial for the low-cost and light-weight of microwave absorbing materials as well.
电化学制备超细g-C3N4量子点及其电催化析氢性能
YANG Na-na, CHEN Zhi-gang, ZHAO Zhi-gang, CUI Yi
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60045-8
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Benefiting from their high concentration of in-plane nitrogen element, superior chemical/thermal stability, tunable electronic band structure and environmental friendly feature, graphite-like carbon nitride (g-C3N4) as a new promising metal-free material has drawn numerous attention in photo-/electric-catalysis. Comparing to the regulation of band structure in photocatalysis, the deliberately synthesis of g-C3N4 electrocatalysts is mainly focused on the construction of catalytic sites and the modulation of the charge transfer kinetics. Herein, this work reports a rapid method for synthesizing ultrafine g-C3N4 quantum dots (QDs) via electrochemical exfoliation using Al3+ ions. The uniform g-C3N4 QDs with smaller lateral dimension and thickness are collected due to the higher charge density and stronger electrostatic forces of Al3+ ions in the lattice of host materials as compared to the conventional univalent alkali cations. The as-obtained g-C3N4 QDs exhibit average lateral dimension and thickness of 3.5 nm and 1.0 nm, respectively, as determined by the TEM and AFM measurements. Also, the presence of the rich C/N defects is verified by the UV-vis spectra. Encouragingly, the ultrafine g-C3N4 QDs exhibit superior hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) performance with an ultra-low onset-potential closely approaching to 0 V, and a low overpotential of 208 mV at 10 mA/cm2, as well as a remarkably low Tafel slope (52 mV·dec-1) in acidic electrolyte. Taking the fabrication of the ultrafine g-C3N4 QDs with rich C/N defects as an example, this work provides a simple and feasible way to exfoliate 2D layered materials into low-dimensional nanomaterials towards highly-efficient electrocatalysis, as well as the exploration of their fascinating physic-chemical properties.
煤基石墨烯促进TiO2光催化降解有机物
LIU Guo-yang, LI Ke-ke, JIA Jia, ZHANG Ya-ting
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60047-1
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A reduced graphene oxide (H-rGO)/TiO2-composite (H-TiO2@rGO) as a catalyst for photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (Rh B) and methyl orange (MO) was prepared by hydrothermal treating a dispersant of TiO2 nanoparticles with sizes of 5-10 nm and GO obtained by the Hummers method from coal-based graphite in water. Compared with the M-TiO2@GO and M-TiO2@rGO composites by a wet mixing method, results indicated that the TiO2 nanoparticles in H-TiO2@rGO were uniformly decorated on both sides of rGO sheet, forming a stacked-sheet structure while apparent aggregation of TiO2 nanoparticles was found in both M-TiO2@GO and M-TiO2@rGO. Therefore, H-rGO@TiO2 had the highest catalytic activity towards degradation of Rh B and MO under visible light irradiation among the three, where the incorporation of rGO into TiO2 helps to narrow the band gap of TiO2, inhibit the recombination rate of electron–hole pairs and provide conductive networks for electron transfer.
石墨烯负载单原子钴催化剂的制备及其电催化二氧化碳还原反应性能研究
ZHANG Hui-nian, WANG Hui-qi, JIA Su-ping, CHANG Qin, LI Ning, LI Ying, SHI Xiao-lin, LI Zi-yuan, HU Sheng-liang
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60061-6
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Developing highly selective, economical and stable catalysts for electrochemical converting CO2 into value-added carbon products to mitigate both CO2 emission and energy crisis is still challenging. Here, we report an efficient and robust electrocatalyst for CO2 reduction reaction (CO2RR) by embedding single-atom CoN4 active sites into graphene matrix. These highly dispersed CoN4 sites show an extraordinary CO2RR activity, with a high CO Faradaic efficiency of nearly 95% at −0.76 V (vs. RHE) and remarkable durability. The corresponding overpotential is 0.65 V. Our finding could pave the way for the design of high-efficiency electrocatalyst for CO2RR at the atomic scale.
用于锂离子高体积储存的致密石墨颗粒的湿法制备
ZHANG Jia-peng, WANG Deng-ke, ZHANG Li-hui, LIU Hai-yan, LIU Zhao-bin, XING Tao, MA Zhao-kun, CHEN Xiao-hong, SONG Huai-he
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60051-3
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Graphite is the most widely used anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), and increasing the sphericity and density of graphite is the main way to further improve energy density of LIBs. Herein, we report a simple preparation of high tap-density graphite granules by the high-shear wet granulation. In this way, we densified two kinds of graphite into granule, namely wet-granulation graphitic onion-like carbon (WG-GOC) and wet-granulation artificial graphite (WG-AG). It is found that, compared with the original graphite before granulation, the tap density of WG-GOC increases by ca.34%, and WG-AG increases by ca.44%. Therefore, when as the anode of LIBs,, the volumetric capacities of WG-GOC and WG-AG have increased by ca.35% and ca.55%, respectively, at the current density of 50 mA g−1. In addition, the rate performance of WG-GOC also has been significantly improved. The volumetric capacity of WG-GOC increased by 169.1% at the current density of 2000 mA g−1. The significant improvement of electrochemical performance benefits from the higher tap density of the prepared graphite granules. Hence, we developed a facile wet-granulation to prepare high tap-density graphite anodes, which conducive to the development of high volumetric capacity.
