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不同温度下高温纯化后球形燃料元件A3-3基体石墨的性能和微观结构
ZHOU Xiang-wen, ZHANG Kai-hong, YANG Yang, WANG Lei, ZHANG Jie, LU Zhen-ming, LIU Bing, TANG Ya-ping
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60048-3
摘要(116) HTML(56) PDF(10)
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Matrix graphite (MG) was purified by high temperature purification (HTP), and their properties and microstructures were measured and analyzed to investigate the effect of HTP temperature on the property improvement of A3-3 MG as a pebble fuel element, and to optimize the purification temperature. Results showed that all the properties of MG specimens purified at temperatures from 1600 to 1900 ℃ met the technical requirements. X-ray diffraction analysis results showed that the microstructures of MG after HTP were significantly improved. With increasing the purification temperature from 1600 to 1900 ℃, MG gradually became ordered, the microstructures became better gradually for improving the comprehensive performance. The ash content decreased abruptly after HTP at 1600 ℃, but changed little when the purification temperature rose from 1600 to 1900 ℃. The microstructure improvement at high temperatures played a decisive role in increasing the oxidative corrosion resistance of MG. Therefore, HTP is very important and necessary, and cannot be canceled in the production of pebble fuel elements. This study provides an important reference to determine an optimal HTP temperature of pebble fuel elements for improving the production efficiency and reducing production cost in the commercial production of pebble fuel elements in the future.
石墨烯散热薄膜研究进展
LI Hao-liang, XIAO Shu-ning, YU Hong-liu, XUE Yu-hua, YANG Jun-he
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60092-6
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Graphene, owing to its outstanding thermal and electrical conductivity, has been regarded as one of the promising substitutes for heat dissipation or electromagnetic shielding and attracted widespread attention recently. Here, we attempt to summarize the current state of reduced graphene oxide films, graphene films and graphene-based composite films for thermal management, including the preparation and the applications. Additionally, the key factors that determine the thermal conductive performance of graphene films are also discussed to figure out the main challenges, especially in the scalable manufacturing of graphene-based films in the near future.
垂直排列碳纳米管阵列和炭/炭复合材料的制备、导热性能及其在热管理中的应用进展
DONG Zhi-jun, SUN Bing, ZHU Hui, YUAN Guan-ming, LI Bao-liu, GUO Jian-guang, LI Xuan-ke, CONG Ye, ZHANG Jiang
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60090-2
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The development of modern technology has put forward higher and more urgent needs for thermal management materials. Due to their low thermal expansion coefficient, excellent thermal conduction and high-temperature resistance, vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays and carbon/carbon composites have aroused extensive interests as ideal lightweight and stable thermal management materials. Here, we firstly introduce the thermal conducting mechanism of carbon materials. Then, we present the general fabrication methods, the main factors affecting thermal conductivity of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays and carbon/carbon composites as well as their applications in thermal management. The preparation-structure-performance relationships are outlined and the strategies for achieving high thermal conductivity are summarized. Finally, critical consideration on the challenges and prospects in thermal management applications of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays and carbon/carbon composites are presented.
三维石墨烯网络在导热聚合物复合材料中的构建及应用研究进展
WU Ni, CHE Sai, LI Hua-wei, WANG Chao-nan, TIAN Xiao-juan, LI Yong-feng
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60089-6
摘要(25) HTML(2) PDF(7)
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As the power consumption and heat generation of electronic devices continue to increase, higher demands are therefore placed on thermal management materials for heat dissipation. Graphene has been widely used as the thermal conductive filler to improve the thermal conductivity of polymers. However, the poor dispersibility of graphene nanoplates in polymers dramatically limits their practical applications in thermal management. A promising strategy to increase the thermal conductivity of polymer composites is to construct the interconnected three-dimensional graphene networks. This review summarizes the recent advancements in the construction and applications of three-dimensional graphene-based polymer composites (3D GPCs). The approaches to enhance the thermal conductivity of 3D GPCs are presented. The current challenges and our perspectives in the preparation and applications of 3D GPCs are proposed.
氧化石墨烯掺杂的电纺聚酰亚胺基石墨纳米纤维的导热性能
YUAN Ze-zheng, CHEN Wei, SHI Yun-kai, CHU Xiao-dong, HUANG Zheng-hong, GAN Lin, LI Jia, HE Yan-bing, LI Bao-hua, KANG Fei-yu, DU Hong-da
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60077-X
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Aromatic polyimide (PI)-based graphite nanofibers are obtained from the graphitization of graphene oxide (GO)-doped electrospun PI nanofibers. GO improves the PI molecular orientation, crystalline structure and thermal conductivity of PI graphite nanofibers. The degree of PI molecular orientation of the nanofibers is enhanced during fiber preparation by GO. The improvement of molecular orientation facilitates the increase in the thermal conductivity of the graphite nanofibers. As the addition of only 0.1% GO can lead to an apparent increase in the thermal conductivity of PI-based graphite nanofibers. The effect of GO on the thermal conductivity is not by itself, but by the improvement in PI molecular orientation and its role as nucleation centers in graphitization. This approach and the resulting high thermal conductivity materials show great potential for practical applications.
3D石墨烯在热管理及电磁防护应用中的研究进展
JIA Hui, LIANG Lei-Lei, LIU Dong, WANG Zheng, LIU Zhuo, XIE Li-Jing, TAO Ze-Chao, KONG Qing-Qiang, CHEN Cheng-Meng
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60088-4
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The three-dimensional (3D) graphene network structure has aroused great interest because it can effectively solve the agglomeration problem of graphene powder and improve its utilization efficiency. Simultaneously, such a structure possesses many advantages of a porous structure, lightweight, high thermal conductivity and superior electrical conductivity, which is widely used in thermal management and electromagnetic protection fields. To fully understand the 3D graphene networks, herein, we summarize different preparation strategies and properties of the isotropic and anisotropic 3D graphene networks. Then, the latest research progress of the applications of the 3D graphene networks, including thermal interface materials, phase change materials, electromagnetic interference shielding materials and microwave absorbing materials, is reviewed. Finally, the development and outlook of the 3D graphene networks have prospected. This review can provide new perspectives and research directions for the future development of the 3D graphene networks in heat dissipation and electromagnetic protection for 5G electronic devices.
高导热中间相沥青基炭纤维的微观结构研究
YE Chong, WU Huang, ZHU Shi-peng, FAN Zhen, HUANG Dong, HAN Fei, LIU Jin-shui, YANG Jian-xiao, LIU Hong-bo
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60050-1
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The microstructural characteristics of the high thermal conductive (500−1127 W·m−1·K−1) mesophase pitch-based carbon fibers were investigated based on the characterization of XRD, Raman spectroscopy, SEM and TEM. The relationship between microstructural characteristics and thermal conductivity was discussed. The results show that the radial structure is always accompanied by a split structure and high thermal conductivity. La has more significant impact on the thermal conductivity than Lc, and ID/IG value on the cross section obtained from Raman spectra can be used as an essential index to evaluate the thermal conductivity of the carbon fibers. The microstructural characteristics including large graphite crystallite size, high preferred orientation degree along the axis direction, and few crystallite defects contribute to the high thermal conductivity of the carbon fibers.