高性能无烟煤基石墨的制备及其储锂性能研究
LI Yuan, TIAN Xiaodong, SONG Yan, YANG Tao, WU Shijie, LIU Zhanjun
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60057-4
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In this study, cost-effective anthracite and industrial silicon powder were used as precursor and catalyst, respectively, to prepare graphite with various structure, during which the catalytic mechanism was analyzed. The results demonstrate that the as-obtained sample with 5% silicon catalyst (G-2800-5%) exhibits the best overall lithium storage performance. In detail, G-2800-5% display the best graphite structure with graphitization degree of 91.5%. As anode materials, a high reversible capacity of 369.0 mAh g−1 can be achieved at 0.1 A g−1. Meanwhile, the reversible capacity of 209.0 mAh g−1 can be obtained at the current density of 1 A g−1. It also delivers good cyclic stability with a 92.2% retention after 200 cycles at 0.2 A g−1. The highly developed graphite structure, which is favorable to the formation of stable SEI and reduced lithium ion loss should be responsible for the superior electrochemical performance.
液相烧结法制备MoSi2改性HfB2-SiC超高温陶瓷抗氧化涂层研究
REN Xuan-ru, WANG Wei-guang, SUN Ke, HU Yu-wen, XU Lei-hua, FENG Pei-zhong
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60060-4
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In this paper, a liquid-phase sintering method was developed by combining in-situ reaction method with slurry method to prepare HfB2-MoSi2-SiC coatings with controllable composition, content and thickness. The effect of MoSi2 content on the oxidation protection behavior of HfB2-MoSi2-SiC composite coating under dynamic aerobic environment at room temperature ~ 1500 ℃ and static constant temperature air at 1500 ℃ was studied, the relative oxygen permeability was used to characterize the oxidation resistance of the coating. The results of dynamic oxidation test at room temperature ~ 1500 ℃ showed that the initial oxidation weight loss of the samples was delayed from 775 ℃ to 821 ℃, and the maximum weight loss rate decreased from 0.9×10−3 mg·cm−2·s−1 to 0.2×10−3 mg·cm−2·s−1 with the increase of MoSi2 content, the lowest relative oxygen permeability was reduced to 12.2%, resulting in the weight loss of the sample from 1.8% to 0.21%. In this paper, the mechanism of MoSi2 enhancing the ability of oxidation protection of the coating is revealed. With the increase of MoSi2 content, the amount of SiO2 glass phase in the coating is increased, and the dispersion of Hf-oxide on the coating surface is promoted, thus, the Hf-Si-O compound glass layer with higher stability can be formed, and the weight loss rate of the sample reduced from 0.46% to 0.08% after 200 h oxidation at 1500 ℃ in constant temperature air.
Hierarchical Porous Carbon from lignin-rich residue for High-Performance Supercapacitor
FANG Yan-yan, ZHANG Qian-yu, ZHANG Dong-dong, CUI Li-feng
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60058-6
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Designing electrically conductive electrode material with a hierarchical pore structure from abundant raw material remains a significant challenge in the development of energy storage research. In this work, 3D porous carbons with high surface areas are synthesized via high-temperature carbonization and activation. The synthesized activated carbons deliver a specifical capacitance of 280 F g−1 and area-specific capacitance of 1.3 F cm−2 at a current density of 0.5 A g−1. The assembled symmetric supercapacitor can deliver a high energy output (7.7 Wh kg−1 at 5200 W kg−1). Thus, it is demonstrated the repurposing of lignin waste as electrode material can be a feasible resource that goes beyond the limitations of utilizing lignin in low value-added applications.
石墨磷引起的缺陷碳纳米管展现出较高的氢析出活性
AI Jie, LIU Zi-wu, SUN Mao-mao, LIU Ling, WANG Quan-de
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60052-5
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The phosphorus-doped carbon materials as one of novel carbon catalysts towards the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) have attracted considerable attention over the past years. However, the role of C-P species palyed in the HER activity is still not clear up to now. Phosphorus-doped carbon nanotubes (P-CNTs) were prepared by chemical vapor deposition and annealed at 900, 1000 and 1200 ℃ to remove all or parts of phosporus species, resulting in four samples with different proportions of graphite-, pyridine- and pyrrole-like P species. The correlations between their HER activity and the contents of three types of P species were investigated. Results showed that the content of graphite-like P decreased with the annealing temperature and no graphite-like P was retained at 1200℃. The HER activity increased with the annealing temperature and the one annealed at 1200 ℃ had the highest HER activity in an acid medium with an overpotential of 0.266 V at a current density of 10 mA/cm−2. Density functional theory calculations revealed that the pentagon- and nine-membered ring defects formed by the destruction of graphite-P species contributed mainly to the HER activity, which gave a deep insight into the active sites for HER.
氢氧化钾处理中间相碳微球应用于高倍率钾离子电池负极
XIAO Nan, GUO Hong-da, XIAO Jian, WEI Yi-bo, MA Xiao-qing, ZHANG Xiao-yu, QIU Jie-shan
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60059-8
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Graphite is one of the most promising anode materials for potassium-ion batteries (PIBs) due to its low cost and stable discharge plateau. However, its poor rate performance still needs to be improved. Herein, a novel graphitic anode was designed from commercial mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) by KOH treatment. Through limited oxidation and slight intercalation, an expanded layer with enlarged interlayer spacing formed on the surface of MCMB, by which the K+ diffusion rate was significantly improved. When served as the PIB anode, this modified MCMB delivered a high plateau capacity below 0.25 V (271 mAh g−1), superior rate capability (160 mAh g−1 at 1.0 A g−1), excellent cycling stability (about 184 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at 0.1 A g−1), and high initial coulombic efficiency with carboxymethyl cellulose as binder (79.2%). This work provides a facile strategy to prepare graphitic materials with superior potassium storage property.