高导热聚酰亚胺石墨膜/环氧树脂复合材料的制备与性能表征
李文龙, 李轩科, 申克, 徐辉涛, 郭建光, 吴勇
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60091-4
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将环氧树脂(EP)分别涂敷于聚酰亚胺石墨带(GPTs)和聚酰亚胺石墨膜(GPFs),通过真空热压成型与分别采用堆叠和叠层方法制备得到GPTs/EP复合材料和GPFs/EP复合材料。借助 XRD、SEM和PLM等手段对GPF及其环氧树脂基复合材料的晶体结构、形貌和光学织构进行表征,并研究GPF的体积分数和尺寸对其复合材料导热性能的影响。结果表明,相比于GPFs/EP复合材料,GPTs/EP复合材料的导热性能在不同方向显示出较大波动,其热导率和热扩散系数总体上随GPF体积分数的增加而增大,GPF体积分数为80%时热导率为453~615 W (m·K)−1。而对应的 80 % GPFs/EP复合材料热导率稳定可达894 W (m·K)−1,并具有高取向的“三明治”结构。但在平行于热压方向上两类复合材料热导率都很低,GPF体积分数为80%时,GPTs/EP复合材料和GPFs/EP复合材料的热导率分别为1.82 W (m·K)−1和1.15 W (m·K)−1
一步法“改性-分子焊接”制备石墨烯/聚酰亚胺复合薄膜及其热管理应用
LI Hao-liang, WU Xian, CHENG Kui, ZHU Mo-han, WANG Liu-si, YU Hong-liu, YANG Jun-he
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60076-8
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Thermal management has been attracted much more attention due to the rapid development of 5G communication techniques. In this work, we propose an integrated “grafting-welding” method to deliver graphene/polyimide (g-A-mGO/PI) composite films. The modification is firstly conducted by using 1,3-Bis(4-aminophenoxy) benzene (APB-134) to anchor terminal amino groups on GO sheets. Hence, the in-situ polymerization of polyamic acid can directly occur with adding of pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) at these reactive sites to connect the micron-sized GO platelets through the chain propagation of polyimide (PI). The optimized g-A-mGO/PI-7% film exhibits a considerable enhancement of in-plane thermal conductivity (κ) by 48.92%. Moreover, it also displays superior anti-bending performance and survives from a 2000-cycle bending with small radius test, delivering an electrical resistance change less than 10%. Such a novel approach enables effective pathway for phonon transportation between graphene sheets to reduce the phonon scattering, and thereby offers a prospective application of the functionalized graphene derivatives for heat dissipation or thermal interface materials.
TiC改性碳纳米管增强中间相炭微球制备各向同性石墨
LIN Xiang-bao, CHEN Hui, WU Jing, WU Zhi-gang, LI Run, LIU Hong-bo
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60067-7
摘要(63) HTML(13) PDF(6)
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Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were modified by nano-TiC using a pressureless spark plasma sintering technology. TiC-modified carbon nanotubes (T-CNTs) were added into mesocarbon microbeads (MCMBs) to prepare high performance isostatically pressed graphite materials. The structures of T-CNTs and as prepared isotropic graphite materials were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, etc. The mechanical properties and thermal properties of isotropic graphite reinforced by T-CNTs were measured by a micro-controlled electronic universal testing machine, laser thermal conductivity meter and thermal expansion coefficient meter. Results show that nano-TiC is successfully grown on the surface of CNTs. Compared with the isotropic graphite prepared from MCMBs without T-CNTs, the isotropic graphite with T-CNTs has a significant improvement in physical properties (density, open porosity and volume shrinkage). The flexural strength and the degree of graphitization of isotropic graphite with T-CNTs is increased by 70% and 10%, respectively, the thermal properties are also improved to some degree.
“Egg-box”-assisted preparation of hierarchical porous carbon with excellent electrochemical property
LI Shi-jie, ZHANG Ming-yang, GAO Yan, LI Hui, WANG Qian, ZHANG Linhua
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60068-9
摘要(38) HTML(17) PDF(4)
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Based on the "egg-box" structure of calcium alginate in enteromorpha prolifera (EP), the carbonized products of EP are treated by HCl pickling to remove Ca2+ ions from calcium alginate and form the "egg-box" model initial pore structure. Then EP-based activated carbon is prepared by KOH activation method with the treated carbonized products as precursors. The pore characteristics and electrochemical properties of EP-based activated carbon are studied. The existence of hierarchical porous structures in EP-based activated carbon leads to a high specific surface area (SBET) up to 3283 m2 g−1, with more than 66% surface area provided by mesopores. This hierarchical porous carbon shows excellent electrochemical property when used as electrode materials for a supercapacitor, even at high current densities. The gravimetric capacitance value of the EP-based activated carbon reaches up to 361 F g−1 at the current density of 0.1 A g−1, the capacitance even remains at 323 F g−1 at the current density of 10 A g−1, demonstrating excellent high-rate capacitive performance.
Rational design of 3D CNTs/Ti3C2Tx aerogel modified separator as a LiPS regulator for Li–S batteries
YIN Fei, JIN Qi, ZHANG Xi-tian, WU Li-li
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60085-9
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Lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries suffer from fast capacity fading and inferior rate performance due to severe polysulfide (LiPS) shuttle and slow redox kinetics. To solve these issues, three-dimensional (3D) CNTs/Ti3C2Tx aerogel was successfully prepared with Ti3C2Tx as the active matrix and CNTs as the conductive pillars, and utilized as a LiPS immobilizer and promoter to modify the commercial Li–S battery separator. The unique design of highly porous 3D aerogel structure results in the sufficient exposure of Ti3C2Tx active sites by preventing their restacking, which not only offers abundant charge transport pathways, but also strengthens the adsorption and catalytic conversion of LiPSs. Moreover, the introduction of CNTs forms a highly conductive network to connect the adjacent Ti3C2Tx sheets, thereby improving the conductivity and structure robustness of the 3D aerogel. Owing to these merits, Li–S cells using CNTs/Ti3C2Tx aerogel modified separator show a high rate capacity of 1043.2 mAh g–1 up to 2 C and an admirable cycling life over 800 cycles at 0.5 C with a low capacity decay rate of 0.07% per cycle.
二维B、N掺杂炭片的电化学氧化及其赝电容性能
胡友仁, 董晓玲, 侯璐, 庄洪坤, 李文翠
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60084-7
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在炭基电极材料中引入氧化还原赝电容是提升其比电容的有效手段,有望解决炭基超级电容器低能量密度的瓶颈问题。本文通过原位电化学氧化,在B、N掺杂二维纳米炭片电极上引入电化学活性含氧官能团,以显著提升炭基电极的赝电容,并研究了B、N掺杂炭在不同氧化工艺下的表面组成和电容性能变化。结果表明,B、N掺杂可以提升氧化电极的电子传输和电荷转移,有效促进电化学氧化效果,提高电极的赝电容。此外,相比于恒压氧化工艺,循环伏安氧化方法可以有效提升炭电极的氧化深度和总氧含量,并且也有利于选择性地生成以电化学活性的醌基为主的含氧官能团。制备的氧化电极在1 A·g−1电流密度下显示出601.5 F·g−1的高比电容,并在20 A·g−1下仍保持74.8%,显示出良好的倍率性能。此外,氧化电极还表现出优异的循环稳定性,在5 A·g−1下8000次循环后保持了初始电容的92.6%。
双层堆叠对石墨烯材料量子电容影响的理论研究
CUI Guang-yu, YI Zong-lin, SU Fang-yuan, CHEN Cheng-meng, HAN Pei-de
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60079-3
摘要(353) HTML(50) PDF(514)
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Graphene is acknowledged as one of the ideal active electrode materials for the electrical double-layer electrochemical capacitors due to its extremely high specific surface area and outstanding current conductivity. By introducing defects or heteroatoms into the molecular structure of graphene, the electronic structure at defect areas could be altered, which would lead to the promotion of graphene’s quantum capacitance (QC) and the promotion of capacitor’s performance at last. One of the unavoidable problems for the manufacturing and utilizing of the graphene material is that the stacking of the graphene layers would affect electronic structure of graphene material, and eventually its capacitance. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are applied to discover that stacking leads to a numerical increasing of the surface charge density as the basal layer could contribute considerable amount of charge, which is most obvious on the pyrrolic-N double-layer graphene and 585 double vacancy defected graphene. Meanwhile, stacking would relieve the quantum capacitance performance difference caused by topological structure difference.The findings of this paper provide theoretical guidance for the micro-structure design of the graphene materials which is aimed to optimize the performances of electrochemical capacitors utilizing graphene as it’s electrode active material.