功能集成策略制备孔结构可控的虾壳基多孔炭及超电应用
Gao Feng, Xie Ya-qiao, Zang Yun-hao, ZHOU Gang, QU Jiang-ying, WU Ming-bo
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60019-7
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Highly efficient synthesis of nitrogen-doped carbons with different porous structures is reported using shrimp shell as the carbon and nitrogen source, and its CaCO3 component as the hard template and the activator. The content of CaCO3 in shrimp shell can be tuned easily in the range of 0-100% by leaching with an acetic acid solution for different times. CaO derived from decomposition of CaCO3 acts as the activator and template to tailor the pore sizes of the carbons. CO2 derived from decomposition of CaCO3 also plays an activating role. Their specific surface areas, pore volumes, ratios of micropore volumes to total pore volumes can be adjusted in the range of 117.6-1137 m2 g-1, 0.14-0.64 cm3 g-1, and 0-73.4%, respectively. When used as the electrodes of supercapacitor, the porous carbon obtained with a leaching time of 92 min exhibits the highest capacitances of 328 F g-1 at 0.05 A g-1 in a 6 M KOH electrolyte and 619.2 F g-1 at 0.05 A g-1 in a 1 M H2SO4 electrolyte. Its corresponding energy density at a power density of 1470.9 W kg-1 is 26.0 Wh kg-1. This work provides a low cost method for fabricating porous carbons to fulfill the high-value-added use of biomass.
2021年6期中文目次
2021, 36(6): 1-1.  
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2021年6期英文目次
2021, 36(6): 1-6.  
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综合评述
基于碳化钽涂层改性碳基材料的研究进展
刘兴亮, 戴煜, 王卓健, 吴建
2021, 36(6): 1049-1061.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60101-4
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石墨、炭纤维、炭/炭复合材料等碳基材料广泛应用在航空航天、能源汽车、化工等领域,但炭材料在高温有氧环境下易氧化和不耐氨气、耐划性能较差等缺点,难以满足人们对炭材料越来越苛刻的使用要求,严重制约其发展和实际应用。碳化钽(TaC)具有优异的高温力学稳定性及高温耐腐蚀、耐烧蚀等优点,并与炭材料具有良好的化学相容性和力学相容性,能够对炭材料有效保护,引起国内外研究人员对TaC涂层改性碳基材料的广泛研究。本文系统介绍了在石墨、炭纤维、炭/炭复合材料3种碳基材料表面制备TaC涂层的研究进展,阐述了化学气相沉积工艺(如气体流量、沉积温度、沉积压力)对TaC涂层改性碳基材料的影响规律,讨论了TaC涂层的发展趋势及展望了发展方向。
二维层状材料的表面增强拉曼散射效应及高效分子探测性能
俞凌枭, 吕瑞涛
2021, 36(6): 995-1015.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60098-5
摘要(37) HTML(20) PDF(6)
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Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been regarded as an attractive technique for efficient molecular sensing because of its nondestructive detection, fast response and high sensitivity. However, the majority of studies on SERS are still based on noble metals (e.g. Au, Ag), which suffer from the drawbacks of high-cost, low uniformity and poor stability, thus limiting their widespread use. Graphene shows an efficient SERS performance because of its two-dimensional (2D) atomically flat surface, large specific surface area, high stability and unique electronic/optical properties, which open up new avenues for SERS research. In recent years, other 2D inorganic layer materials, such as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), black phosphorus (BP), and MXenes, have also attracted increasing research attention. We summarize the SERS mechanisms and state-of-the-art progress on substrates based on 2D materials, including graphene and other 2D inorganic layer materials. The challenges and prospects for future research on high-performance SERS substrates are considered.
碳基电磁波吸收材料及其机理研究进展
杨旺, 蒋波, 车赛, 闫璐, 李正轩, 李永峰
2021, 36(6): 1016-1033.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60095-1
摘要(42) HTML(19) PDF(16)
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With the development of electronic information technology, the use of microwaves in military and civilian fields is becoming more and more widespread. The corresponding electromagnetic radiation pollution has become a global concern. Numerous efforts have been made to synthesize thin electromagnetic wave absorbing materials with a low density, wide absorption bandwidth and high absorption. Carbon-based materials have great potential in electromagnetic wave absorption because of their lightweight, high attenuation ability, large specific surface area and excellent physicochemical stability. The attenuation theory of absorption materials and the factors that influence their absorption performance are provided first. Next, we summarize the research status of carbon materials with different morphologies (such as 0D carbon spheres, 1D carbon nanotubes, 2D carbon platelets, and 3D porous carbons) and their composites with various materials such as magnetic substances, ceramics, metal sulfides, MXene and conductive polymers. The synthesis methods, properties and attenuation mechanisms of these absorbers are highlighted, and prospects and challenges are considered.