三维石墨烯-碳纳米管磁性气凝胶的制备及其染料吸附性能
Zu Rong Ang, Ing Kong, Rachel Shin Yie Lee, Cin Kong, Akesh Babu Kakarla, Ai Bao Chai, Wei Kong
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60029-X
摘要(232) HTML(114) PDF(29)
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Novel hybrid aerogels, which can be magnetically extracted from water to avoid filtration, were prepared by adding ZnCl2, NiCl2·6H2O, FeCl2·4H2O and FeCl3·6H2O into a suspension of graphene oxide and oxidzed carbon nanotubes followed by co-precipatation under basic condition, crosslinking with polyvinyl alcohol in water and freeze-drying. The hybrid aerogels consist of magnetic Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles, graphene oxide, carbon nanotubes and polyvinyl alcohol, which have active sites that attract dye molecules and can be extracted from water by applying magnetic field. Under an optimal mass ratio of the components, the optimized hybrid aerogel has a high adsorption capacity (qe=71.03 mg g−1 for methylene blue) and a moderate magnetic strength of MS = 3.519 emu g−1. Its removal efficiencies for methylene blue, methyl orange, crystal violet and their mixture with an equal mass are 70.1%, 4.2%, 8.9% and 11.1%, respectively under the same dye concentration of 0.025 mg. mL−1. It can be reused for 3 regeneration cycles with a regeneration efficiency of over 82%. Also it is not toxic to the living organism, suggesting that it is promising as an adsorbent for treating industrial wastewater.
多孔炭复合V2O3纳米材料用于锂离子电容器的研究
任晓龙, 艾德生, 吕瑞涛, 康飞宇, 黄正宏
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60070-7
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以NaCl为模板、结合冷冻干燥技术合成了多孔碳复合V2O3纳米材料,通过研究其用作锂离子电池负极材料的动力学特征,并与商业化活性炭构建锂离子电容器,研究其电化学性能。结果表明,多孔炭复合V2O3纳米材料具有赝电容行为,所构建的锂离子电容器同时具有高能量、高功率和长效循环稳定性,是一种很有前景的锂离子电容器负极材料。
Structure and Electrochemical properties of coconut shell-based hard carbon as anode materials for potassium ion batteries
HUANG Tao, PENG Da-chun, CHEN Zui, XIA Xiao-hong, CHEN Yu-xi, LIU Hong-bo
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60069-0
摘要(97) HTML(61) PDF(9)
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Biomorphic hard carbon recently attracted widely interest as anode materials for potassium ion batteries (PIBs) owing to their high reversible capacity, but high preparation cost and poor cycle stability significantly hinder its practical application. In this study, coconut shell-derived hard carbon (CSHC) was prepared from waste biomass coconut shell using a one-step carbonization method, which was further used as anode materials for potassium ion batteries. The effects of carbonization temperature on the microstructure and electrochemical properties of the CSHC materials were investigated by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and cyclic voltammetry, etc. The results suggested that the coconut shell hard carbon carbonized at 1 000 °C (CSHC-10) possessed suitable graphite microcrystallines size, pore structure and surface defect content, which exhibited the best electrochemical performance. Specifically, CSHC-10 presented a high reversible specific capacity of 254 mAh·g−1 at 30 mA·g−1 with an initial Coulombic efficiency of 75.0%, and the capacity retention was 87.5% after 100 cycles and 75.9% after 400 cycles at 100 mA·g−1. The CSHC with high capacity and good cycling stability demonstrates to be an excellent potassium storage material.
Rational construction of Co-loaded ceramic composites by recycling gangue for microwave absorption
LI Guo-min, SHI Shu-ping, ZHU Bao-shun, LIANG Li-ping, ZHANG Ke-wei
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60064-1
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In the context of sustainable development, tackling the severe solid wastes pollution has become extremely urgent. Herein, the solid waste gangue was successfully recycled to synthesize the ceramic based composite microwave absorbing materials decorated with Co particles through a novel synthesis method. The magnetic Co particles were uniformly loaded in the ceramic matrix by the pelletizing process with gangue and Co2+ following by the in situ carbothermal reaction, and the Co content in ceramic composites can be precisely controlled by adjusting the Co2+ concentration. Furthermore, compared with gangue, the obtained composites displayed optimized performance, the minimum reflection loss value reached −48.2 dB and the effective absorbing band was measured to be 4.3 GHz with the coating thickness of 1.5 mm, which is mainly attributed to the enhanced magnetic loss and multiple interface polarization. Such innovative design of recycling gangue in this work can effectively realize the resource utilization of gangue, which is also beneficial for the low-cost and light-weight of microwave absorbing materials as well.
三维多级孔炭封装硫制备在室温环境运行的锂硫电池
Shan Yuhang, Li Libo, Du Jintian, Zhai Mo
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60063-X
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Because of high-energy density and popular price, lithium-sulfur batteries had been applied extensively for future energy storage. However, it faced with lots of challenges, especially in the sulfur loading and the shuttle effect of the soluble polysulfide. To solve these problems, a three-dimensional multistage porous carbon(3D-MPC) material as the sulfur host of lithium-sulfur battery had been designed. The three-dimensional porous structure was prepared by a template method which removed the polymethyl methacrylate and the zinc oxide. Electron microscopy and BET tests showed that interconnected macroporous channels and abundant large-sized mesoporous materials synergistically constituted a three-dimensional conductive carbon network. The three-dimensional network structure was conductive for electron/ion transfer and the relief area of the cathode volume expansion by the physical limiting effect. The multistage holes alleviated the shuttle effect by the capillary condensation. The electrochemical test result showed that the 3D-MPC-S cathode had an excellent electrochemical property. The first discharge specific capacity of the 3D-MPC-S was 1314.6 mAhg−1 at 0.2 C with the sulfur loading of 70% in the practical environment. After 100 cycles, the high capacity retention rate was 69.13%. At 0.5 C, the capacity retention rate of 200 cycles in the practical environment was 59.02% and the average coulombic efficiency was 98.16%. The 3D-MPC-S cathode will further promote the commercial development of lithium-sulfur batteries.
电化学制备超细g-C3N4量子点及其电催化析氢性能
YANG Na-na, CHEN Zhi-gang, ZHAO Zhi-gang, CUI Yi
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60045-8
摘要(231) HTML(119) PDF(18)
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Benefiting from their high concentration of in-plane nitrogen element, superior chemical/thermal stability, tunable electronic band structure and environmental friendly feature, graphite-like carbon nitride (g-C3N4) as a new promising metal-free material has drawn numerous attention in photo-/electric-catalysis. Comparing to the regulation of band structure in photocatalysis, the deliberately synthesis of g-C3N4 electrocatalysts is mainly focused on the construction of catalytic sites and the modulation of the charge transfer kinetics. Herein, this work reports a rapid method for synthesizing ultrafine g-C3N4 quantum dots (QDs) via electrochemical exfoliation using Al3+ ions. The uniform g-C3N4 QDs with smaller lateral dimension and thickness are collected due to the higher charge density and stronger electrostatic forces of Al3+ ions in the lattice of host materials as compared to the conventional univalent alkali cations. The as-obtained g-C3N4 QDs exhibit average lateral dimension and thickness of 3.5 nm and 1.0 nm, respectively, as determined by the TEM and AFM measurements. Also, the presence of the rich C/N defects is verified by the UV-vis spectra. Encouragingly, the ultrafine g-C3N4 QDs exhibit superior hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) performance with an ultra-low onset-potential closely approaching to 0 V, and a low overpotential of 208 mV at 10 mA/cm2, as well as a remarkably low Tafel slope (52 mV·dec-1) in acidic electrolyte. Taking the fabrication of the ultrafine g-C3N4 QDs with rich C/N defects as an example, this work provides a simple and feasible way to exfoliate 2D layered materials into low-dimensional nanomaterials towards highly-efficient electrocatalysis, as well as the exploration of their fascinating physic-chemical properties.
蔗糖溶液制备微/介孔炭球及其电容性能
SHI Jing, TIAN Xiao-dong, LI Xiao, LIU Ye-qun, SUN Hai-zhen
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60044-6
摘要(100) HTML(63) PDF(10)
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Micro/mesopore carbon spheres as electrode materials of supercapacitors were prepared by hydrothermal carbonization followed by KOH/NaOH activation using sucrose as the carbon precursor. The effects of KOH and NaOH activation parameters on the specific surface area, pore size distribution and electrochemical performance of the carbon spheres were investigated. Results indicate that the use of NaOH leads to the development of mesopores while the use of KOH is favorable to increase specific surface area and micropore volume. The pore size distribution of carbon spheres could be adjusted by varying the fraction of NaOH in the activation agent. A balanced capacitance and rate performance of the supercapacitor electrode in both 6 mol L−1 KOH aqueous electrolyte and 1 mol L−1 MeEt3NBF4/PC electrolyte is achieved when the carbonized product is activated at a mass ratio of NaOH+KOH/ carbonized product of 3∶1 with a NaOH/KOH mass ratio of 2∶1. As-prepared porous carbon delivers a capacitance of 235 F g-1 at 0.1 A g-1 and capacitance retention rate of 81.5% at 20 A g-1 in the 6 mol L−1 KOH aqueous electrolyte. In 1 mol L−1 MeEt3NBF4/PC, the cell based on the porous carbon delivers the highest energy and power output of 30.4 Wh kg−1 and 18.5 kW kg−1, respectively.
煤基石墨烯促进TiO2光催化降解有机物
LIU Guo-yang, LI Ke-ke, JIA Jia, ZHANG Ya-ting
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60047-1
摘要(171) HTML(69) PDF(17)
摘要:
A reduced graphene oxide (H-rGO)/TiO2-composite (H-TiO2@rGO) as a catalyst for photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (Rh B) and methyl orange (MO) was prepared by hydrothermal treating a dispersant of TiO2 nanoparticles with sizes of 5-10 nm and GO obtained by the Hummers method from coal-based graphite in water. Compared with the M-TiO2@GO and M-TiO2@rGO composites by a wet mixing method, results indicated that the TiO2 nanoparticles in H-TiO2@rGO were uniformly decorated on both sides of rGO sheet, forming a stacked-sheet structure while apparent aggregation of TiO2 nanoparticles was found in both M-TiO2@GO and M-TiO2@rGO. Therefore, H-rGO@TiO2 had the highest catalytic activity towards degradation of Rh B and MO under visible light irradiation among the three, where the incorporation of rGO into TiO2 helps to narrow the band gap of TiO2, inhibit the recombination rate of electron–hole pairs and provide conductive networks for electron transfer.
石墨烯负载单原子钴催化剂的制备及其电催化二氧化碳还原反应性能研究
ZHANG Hui-nian, WANG Hui-qi, JIA Su-ping, CHANG Qin, LI Ning, LI Ying, SHI Xiao-lin, LI Zi-yuan, HU Sheng-liang
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60061-6
摘要(110) HTML(39) PDF(14)
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Developing highly selective, economical and stable catalysts for electrochemical converting CO2 into value-added carbon products to mitigate both CO2 emission and energy crisis is still challenging. Here, we report an efficient and robust electrocatalyst for CO2 reduction reaction (CO2RR) by embedding single-atom CoN4 active sites into graphene matrix. These highly dispersed CoN4 sites show an extraordinary CO2RR activity, with a high CO Faradaic efficiency of nearly 95% at −0.76 V (vs. RHE) and remarkable durability. The corresponding overpotential is 0.65 V. Our finding could pave the way for the design of high-efficiency electrocatalyst for CO2RR at the atomic scale.
杂原子掺杂的羧酸功能化碳材料制备及其有效吸附U(VI)的研究
LIU Yan, LIU Xiao-peng, DAI Ying, WANG Yun, YUAN Ding-zhong, LIU Jin-biao, CHEW Jia-wei
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60055-0
摘要(263) HTML(71) PDF(13)
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A N, S, P-codoped and oxidized porous carbon (CS-COOH) was prepared by carbonization of poly(cyclotriphosphazene-co-4,4’-sulfonyldiphenol), followed by KOH activation and oxidation with HNO3. The CS-COOH was used as an adsorbent for U(VI) in aqueous solutions. TEM, SEM, XPS and FTIR were used to characterize the microstructures of CS-COOH before and after adsorption. Results indicate that there is an optimal pH value of 6 for U(VI) adsorption. The adsorption kinetics and isotherm are fitted well by the pseudo-second-order model and the Langmuir model, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity determined by the Langmuir model at 298 K and a pH value of 6 is 402.9 mg g-1. The CS-COOH has an excellent reusability with a 70% capacity retention of the original value after five adsorption-desorption cycles. The high U(VI) adsorption capacity is mainly attributed to the carboxyl, and P ans S groups by the formation of the UO22+(COO)2 complex, U-O-P and U-O-S bonds.
用于锂离子高体积储存的致密石墨颗粒的湿法制备
ZHANG Jia-peng, WANG Deng-ke, ZHANG Li-hui, LIU Hai-yan, LIU Zhao-bin, XING Tao, MA Zhao-kun, CHEN Xiao-hong, SONG Huai-he
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60051-3
摘要(182) HTML(105) PDF(19)
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Graphite is the most widely used anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), and increasing the sphericity and density of graphite is the main way to further improve energy density of LIBs. Herein, we report a simple preparation of high tap-density graphite granules by the high-shear wet granulation. In this way, we densified two kinds of graphite into granule, namely wet-granulation graphitic onion-like carbon (WG-GOC) and wet-granulation artificial graphite (WG-AG). It is found that, compared with the original graphite before granulation, the tap density of WG-GOC increases by ca.34%, and WG-AG increases by ca.44%. Therefore, when as the anode of LIBs,, the volumetric capacities of WG-GOC and WG-AG have increased by ca.35% and ca.55%, respectively, at the current density of 50 mA g−1. In addition, the rate performance of WG-GOC also has been significantly improved. The volumetric capacity of WG-GOC increased by 169.1% at the current density of 2000 mA g−1. The significant improvement of electrochemical performance benefits from the higher tap density of the prepared graphite granules. Hence, we developed a facile wet-granulation to prepare high tap-density graphite anodes, which conducive to the development of high volumetric capacity.
高性能无烟煤基石墨的制备及其储锂性能研究
LI Yuan, TIAN Xiaodong, SONG Yan, YANG Tao, WU Shijie, LIU Zhanjun
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60057-4
摘要(111) HTML(63) PDF(16)
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In this study, cost-effective anthracite and industrial silicon powder were used as precursor and catalyst, respectively, to prepare graphite with various structure, during which the catalytic mechanism was analyzed. The results demonstrate that the as-obtained sample with 5% silicon catalyst (G-2800-5%) exhibits the best overall lithium storage performance. In detail, G-2800-5% display the best graphite structure with graphitization degree of 91.5%. As anode materials, a high reversible capacity of 369.0 mAh g−1 can be achieved at 0.1 A g−1. Meanwhile, the reversible capacity of 209.0 mAh g−1 can be obtained at the current density of 1 A g−1. It also delivers good cyclic stability with a 92.2% retention after 200 cycles at 0.2 A g−1. The highly developed graphite structure, which is favorable to the formation of stable SEI and reduced lithium ion loss should be responsible for the superior electrochemical performance.
氮/磷共掺杂废旧棉织物基活性碳的制备及其超级电容器性能
HUANG Ling, WANG Shuai, ZHANG Yu, HUANG Xiang-hong, PENG Jun-jun, YANG Feng
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60054-9
摘要(82) HTML(33) PDF(9)
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Transforming waste resources into energy storage materials is a new way to turn waste into treasure and solve the problem of energy shortage and environmental pollution in current society. In this paper, nitrogen/phosphorus co-doped activated carbon material was synthesized from the waste cotton fabric by one-step carbonization and activation in molten salt system combined with ammonium polyphosphate co-doping technology. The morphology, structure and composition of the materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nitrogen adsorption desorption (BET), Raman spectroscopy (Raman) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge/discharge (GCD) were used to test the supercapacitor performance of the prepared materials. The results show that the waste cotton fabric, which is mixed with ammonium polyphosphate in the ZnCl2/KCl molten salt medium, then treated by carbonization and activation under high temperature, generates the nitrogen/phosphorus co-doped activated carbon with the specific surface area of 751 m2·g−1. In the three-electrode system, the specific capacitance is as high as 423 F·g−1 (at a current density of 0.25 A·g−1), and its capacitance retention is as high as 88.9% of the initial capacitance after 5000 cycles at a current density of 5 A·g−1. Meanwhile, when the material was assembled into a symmetrical supercapacitor, the achieved energy density can be up to 28.67 Wh·kg−1 at a power density of 200 W·kg−1. According to these results, converting waste cotton fabric resources into energy storage materials has succeeded in achieving high value-added reuse of waste textiles.