单晶金刚石异质外延生长过程中的位错行为及其控制工艺研究进展
王伟华, 王杨, 舒国阳, 房诗舒, 韩杰才, 代兵, 朱嘉琦
2021, 36(6): 1034-1048.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60096-3
摘要(44) HTML(27) PDF(10)
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Dislocations are considered crucial linear defects in the synthesis of heteroepitaxial single crystal diamond. Minimizing the dislocation density is a significant challenge for using diamond in electronics. This especially holds for diamond growth on iridium substrates with a large lattice constant difference of 7.1%. We first discuss several aspects of dislocations in heteroepitaxial diamond nucleation and growth, including their generation, types and characterization. Next, methods to reduce dislocation density are summarized, including increasing dislocation reactions (increasing the diamond film thickness and off-axis substrate growth), removing dislocations (conventional epitaxial lateral growth, pendeoepitaxial lateral growth and patterned nucleation growth), and other methods (three-dimensional growth, metal-assisted termination and using a pyramidal substrate). The dislocation density has been reduced to 6×105 cm−2, based on the use of a micrometric laser-pierced hole array, a method similar to patterned nucleation growth. To further reduce dislocation density and improve crystal quality, proposed ways of controlling the introduction of dislocations (substrate patterning, buffer layer and compliant substrate methods) are highlighted.
研究论文
多孔炭复合V2O3纳米材料用于锂离子电容器的研究
任晓龙, 艾德生, 吕瑞涛, 康飞宇, 黄正宏
2021, 36(6): 1103-1108.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60070-7
摘要(777) HTML(58) PDF(27)
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以NaCl为模板、结合冷冻干燥技术合成了多孔炭复合V2O3纳米材料,研究其用作锂离子电池负极材料的动力学特征,并与商业化活性炭构建锂离子电容器,测试其电化学性能。结果表明,多孔炭复合V2O3纳米材料具有赝电容行为,所构建的锂离子电容器同时具有高能量、高功率和长效循环稳定性,是一种很有前景的锂离子电容器负极材料。
二维B、N掺杂炭片的电化学氧化及其赝电容性能
胡友仁, 董晓玲, 侯璐, 庄洪坤, 李文翠
2021, 36(6): 1109-1117.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60084-7
摘要(103) HTML(78) PDF(14)
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在炭基电极材料中引入氧化还原赝电容是提升其比电容的有效手段,有望解决炭基超级电容器低能量密度的瓶颈。本文通过原位电化学氧化,在B、N掺杂二维纳米炭片电极上引入电化学活性含氧官能团,以显著提升炭基电极的赝电容,并研究了B、N掺杂炭在不同氧化工艺下的表面组成和电容性能变化。结果表明,B、N掺杂可以提升氧化电极的电子传输和电荷转移,有效促进电化学氧化效果,提高电极的赝电容。此外,相比于恒压氧化工艺,循环伏安氧化方法可以有效提升炭电极的氧化深度和总氧含量,并且也有利于选择性地生成以电化学活性的醌基为主的含氧官能团。制备的氧化电极在1 A·g−1电流密度下显示出601.5 F·g−1的高比电容,并在20 A·g−1下仍保持74.8%,显示出良好的倍率性能。此外,氧化电极还表现出优异的循环稳定性,在5 A·g−1下8000次循环后保持了初始电容的92.6%。
双层堆叠对石墨烯材料量子电容影响的理论研究
崔光宇, 易宗琳, 苏方远, 陈成猛, 韩培德
2021, 36(6): 1062-1072.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60079-3
摘要(410) HTML(83) PDF(517)
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Graphene is acknowledged as one of the ideal active electrode materials for electric double-layer capacitors because of its extremely high specific surface area and outstanding electronic conductivity. By introducing defects or heteroatoms into the graphene sheet, the electronic structure around the defects can be altered, which could lead to an increased quantum capacitance (CQ) and therefore te capacitive performance. One of the unavoidable problems for manufacturing and using graphene materials is that the stacking of the layers affects their electronic structure, and eventually their capacitance. DFT calculations were used to investigate the effect of layer stacking in bilayer graphene materials on CQ and the surface charge density. A two layer, AB-stacked graphene model, in which the top layer is defective and the bottom one is perfect was assumed for the calculations. The defective graphenes investigated are those containing Stone-Thrower-Wales defects, single vacancies (SV), three with double vacancies (5-8-5, 555-777 and 5555-6-7777), pyrrole-N graphene and the pyridine-N graphene. Results indicate that both the values and waveform of CQ of the materials are changed by stacking. The CQ values of most of these graphenes are significantly increased after stacking. The CQ waveforms of the SV and N-doped graphene are relatively insensitive to stacking. The basal layer contributes a considerable amount of charge, which is most obvious for the pyrrolic-N double-layer graphene and 5-8-5 double-vacancy graphene. The surface charge density provided by the defective top layer is increased by interlayer interaction, especially for the N-doped graphene. The uniform distribution of charge on the bottom layer partially alleviates fluctuations in the CQ waveform. These findings provide theoretical guidance for the micro-structural design of graphene materials to optimize their performance as electrode active materials.