液相烧结法制备MoSi2改性HfB2-SiC超高温陶瓷抗氧化涂层研究
REN Xuan-ru, WANG Wei-guang, SUN Ke, HU Yu-wen, XU Lei-hua, FENG Pei-zhong
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60060-4
摘要(82) HTML(52) PDF(16)
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In this paper, a liquid-phase sintering method was developed by combining in-situ reaction method with slurry method to prepare HfB2-MoSi2-SiC coatings with controllable composition, content and thickness. The effect of MoSi2 content on the oxidation protection behavior of HfB2-MoSi2-SiC composite coating under dynamic aerobic environment at room temperature ~ 1500 ℃ and static constant temperature air at 1500 ℃ was studied, the relative oxygen permeability was used to characterize the oxidation resistance of the coating. The results of dynamic oxidation test at room temperature ~ 1500 ℃ showed that the initial oxidation weight loss of the samples was delayed from 775 ℃ to 821 ℃, and the maximum weight loss rate decreased from 0.9×10−3 mg·cm−2·s−1 to 0.2×10−3 mg·cm−2·s−1 with the increase of MoSi2 content, the lowest relative oxygen permeability was reduced to 12.2%, resulting in the weight loss of the sample from 1.8% to 0.21%. In this paper, the mechanism of MoSi2 enhancing the ability of oxidation protection of the coating is revealed. With the increase of MoSi2 content, the amount of SiO2 glass phase in the coating is increased, and the dispersion of Hf-oxide on the coating surface is promoted, thus, the Hf-Si-O compound glass layer with higher stability can be formed, and the weight loss rate of the sample reduced from 0.46% to 0.08% after 200 h oxidation at 1500 ℃ in constant temperature air.
Hierarchical Porous Carbon from lignin-rich residue for High-Performance Supercapacitor
FANG Yan-yan, ZHANG Qian-yu, ZHANG Dong-dong, CUI Li-feng
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60058-6
摘要(131) HTML(36) PDF(6)
摘要:
Designing electrically conductive electrode material with a hierarchical pore structure from abundant raw material remains a significant challenge in the development of energy storage research. In this work, 3D porous carbons with high surface areas are synthesized via high-temperature carbonization and activation. The synthesized activated carbons deliver a specifical capacitance of 280 F g−1 and area-specific capacitance of 1.3 F cm−2 at a current density of 0.5 A g−1. The assembled symmetric supercapacitor can deliver a high energy output (7.7 Wh kg−1 at 5200 W kg−1). Thus, it is demonstrated the repurposing of lignin waste as electrode material can be a feasible resource that goes beyond the limitations of utilizing lignin in low value-added applications.
石墨磷引起的缺陷碳纳米管展现出较高的氢析出活性
AI Jie, LIU Zi-wu, SUN Mao-mao, LIU Ling, WANG Quan-de
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60052-5
摘要(106) HTML(61) PDF(10)
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The phosphorus-doped carbon materials as one of novel carbon catalysts towards the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) have attracted considerable attention over the past years. However, the role of C-P species palyed in the HER activity is still not clear up to now. Phosphorus-doped carbon nanotubes (P-CNTs) were prepared by chemical vapor deposition and annealed at 900, 1000 and 1200 ℃ to remove all or parts of phosporus species, resulting in four samples with different proportions of graphite-, pyridine- and pyrrole-like P species. The correlations between their HER activity and the contents of three types of P species were investigated. Results showed that the content of graphite-like P decreased with the annealing temperature and no graphite-like P was retained at 1200℃. The HER activity increased with the annealing temperature and the one annealed at 1200 ℃ had the highest HER activity in an acid medium with an overpotential of 0.266 V at a current density of 10 mA/cm−2. Density functional theory calculations revealed that the pentagon- and nine-membered ring defects formed by the destruction of graphite-P species contributed mainly to the HER activity, which gave a deep insight into the active sites for HER.
氢氧化钾处理中间相碳微球应用于高倍率钾离子电池负极
XIAO Nan, GUO Hong-da, XIAO Jian, WEI Yi-bo, MA Xiao-qing, ZHANG Xiao-yu, QIU Jie-shan
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60059-8
摘要(78) HTML(27) PDF(5)
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Graphite is one of the most promising anode materials for potassium-ion batteries (PIBs) due to its low cost and stable discharge plateau. However, its poor rate performance still needs to be improved. Herein, a novel graphitic anode was designed from commercial mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) by KOH treatment. Through limited oxidation and slight intercalation, an expanded layer with enlarged interlayer spacing formed on the surface of MCMB, by which the K+ diffusion rate was significantly improved. When served as the PIB anode, this modified MCMB delivered a high plateau capacity below 0.25 V (271 mAh g−1), superior rate capability (160 mAh g−1 at 1.0 A g−1), excellent cycling stability (about 184 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at 0.1 A g−1), and high initial coulombic efficiency with carboxymethyl cellulose as binder (79.2%). This work provides a facile strategy to prepare graphitic materials with superior potassium storage property.
表面官能化对热塑性涂层改性碳纤维表界面性质的影响
SU Ya-nan, ZHANG Shou-chun, ZHANG Xing-hua, JING De-qi
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60023-25
摘要(89) HTML(35) PDF(12)
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Hydroxyl- and amino- functionalized carbon fibers (CF-OH and CF-NH2) were prepared by surface oxidation with mixed acid and grafting with ethylenediamine, respectively. The functionalized CFs were sized with a sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) sizing agent to prepare CF-OH-SPEEK and CF-NH2-SPEEK. The effect of surface functionalization on the surface properties of CFs and the interfacial properties in PEEK maxtrix composites were investigated. Results show that the contents of polar functional groups and wettability of CFs increase significantly after surface functionalization. There are chemical reactions between CFs and the sizing agent, which improve the interfacial adhesion between CFs and the sizing agent. The interfacial shear strengths of CF-OH-SPEEK and CF-NH2-SPEEK reinforced PEEK matrix composites are increased by 6.2% and 14.0%, respectively, as compared with that of desized-SPEEK CFs. The surface functionalization is beneficial to improve the interfacial adhesion of thermoplastic-coated CF/PEEK composites.
功能集成策略制备孔结构可控的虾壳基多孔炭及超电应用
Gao Feng, Xie Ya-qiao, Zang Yun-hao, ZHOU Gang, QU Jiang-ying, WU Ming-bo
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60019-7
摘要(50) HTML(26) PDF(3)
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Highly efficient synthesis of nitrogen-doped carbons with different porous structures is reported using shrimp shell as the carbon and nitrogen source, and its CaCO3 component as the hard template and the activator. The content of CaCO3 in shrimp shell can be tuned easily in the range of 0-100% by leaching with an acetic acid solution for different times. CaO derived from decomposition of CaCO3 acts as the activator and template to tailor the pore sizes of the carbons. CO2 derived from decomposition of CaCO3 also plays an activating role. Their specific surface areas, pore volumes, ratios of micropore volumes to total pore volumes can be adjusted in the range of 117.6-1137 m2 g-1, 0.14-0.64 cm3 g-1, and 0-73.4%, respectively. When used as the electrodes of supercapacitor, the porous carbon obtained with a leaching time of 92 min exhibits the highest capacitances of 328 F g-1 at 0.05 A g-1 in a 6 M KOH electrolyte and 619.2 F g-1 at 0.05 A g-1 in a 1 M H2SO4 electrolyte. Its corresponding energy density at a power density of 1470.9 W kg-1 is 26.0 Wh kg-1. This work provides a low cost method for fabricating porous carbons to fulfill the high-value-added use of biomass.