空气氧化稳定化对沥青基硬炭材料的结构和储钠性能的影响
郭宏毅, 李姚谕, 王春雷, 贺磊, 李晨, 郭永强, 周颖
2021, 36(6): 1073-1080.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60075-6
摘要(39) HTML(17) PDF(9)
摘要:
Hard carbon anode materials for sodium ion batteries were prepared from petroleum pitch by air oxidation stabilization followed by carbonization. The effects of the oxidation stabilization temperature on the compositions and microstructures of the oxidized samples, as well as on the morphology, microstructure and sodium storage property of the carbonized samples were investigated. Results show that air oxidation introduces a large number of oxygen-containing functional groups, induces dehydrogenation condensation and oxidative crosslinking reactions, and transforms the petroleum asphalt from thermoplastic to thermosetting. The air oxidation stabilization treatment effectively hinders the inherent tendency of asphalt to graphitize during high temperature carbonization, resulting in carbons with randomly oriented carbon layers with more defects. Electrochemical tests show that o-PDC-350-1400 (oxidation stabilization at 350 °C, carbonization at 1400 °C) has a high charging specific capacity of 276.8 mAh g−1 at 100 mA g−1 and a high initial coulombic efficiency of 73.38%. Compared with sample PDC-1400 that was directly carbonized at 1400 °C, the charging specific capacity was increased by about 1.8 times and the initial coulombic efficiency was increased by 22%. The charging specific capacity of o-PDC-350-1400 after 200 cycles reached 170.2 mAh g−1, indicating good cycling stability.
壳聚糖水热炭低浓度KOH活化制备多孔炭材料及其CO2吸附性能
王静, 陈双, 徐嘉宇, 刘立成, 周继承, 蔡进军
2021, 36(6): 1081-1093.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60074-4
摘要(16) HTML(12) PDF(3)
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Hydrothermal treatment of biomass is effective in producing hydrochar, but the product usually has a low surface area and is not suitable for direct use as an adsorbent for CO2 capture. We report the use of chitosan as a precursor for carbon prepared by a combination of hydrothermal treatment and mild KOH activation. The effect of an additive salt (eutectic salt of KCl/LiCl with a mass ratio of 5.5/4.5) in the hydrothermal treatment and activation temperature on the porosities and surface chemical states of the obtained carbons and their CO2 capture were studied by N2 adsorption, XPS, SEM and XRD. Results indicated that the porosities of the carbons were increased by increasing the activation temperature. The salt additive introduced mesopores in the hydrochar and slightly reduced the surface area of the porous carbon after activation, but was useful in increasing the number of N-species during hydrothermal treatment and activation. The carbons produced using the salt additive had much larger CO2 uptakes under ambient conditions than those prepared without the salt, suggesting that porosity is not the only factor that determines the CO2 uptake. The CO2 uptake on the carbon activated by KOH at 600 °C produced from the salt-assisted hydrochar was the highest (as high as 4.41 mmol/g) although its surface area was only 1 249 m2/g, indicating that CO2 uptake was determined by both the microporosity and the active N-species in the carbon.
三维多级孔炭封装硫制备在室温环境运行的锂硫电池
单宇航, 李丽波, 杜金田, 翟墨
2021, 36(6): 1094-1102.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60063-X
摘要(86) HTML(39) PDF(3)
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Lithium-sulfur batteries are promising for future energy storage because of their high-energy density and low price. However, they have many problems, especially the large volume change during cycling and the shuttle effect of the soluble polysulfides. To solve these problems, a three-dimensional porous carbon (3D-HPC) was investigated as the sulfur host of a lithium-sulfur battery. The 3D-HPC was prepared by a template method using polymethyl methacrylate and zinc oxide as the templates to form mesopores and macropores, respectively. The results showed that the interconnected macroporous channels and abundant large mesopores formed a three-dimensional conductive carbon network which is beneficial for electron/ion transfer and relieves the cathode volume change by the physical limiting effect. The pores alleviate the shuttle effect by the capillary condensation. A 3D-HPC-S composite used as the cathode has excellent electrochemical properties. The first discharge specific capacity of the 3D-HPC-S is 1 314.6 mAh g−1 at 0.2 C with a sulfur loading of 70%. After 100 cycles, the capacity retention rate is 69.13%. At 0.5 C, the capacity retention rate after 200 cycles is 59.02% and the average coulombic efficiency is 98.16%.
不同碳源对Na3V2(PO4)3正极材料储钠性能的影响
陈彦俊, 程军, 孙式琦, 王延忠, 郭丽
2021, 36(6): 1118-1127.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60098-7
摘要(9) HTML(6) PDF(2)
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A sodium superionic conductor (NASICON)-type Na3V2(PO4)3 (NVP) with a 3D framework is a promising cathode material for sodium ion batteries. We used citric and oxalic acids as carbon sources to prepare carbon-coated NVP/C cathode materials by a sol-gel method. Their effect on the crystal structure, morphology and electrochemical performance of the coated NVP were investigated. Results indicate that compared with the NVP/C prepared from oxalic acid, NVP/C using citric acid as the carbon source has larger unit cell parameters of NVP, a smaller particle size, a thinner carbon coating layer, wider channels and shortened paths for Na+ migration, and superior kinetic characteristics. It had a high capacity of 112.3 mAh g−1 at 0.1 C and an excellent rate capability with reversible capacities of 90.0 and 89.1 mAh g−1 at 2 and 5 C, respectively. It also had an excellent cycling stability with capacity retention rates of nearly 100%, 92.7% and 90.0% after cycling 200 times at 1, 2 and 5 C, respectively. It is therefore a promising cathode material for practical use.
氮/磷共掺杂废旧棉织物基活性炭的制备及其超级电容器性能
黄玲, 王帅, 张宇, 黄祥红, 彭俊军, 杨锋
2021, 36(6): 1128-1137.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60054-9
摘要(158) HTML(72) PDF(14)
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Transforming waste resources into energy storage materials is a new way to convert them into value-added products and help solve the problems of energy shortage and environmental pollution. A nitrogen-phosphorus co-doped activated carbon was synthesized from waste cotton fabric by combining carbonization and activation in ammonium polyphosphate and a molten salt system (ZnCl2 and KCl with a molar ratio of 52∶48). The morphology, microstructure and composition of the activated carbon were characterized by SEM, nitrogen adsorption, Raman spectroscopy and XPS. Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge were used to test the supercapacitor performance of the activated carbon. Results show that the co-doped activated carbon had a specific surface area of 751 m2·g−1, a specific capacitance of 423 F·g−1 at a current density of 0.25 A·g−1, and a capacitance retention rate of 88.9% after 5 000 cycles at a current density of 5 A·g−1. The energy density was 28.67 Wh·kg−1 at a power density of 200 W·kg−1 for a symmetrical supercapacitor using the activated carbon.
杂原子掺杂的羧酸功能化炭材料的制备及其吸附U(VI)性能
刘妍, 刘晓鹏, 戴荧, 王云, 袁定重, 刘晋彪, ChewJia-wei
2021, 36(6): 1138-1148.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60055-0
摘要(469) HTML(99) PDF(14)
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A N, S, P co-doped and oxidized porous carbon was prepared by the carbonization of poly (cyclotriphosphazene-co-4,4’-sulfonyldiphenol) at 750 °C, followed by KOH activation and HNO3 oxidation. The carbon was used as an adsorbent for uranium(VI) in aqueous solutions. TEM, SEM, XPS and FTIR were used to characterize its microstructure before and after adsorption. Results indicate that there is an optimum pH value of 6 for U(VI) adsorption. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms were fitted well by the pseudo-second-order and the Langmuir models, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity determined by the Langmuir model at 298 K and a pH value of 6 was 402.9 mg g−1. The carbon has excellent reusability and retains 70% of the capacity of the original value after five adsorption-desorption cycles. The high U(VI) adsorption capacity is mainly attributed to the carboxyl, and P and S groups by the formation of the UO22+(COO)2 complex, and U―O―P and U―O―S bonds.
蔗糖溶液制备微/介孔炭球及其电容性能
师晶, 田晓冬, 李肖, 刘叶群, 孙海珍
2021, 36(6): 1149-1157.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60044-6
摘要(155) HTML(96) PDF(31)
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Micro/mesopore carbon spheres for use as the electrode materials of supercapacitors were prepared by hydrothermal carbonization followed by KOH/NaOH activation using sucrose as the carbon precursor. The effects of the KOH and NaOH activation parameters on the specific surface area, pore size distribution and electrochemical performance of the carbon spheres were investigated. Results indicate that the use of NaOH leads to the development of mesopores while the use of KOH increases the specific surface area and micropore volume. The pore size distribution of carbon spheres could be adjusted by varying the relative amounts of the reagents in the activation. Using a NaOH/KOH mass ratio of 2∶1 and a reagent/carbon sphere mass ratio of 3∶1, a good capacitance and rate performance of the supercapacitor electrode in both a 6 mol L−1 KOH aqueous electrolyte and a 1 mol L−1 MeEt3NBF4/propylene carbonate electrolyte was achieved. The prepared activated carbon gave a capacitance of 235 F g−1 at 0.1 A g−1 and a capacitance retention of 81.5% at 20 A g−1 in the 6 mol L−1 KOH aqueous electrolyte, and in a cell using the 1 mol L−1 MeEt3NBF4/propylene carbonate electrolyte, it gave the highest energy density of 30.4 Wh kg−1 and a power output of 18.5 kW kg−1.
基于“蛋盒”结构高电化学性能分级多孔炭的制备
李诗杰, 张明阳, 高岩, 李辉, 王茜, 张林华
2021, 36(6): 1158-1168.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60068-9
摘要(98) HTML(53) PDF(9)
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Enteromorpha prolifera (EP) was carbonized, treated by HCl pickling to remove Ca2+ ions to form an "egg-box" structure, and activated by KOH to obtain a porous carbon (PC). The porous texture and electrochemical performance of the PC were compared with one produced without the HCl pickling stage. Results indicate that the HCl treatment leads to the formation of a porous structure with a high specific surface area (SBET), up to 3 283 m2 g−1, with more than 66% of the surface area contributed by mesopores, while the carbon prepared without HCl treatment is microporous. The PC with the HCl treatment had an excellent electrochemical performance when used as the electrode material of a supercapacitor even at high current densities. Its gravimetric capacitance reached 361 F g−1 at a current density of 0.1 A g−1, and the capacitance remained at 323 F g−1 at a current density of 10 A g−1, both of which are higher than obtained using the PC without HCl treatment.