2021年4期中文目次
2021, (4): 1-1.  
摘要(132) HTML(19) PDF(40)
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2021年4期英文目次
2021, 36(4): 1-5.  
摘要(52) HTML(12) PDF(18)
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综合评述
磷光碳点的结构设计、合成及其应用
康海鑫, 郑静霞, 刘旭光, 杨永珍
2021, 36(4): 649-664.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60083-5
摘要(210) HTML(64) PDF(70)
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Phosphorescent carbon dots (CDs) have great potential in energy, information, biomedicine, and other fields because of their long lifetime, long wavelength emission, and low background interference. However, there are still some challenges in their preparation and understanding their luminescence mechanism. For example, their triplet states are easily affected by the external environment, which leads to phosphorescence quenching. The phosphorescence mechanism and the effects of element doping, rigidity of structure, and conjugated structure on their properties are reviewed to address these issues. The synthesis methods include one step and two step methods. The uses of phosphorescent CDs are summarized and include information security, light emitting diodes, ion detection, and biological imaging. The existing problems are discussed and development directions are proposed.
炭负载铁系元素催化剂在氧还原反应中的应用研究进展
李平, 王焕磊
2021, 36(4): 665-682.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60072-0
摘要(136) HTML(62) PDF(37)
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Metal-air batteries are emerging energy devices that have received worldwide attention. The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is the key electrochemical process of metal-air batteries. The sluggish nature of ORR kinetics and the high cost of Pt-based ORR catalysts have severely hindered their large-scale application. As earth-abundant elements, the iron group elements have a variety of hybrid orbitals, and their incorporation into the carbon skeleton achieves good ORR catalytic activity, giving them great potential for substituting for Pt-based catalysts. Here, their uses for ORR and the function of each active site in the ORR process are summarized. The relationship between the microstructure and performance of these catalysts may help us fully understand the role of iron group elements in ORR and provide basic insight into the design of cheap catalysts with outstanding ORR catalytic performance in the future.
碳基功能材料在太阳能海水淡化中的研究进展
王天逸, 黄恒波, 李昊亮, 孙友坤, 薛裕华, 肖舒宁, 杨俊和
2021, 36(4): 683-701.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60066-5
摘要(311) HTML(127) PDF(69)
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Carbon materials are widely used in solar-powered seawater desalination (SSD) and have attracted a lot of attention in recent years. Recent developments of carbon-based solar absorbers in SSD are reviewed, including composites of carbon materials with other materials such as metal nanoparticles, semiconductors and biomass materials, their photothermal conversion mechanisms, light utilization efficiencies and salt resistance, and the processes of thermal transport and water transfer. The important roles of carbon in SSD are highlighted, including increasing light absorption, improving photothermal conversion efficiency, and balancing water transfer and salt resistance. The key challenges of carbon-based materials in SSD applications are discussed.
二氧化锰基超级电容器的电荷储能机理研究进展
唐晓宁, 朱绍宽, 宁坚, 杨兴富, 胡敏艺, 邵姣婧
2021, 36(4): 702-710.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60082-3
摘要(137) HTML(80) PDF(39)
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Carbon-based materials, such as carbon nanotubes, graphene and mesoporous carbons, are typical electrochemical double-layer capacitive electrodes of supercapacitors (SCs). Although these carbon electrode materials have excellent electrochemical stability, they usually have a low capacitance. Therefore, pseudocapacitive materials are often combined with them to increase capacitance. Among these pseudocapacitive materials, manganese dioxide (MnO2) has been widely used because of its high theoretical specific capacitance, low-cost, abundance, and environmentally friendly nature. However, the use of MnO2 often produces rather low actual specific capacitances due to its poor electrical conductivity, phase transformation and large volumetric changes during repeated charge and discharge. To explore high-performance MnO2/carbon composite electrode materials, it is necessary to understand the charge storage mechanisms of MnO2. These are analyzed and classified into four types: surface chemisorption of cations, intercalation-deintercalation of cations, a tunnel storage mechanism and a charge compensation mechanism. Although the fourth involves pre-interaction of the cations in MnO2, the essence of all these mechanisms is the valence transition of manganese atoms between +3 and +4, and many mechanisms are usually involved in MnO2-based SCs because of the complicated charge storage process. Critical challenges and possible strategies for achieving high-performance MnO2/carbon-based SCs are discussed and prospective solutions are presented.
石墨烯基材料在高性能锂金属电池中的研究进展
王信, 黄润青, 牛树章, 徐磊, 张启程, AbbasAmini, 程春
2021, 36(4): 711-728.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60081-1
摘要(257) HTML(122) PDF(75)
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Due to their relatively low energy density, commercial lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have faced difficulty in meeting the increasing requirements of energy storage devices for portable electronics and electric vehicles. Lithium (Li) with a high theoretical specific capacity (3860 mAh g−1) and low density (0.59 g cm−3) is regarded as one of the best anodes for next-generation high energy density Li metal batteries, e.g., Li-S and Li-O2 batteries. However, the safety problems induced by uncontrollable Li dendrite growth and a low Coulombic efficiency caused by an unstable solid electrolyte interphase layer, have limited their practical application. Graphene-based materials (GBMs) with a high specific surface area and controllable structures and chemical properties, have been shown to be important in solving these problems. Various protection strategies for Li metal anodes using GBMs are summarized and the design of GBMs with different roles and functions in Li metal protection is discussed. Challenges and possible solutions for the future development of GBMs used in Li metal anodes are discussed.
氧化石墨烯在水泥基复合材料中应用的研究进展
王琴, 齐国栋, 王悦, 郑海宇, 单思寒, 吕春祥
2021, 36(4): 729-750.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60071-9
摘要(155) HTML(42) PDF(28)
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Graphene oxide (GO) has significant strengthening and toughening effects on cement-based composites as a nano-reinforcement filler, and research progress on these materials is presented. The effects of GO on the properties of cementitious composites are summarized, including the dispersion stability of GO in a cement environment, the hydration properties, workability, rheological properties, mechanical properties and durability. Reinforcement and toughening mechanisms are proposed. Prospective research trends are discussed based on the problems already encountered
非层状过渡金属碳化物在能源存储与转换中的应用进展
高银红, 南旭, 阳尧, 孙兵, 徐文莉, WandjiDjouonkep Lesly Dasilva, 李轩科, 李艳军, 张琴
2021, 36(4): 751-778.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60065-3
摘要(256) HTML(113) PDF(33)
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Non-layered transition metal carbides (NL-TMCs) have diverse morphologies and structures, and tunable stoichiometric ratios, giving them many intriguing electrical/catalytic properties such as high gravimetric capacities, high conductivity and excellent stability. The latest progress in the use of NL-TMCs for energy conversion and storage applications is reviewed. Several routes to synthesize NL-TMCs are described, including carbothermal reduction, chemical vapor deposition, a template-assisted method and a hydro/solvothermal method. Their electrochemical performance in lithium-ion batteries, lithium-sulfur batteries and catalytic water splitting are presented. Current challenges for the rational design and fabrication of NL-TMCs for practical applications are discussed and future research suggestions are made.
石墨烯及其衍生物在生物医药方面的研究进展
刘阳, 丁婧, 王奇奇, 文美玲, 唐婷婷, 刘勇, 袁蓉, 李永锋, 安美文
2021, 36(4): 779-793.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60073-2
摘要(109) HTML(82) PDF(24)
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Graphene (Gr) is a monolayer of carbon atoms in a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice, and has derivatives of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide. Gr is widely used in various fields for its good optics, conductivity, mechanical properties, low toxicity, antibacterial properties, biocompatibility and stability. Graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide have similar properties to Gr, and all three materials have advantages and disadvantages and are often not used alone but are composited with other materials to improve their properties for a particular application. From the perspectives of the toxicity and antibacterial properties of Gr and its derivatives, this paper reviews their uses in treating skin wounds and tumours, promoting the regeneration of skeletal muscle and bone, and facilitating drug loading and diagnosis. The problems associated with these applications are analyzed and solutions are suggested. Future research and development prospects for Gr-based materials are presented.