超级电容器电极材料与电解液的研究进展
焦琛, 张卫珂, 苏方远, 杨宏艳, 刘瑞祥, 陈成猛
摘要(574) [PDF 1209 KB](3170)
摘要:
超级电容器具有高功率密度、长循环寿命、良好的低温使用性能和安全性的优点,已经广泛应用到电子产品、能量回收和储能等领域。电极材料和电解液是决定超级电容器性能的两大关键因素,超级电容器常用的电极材料包括碳质材料(活性炭、碳纳米管、石墨烯、炭纤维、纳米洋葱碳等)、金属氧化物(金属氢氧化物)、导电聚合物及复合材料等;电解液主要有水系电解液、有机系电解液与离子液体。本文综述了超级电容器电极材料与电解液的研究现状,详细介绍了电极材料、电解液的性能及优缺点,并对新型电极材料和电解液的研究趋势提出展望。
氧化石墨烯对水泥基复合材料微观结构和力学性能的影响
王琴, 王健, 吕春祥, 刘伯伟, 张昆, 李崇智
摘要(668) [PDF 2388 KB](422)
摘要:
研究了不同掺量下氧化石墨烯(GO)对水泥石以及胶砂微观结构和力学性能的影响。含16.5%水的水泥浆、0.05%GO及3倍于水泥的沙子共混物作为添加剂制备成砂浆。通过SEM、液氮吸附仪和一系列标准实验分别对水泥石的微观形态、孔隙结构、抗压抗折强度以及水泥净浆的流动度、黏度、凝结时间进行表征;考察不同GO掺量下水泥水化放热的变化情况。结果表明:GO对水泥浆有显著增稠和促凝作用;GO的掺入可以有效降低水泥的水化放热量;GO对水泥石有显著的增强增韧效果,28天龄期时,GO质量分数为0.05%的水泥石,3、7和28 d抗压强度和抗折强度同比对照组分别增加52.4%、46.5%、40.4%和86.1%、68.5%、90.5%,胶砂的抗压强度和抗折强度同比对照组分别增加43.2%、33%、24.4%和69.4%、106.4%、70.5%;GO在水泥硬化过程中对水泥石中晶体产物的产生有促进作用并能规整晶体的排布而形成针状晶体簇,改善水泥石中的孔结构,降低水泥石中微孔的体积,增加水泥石的密实度,对水泥石有显著地增强增韧效果。
抗烧蚀C/C复合材料研究进展
付前刚, 张佳平, 李贺军
摘要(920) [PDF 2126 KB](1267)
摘要:
C/C复合材料因优异的高温性能被认为是高温结构件的理想材料。然而,C/C复合材料在高温高速粒子冲刷环境下的氧化烧蚀问题严重制约其应用。因此,如何提高C/C复合材料的抗烧蚀性能显得尤为重要。笔者综述C/C复合材料抗烧蚀的研究现状。目前,提高C/C复合材料抗烧蚀性能的途径主要集中于优化炭纤维预制体结构、控制热解炭织构、基体中陶瓷掺杂改性和表面涂覆抗烧蚀涂层等4种方法。主要介绍以上4种方法的研究现状,重点介绍基体改性和抗烧蚀涂层的最新研究进展。其中,涂层和基体改性是提高C/C复合材料抗烧蚀性能的两种有效方法。未来C/C 复合材料抗烧蚀研究的潜在方向主要集中于降低制造成本、控制热解炭织构、优化掺杂的陶瓷相以及将基体改性和涂层技术相结合。
原位聚合法与溶液混合法制备石墨烯/聚酰亚胺复合材料及其性能
马朗, 王国建, 戴进峰
摘要(730) [PDF 2344 KB](1343)
摘要:
利用化学氧化还原法制备出石墨烯。通过原位聚合法及溶液混合法制备出石墨烯/聚酰亚胺复合材料,考察不同复合材料制备方法对其机械性能及导电性能的影响,并对其作用机理进行探讨。结果表明,制备的石墨烯为二维的单层或寡层材料,加入到聚酰亚胺中能够增强其机械性能及电导率。相比溶液混合法,采用原位聚合法时石墨烯在聚酰亚胺基体中分散更均匀,对其团聚作用有更好的抑制作用,制备的复合材料性能更优异。采用该法加入石墨烯的量为1.0 wt%时,拉伸强度达到了132.5 MPa,提高了68.8%;加入量增加到3.0 wt%时,电导率达6.87×10-4S·m-1,提高了8个数量级,对聚酰亚胺的性能有显著的增强作用。
工程应用C/C复合材料的性能分析与展望
苏君明, 周绍建, 李瑞珍, 肖志超, 崔红
摘要(965) [PDF 739 KB](1172)
摘要:
评价了中国40多年来在航天、航空、光伏、粉末冶金、工业高温炉领域成功应用的针刺C/C,正交3D C/C、径编C/C、穿刺C/C、轴编C/C等五类C/C复合材料的物理、力学、热学、烧蚀、摩擦磨损、使用寿命等性能及特点,并与其他国家相应材料性能进行分析对比,为建立工程应用C/C复合材料共享的数据库平台奠定基础。揭示了炭纤维预制体、炭基体类型、界面结合状态与材料性能的关联度。指出炭纤维预制体结构单元精细化研究和其结构的梯度设计,以及炭基体的优化组合匹配技术,仍是C/C复合材料性能稳定化提升的重点研究方向。
多孔掺磷碳纳米管:磷酸水热合成及其在氧还原和锂硫电池中的应用
郭梦清, 黄佳琦, 孔祥屹, 彭翃杰, 税晗, 钱方圆, 朱林, 朱万诚, 张强
摘要(558) [PDF 2507 KB](670)
摘要:
碳纳米管优异的物理性质和可调的化学组成使其拥有广泛的应用前景。采用低温过程在碳骨架中引入磷原子预期带来可调的化学特性。本研究采用170℃下水热处理碳纳米管-磷酸混合物获得磷掺杂的碳纳米管。磷掺杂的碳管的磷含量为1.66%,比表面积为132 m2/g,热失重峰在纯氧环境下提升至694℃。当掺磷碳纳米管用于氧还原反应时,其起始电位为-0.20 V,电子转移数为2.60,反应电流显著高于无掺杂的碳纳米管。当其用作锂硫电池正极导电材料时,电极的起始容量为1106 mAh/g,电流密度从0.1 C提升至1 C时容量保留率为80%,100次循环的衰减率为每圈0.25%。
氧化石墨烯水泥浆体流变性能的定量化研究
王琴, 王健, 吕春祥, 崔鑫有, 李时雨, 王皙
摘要(566) [PDF 3710 KB](685)
摘要:
采用流变仪和激光共聚焦显微镜对不同氧化石墨烯(GO)掺量的新拌水泥浆体的流变参数以及浆体微观形态进行了定量化研究,并采用Modified-Bingham(M-B)模型和Herschel-Bulkley(H-B)模型对所测数据进行了拟合处理,提出了GO影响新拌水泥浆体的作用机理。结果表明,GO的掺入可以使新拌浆体中在减水剂作用下分散的水泥颗粒发生再次凝聚,形成重组絮凝结构,且随着GO掺量的增加,重组絮凝结构的数量越多,从而使得浆体流变性发生显著变化。一方面,新拌浆体的塑性粘度、屈服应力以及触变性随GO掺量的提高而显著增加。另一方面,GO的掺入提高了新拌浆体的临界剪切速率,使其在较大剪切速率下的流变行为仍然表现为剪切变稀;降低了浆体的剪切增稠程度,提高了浆体的稳定性。
石墨烯/聚合物复合材料的研究进展及其应用前景
曾尤, 王函, 成会明
摘要(570) [PDF 3574 KB](1561)
摘要:
随着石墨烯低成本宏量制备技术的突破,石墨烯的工业化应用进程已引起人们广泛关注。本文介绍了石墨烯在聚合物基复合材料领域的研究进展,侧重阐述石墨烯/聚合物复合材料在力学增强、导电/导热网络构建、防腐阻燃等方面的代表性研究成果,同时对商业化石墨烯产品及其复合材料应用进行了简单评述,探讨了石墨烯/聚合物复合材料领域目前存在的主要问题及未来发展趋势。
凹凸棒石/炭对低浓度亚甲基蓝的吸附性能
吴雪平, 徐艳青, 张先龙, 吴玉程, 高鹏
摘要(743) [PDF 2861 KB](1063)
摘要:
通过水热处理凹凸棒石和纤维素获得凹凸棒石/炭纳米复合材料,研究该复合材料对亚甲基蓝的吸附性能。考察吸附条件对吸附行为的影响,以及吸附动力学和热力学研究。亚甲基蓝的吸附行为符合二级吸附速率方程,吸附等温方程符合Langmuir方程。吸附热力学参数的计算值表明,亚甲基蓝在该复合材料上的吸附是自发、吸热的过程。
不粘煤基活性炭作超级电容器电极材料:硼、氮掺杂对其电化学性能的影响
陆倩, 徐园园, 木沙江, 李文翠
摘要(206) [PDF 1318 KB](435)
摘要:
以新疆不粘煤为原料,三聚氰胺为氮源,硼酸为硼源,通过球磨和后续活化过程合成硼,氮掺杂及硼氮共掺杂煤基活性炭。氮吸附结果显示杂原子掺杂可提高活性炭中介孔的含量。红外和X光电子能谱结果显示,硼、氮原子存在于炭骨架中。循环伏安,恒流充放电及电化学阻抗分析说明硼、氮掺杂活性炭的电化学性能优于非掺杂活性炭。其中,硼氮共掺杂活性炭具有176 F·g-1的高比容量。循环20 000次容量保持率为96%。共掺杂活性炭优异的电化学性能归因于硼氮的协同作用。
自组装软模板法制备有序中孔炭研究进展
黄正宏| 王 磊| 白 宇| 康飞宇
摘要(1798) PDF(10262)
摘要:
通过介绍自组装软模板法制备有序中孔炭的发展历程和基本原理,说明该方法具有操作简单、成本低、易于控制等优点。重点评述了自组装软模板法制备有序中孔炭在产物形貌控制和多级孔结构制备方面的研究进展,分析认为,今后的研究可以在拓展前驱体范围、提高宏观产物柔韧性以及导电性等方面得到进一步发展。
石墨烯的化学气相沉积法制备
任文才, 高力波, 马来鹏, 成会明
摘要(2347) PDF(6070)
摘要:
化学气相沉积(CVD)法是近年来发展起来的制备石墨烯的新方法,具有产物质量高、生长面积大等优点,逐渐成为制备高质量石墨烯的主要方法。通过简要分析石墨烯的几种主要制备方法(胶带剥离法、化学剥离法、SiC外延生长法和CVD方法)的原理和特点,重点从结构控制、质量提高以及大面积生长等方面评述了CVD法制备石墨烯及其转移技术的研究进展,并展望了未来CVD法制备石墨烯的可能发展方向,如大面积单晶石墨烯、石墨烯带和石墨烯宏观体的制备与无损转移等。