空心炭球的制备及在双电层电容器中的应用进展
徐匡亮, 刘景, 严朝雄, 晋梅, 徐志花
2021, 36(4): 794-809.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(20)60517-0
摘要(216) HTML(107) PDF(25)
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Supercapacitors have become an important energy storage device. Based on their energy storage mechanism, supercapacitors are generally categorized into pseudocapacitors and electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs). Nowadays, carbon materials are used as the electrodes in commercial EDLCs. Hollow carbon spheres (HCSs) have attracted extensive attention for use as the electrode materials of EDLCs because of their large specific surface area, high electrical conductivity, excellent electrochemical stability and high mechanical strength. Progress on the preparation of HCSs is reviewed, including the hard and soft templating methods, template-free methods and the modified Stöber method. Their electrochemical performance as the electrode materials of EDLCs and the effect of their specific surface area, pore size and doped foreign atoms on their electrochemical performance are summarized, which gives insight into their low-cost preparation and high-performance for use in supercapacitors.
研究论文
二维二氧化钼/碳纳米管隔膜修饰层促进多硫化锂的催化转化
孔振凯, 陈阳, 华景朝, 张永正, 詹亮, 王艳莉
2021, 36(4): 810-820.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60080-X
摘要(137) HTML(62) PDF(26)
摘要:
A severe shuttle effect and the slow kinetics of lithium polysulfide (LiPS) conversion are two major obstacles to the practical use of lithium sulfur batteries. Ultra-thin 2D MoO2 nanosheets (MoO2 NSs) have been synthesized by chemical vapor deposition and then mixed with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for use as coating materials of the Celgard 2400 polypropylene separator to solve these problems. The 2D character of MoO2 NSs produced high surface/volume ratios and abundant active binding sites for anchoring LiPSs. In addition, the partial reduction of MoO2 NSs in a H2/Ar mixture introduced oxygen vacancies in their surface, which acted as catalytic sites for LiPS conversion, while the CNT network ensured rapid electron transfer for LiPS conversion reactions. Symmetric dummy cell tests showed that a 30wt%MoO2/CNT coated separator reduced the energy barrier for Li2S nucleation, and first-principles calculations verified its strong binding energy to entrap LiPSs and increase Li2S precipitation. Because of these features, a cell with a 30wt%MoO2/CNT coated separator had an improved specific capacity of 738 mAh·g−1 at 1 C with a slow decay rate of 0.053% for 800 cycles.
废茶渣磁性改性物的制备及其去铀性能
杨爱丽, 杨胜亚, 朱玉宽
2021, 36(4): 821-826.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60053-7
摘要(129) HTML(73) PDF(32)
摘要:
Used tea leaves, or tea waste (TW), were crushed into powder and mixed with graphene oxide (GO) in water, followed by adjusting the pH value of the resulting suspension with ammonia to 11, adding FeCl2·4H2O under magnetic stirring, filtration and drying to prepare a rGO/Fe3O4/TW (with mass ratios of 1∶2∶1) hybrid material. The structure and crystalline phases of the material were characterized by FTIR and XRD. Isotherms for uranium adsorption were obtained and its kinetics were measured in a conical bottle that was placed in a shaker. The effects of the pH value of the uranium solution, adsorption time and initial concentration on the uranium adsorption were investigated. Results indicate that the hybrid has a much faster adsorption rate than TW with an uranium removal rate up to nearly 100% in 20 min for an initial uranium concentration of 10 mg L−1. The maximum adsorption capacity of the hybrid is 103.84 mg g−1 while that of TW is 97.70 mg g−1. The hybrid with adsorbed uranium can be easily separated from the solution by applying a magnetic field. The isotherms and kinetics of uranium adsorption on the hybrid are best fitted by the Langmuir isotherm model and the pseudo-second-order model, respectively. The hybrid has good reusability with an uranium removal rate of about 85% after 5 cycles.
PAN预氧结构径向调控及其对炭纤维性能的影响
王云峰, 王一苇, 徐樑华, 王宇
2021, 36(4): 827-834.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(20)60516-9
摘要(167) HTML(93) PDF(15)
摘要:
The radial structure of polyacrylonitrile fibers oxidized before carbonization and its distribution directly affect the performance of the resulting carbon fibers. Optimizing the radial distribution of the oxidized structure and establishing a relationship between this structure and the mechanical properties of the final carbon fibers will help optimize the oxidation conditions for the preparation of high-performance carbon fibers. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, optical microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and mechanical tests were used to investigate the effect of the oxidation reaction rate on the radial distribution of the structure of the oxidized fibers and the mechanical properties of the resulting carbon fibers. The oxidation reaction rates were controlled by regulating the oxidation temperature gradient. Results show that the degree of oxidation increases with both the average and initial oxidation rates. By increasing the average oxidation reaction rate, the oxidized structure penetrates deeper into the core region of the fibers, the content of oxygen-containing functional groups increases, the thermal stability of the fibers decreases, and the degree of graphitization of the final carbon fibers increases, but the density of the fibers is decreased and their mechanical properties are degraded. Compared with sample obtained with the lower initial oxidation rate, the number of oxygen-containing functional groups, thermal stability, degree of graphitization and density of the final carbon fibers of the sample with the higher initial oxidation rate are higher, and its tensile strength and modulus are respectively 4.2% and 2.2% higher. A new type of carbon fiber with high strength, medium modulus and a relatively large diameter is obtained under the optimized oxidation conditions.
多壁碳纳米管的裁剪及其电容性能研究
李小燕, 王强, 王欢文
2021, 36(4): 835-842.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60086-0
摘要(108) HTML(42) PDF(35)
摘要:
Multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have achieved mass production, but their lengths are in the millimeter range, which is unfavorable for the diffusion of electrolyte ions into their innermost tube. We report an oxidation method to simultaneously cut and unzip MWCNTs along transverse and longitudinal directions, which leads to the formation of curved graphene sheets (CGSs). SEM shows that the curved morphology was retained but the diameters were large after unzipping. This could be caused by the interaction of oxygen-containing functional groups between layers on the edges of the CGSs. Because of the larger number of active sites the specific capacitance is improved. To further increase the capacitive performance, a sample was put into a 0.1 mol L−1 KMnO4 to incorporate MnO2. The microstructure of the resulting CGS-MnO2 hybrid was revealed by electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction. The results indicate that amorphous MnO2 successfully grew on the surface of the CGSs. The capacitive behavior was measured by cyclic voltammetry in a 1 mol L−1 Na2SO4 solution. The CGS-MnO2 had a specific capacitance of 236 F g−1 at 2 mV s−1 (even 127 F g−1 at 100 mV s−1), which is superior to that of MWCNTs (15 F g−1), CGS (88 F g−1) and MWCNT-MnO2 (111 F g−1). In addition, excellent cycling performance was achieved for the CGS-MnO2 hybrid electrode with a 97% capacitance retention over 1000 cycles.
树脂基球状活性炭用于焦油加氢后油品脱色研究
武俊成, 王建龙, 管涛涛, 张果丽, 李开喜
2021, 36(4): 843-850.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60056-2
摘要(129) HTML(52) PDF(32)
摘要:
采用悬浮聚合、水蒸气活化方法制备了树脂基球状活性炭(ACS),并进行硝酸氧化改性(NACS),用于焦油加氢后油品的脱色研究。通过SEM、N2吸附-脱附、FTIR、XPS、TG等技术对所制样品ACS和NACS进行结构性质表征。结果显示,经硝酸氧化改性后,NACS样品的表面形貌和孔结构并未受到显著影响,但球状活性炭表面的含氧官能团明显增加。选取两种典型的显色化合物对苯醌(PBQ)和N,N-二仲丁基对苯二胺(DBD)配置一定浓度的模型油进行吸附脱色,考察了吸附时间、吸附温度和吸附剂用量对吸附剂性能的影响。研究表明,NACS样品展现出良好的吸附性能,在一定的吸附条件下,对DBD和PBQ的脱色率分别达到94.5%和96.6%,除了球状活性炭表面微孔提供的活性位点之外,NACS表面官能团与有色物质形成的氢键可能对吸附性能的提升起着关键作用。重复使用6次后,吸附剂对两者的脱色率仍能达到90%以上,展现出良好的可再生性能。在对真实加氢油品脱色后,脱色效果显著,验证了所制备吸附剂在实际应用中的可行性。
超级电容器电极材料与电解液的研究进展
焦琛, 张卫珂, 苏方远, 杨宏艳, 刘瑞祥, 陈成猛
摘要(507) [PDF 1209 KB](3157)
摘要:
超级电容器具有高功率密度、长循环寿命、良好的低温使用性能和安全性的优点,已经广泛应用到电子产品、能量回收和储能等领域。电极材料和电解液是决定超级电容器性能的两大关键因素,超级电容器常用的电极材料包括碳质材料(活性炭、碳纳米管、石墨烯、炭纤维、纳米洋葱碳等)、金属氧化物(金属氢氧化物)、导电聚合物及复合材料等;电解液主要有水系电解液、有机系电解液与离子液体。本文综述了超级电容器电极材料与电解液的研究现状,详细介绍了电极材料、电解液的性能及优缺点,并对新型电极材料和电解液的研究趋势提出展望。
氧化石墨烯对水泥基复合材料微观结构和力学性能的影响
王琴, 王健, 吕春祥, 刘伯伟, 张昆, 李崇智
摘要(605) [PDF 2388 KB](420)
摘要:
研究了不同掺量下氧化石墨烯(GO)对水泥石以及胶砂微观结构和力学性能的影响。含16.5%水的水泥浆、0.05%GO及3倍于水泥的沙子共混物作为添加剂制备成砂浆。通过SEM、液氮吸附仪和一系列标准实验分别对水泥石的微观形态、孔隙结构、抗压抗折强度以及水泥净浆的流动度、黏度、凝结时间进行表征;考察不同GO掺量下水泥水化放热的变化情况。结果表明:GO对水泥浆有显著增稠和促凝作用;GO的掺入可以有效降低水泥的水化放热量;GO对水泥石有显著的增强增韧效果,28天龄期时,GO质量分数为0.05%的水泥石,3、7和28 d抗压强度和抗折强度同比对照组分别增加52.4%、46.5%、40.4%和86.1%、68.5%、90.5%,胶砂的抗压强度和抗折强度同比对照组分别增加43.2%、33%、24.4%和69.4%、106.4%、70.5%;GO在水泥硬化过程中对水泥石中晶体产物的产生有促进作用并能规整晶体的排布而形成针状晶体簇,改善水泥石中的孔结构,降低水泥石中微孔的体积,增加水泥石的密实度,对水泥石有显著地增强增韧效果。
抗烧蚀C/C复合材料研究进展
付前刚, 张佳平, 李贺军
摘要(850) [PDF 2126 KB](1261)
摘要:
C/C复合材料因优异的高温性能被认为是高温结构件的理想材料。然而,C/C复合材料在高温高速粒子冲刷环境下的氧化烧蚀问题严重制约其应用。因此,如何提高C/C复合材料的抗烧蚀性能显得尤为重要。笔者综述C/C复合材料抗烧蚀的研究现状。目前,提高C/C复合材料抗烧蚀性能的途径主要集中于优化炭纤维预制体结构、控制热解炭织构、基体中陶瓷掺杂改性和表面涂覆抗烧蚀涂层等4种方法。主要介绍以上4种方法的研究现状,重点介绍基体改性和抗烧蚀涂层的最新研究进展。其中,涂层和基体改性是提高C/C复合材料抗烧蚀性能的两种有效方法。未来C/C 复合材料抗烧蚀研究的潜在方向主要集中于降低制造成本、控制热解炭织构、优化掺杂的陶瓷相以及将基体改性和涂层技术相结合。
原位聚合法与溶液混合法制备石墨烯/聚酰亚胺复合材料及其性能
马朗, 王国建, 戴进峰
摘要(630) [PDF 2344 KB](1336)
摘要:
利用化学氧化还原法制备出石墨烯。通过原位聚合法及溶液混合法制备出石墨烯/聚酰亚胺复合材料,考察不同复合材料制备方法对其机械性能及导电性能的影响,并对其作用机理进行探讨。结果表明,制备的石墨烯为二维的单层或寡层材料,加入到聚酰亚胺中能够增强其机械性能及电导率。相比溶液混合法,采用原位聚合法时石墨烯在聚酰亚胺基体中分散更均匀,对其团聚作用有更好的抑制作用,制备的复合材料性能更优异。采用该法加入石墨烯的量为1.0 wt%时,拉伸强度达到了132.5 MPa,提高了68.8%;加入量增加到3.0 wt%时,电导率达6.87×10-4S·m-1,提高了8个数量级,对聚酰亚胺的性能有显著的增强作用。
工程应用C/C复合材料的性能分析与展望
苏君明, 周绍建, 李瑞珍, 肖志超, 崔红
摘要(778) [PDF 739 KB](1159)
摘要:
评价了中国40多年来在航天、航空、光伏、粉末冶金、工业高温炉领域成功应用的针刺C/C,正交3D C/C、径编C/C、穿刺C/C、轴编C/C等五类C/C复合材料的物理、力学、热学、烧蚀、摩擦磨损、使用寿命等性能及特点,并与其他国家相应材料性能进行分析对比,为建立工程应用C/C复合材料共享的数据库平台奠定基础。揭示了炭纤维预制体、炭基体类型、界面结合状态与材料性能的关联度。指出炭纤维预制体结构单元精细化研究和其结构的梯度设计,以及炭基体的优化组合匹配技术,仍是C/C复合材料性能稳定化提升的重点研究方向。
多孔掺磷碳纳米管:磷酸水热合成及其在氧还原和锂硫电池中的应用
郭梦清, 黄佳琦, 孔祥屹, 彭翃杰, 税晗, 钱方圆, 朱林, 朱万诚, 张强
摘要(486) [PDF 2507 KB](669)
摘要:
碳纳米管优异的物理性质和可调的化学组成使其拥有广泛的应用前景。采用低温过程在碳骨架中引入磷原子预期带来可调的化学特性。本研究采用170℃下水热处理碳纳米管-磷酸混合物获得磷掺杂的碳纳米管。磷掺杂的碳管的磷含量为1.66%,比表面积为132 m2/g,热失重峰在纯氧环境下提升至694℃。当掺磷碳纳米管用于氧还原反应时,其起始电位为-0.20 V,电子转移数为2.60,反应电流显著高于无掺杂的碳纳米管。当其用作锂硫电池正极导电材料时,电极的起始容量为1106 mAh/g,电流密度从0.1 C提升至1 C时容量保留率为80%,100次循环的衰减率为每圈0.25%。
氧化石墨烯水泥浆体流变性能的定量化研究
王琴, 王健, 吕春祥, 崔鑫有, 李时雨, 王皙
摘要(487) [PDF 3710 KB](683)
摘要:
采用流变仪和激光共聚焦显微镜对不同氧化石墨烯(GO)掺量的新拌水泥浆体的流变参数以及浆体微观形态进行了定量化研究,并采用Modified-Bingham(M-B)模型和Herschel-Bulkley(H-B)模型对所测数据进行了拟合处理,提出了GO影响新拌水泥浆体的作用机理。结果表明,GO的掺入可以使新拌浆体中在减水剂作用下分散的水泥颗粒发生再次凝聚,形成重组絮凝结构,且随着GO掺量的增加,重组絮凝结构的数量越多,从而使得浆体流变性发生显著变化。一方面,新拌浆体的塑性粘度、屈服应力以及触变性随GO掺量的提高而显著增加。另一方面,GO的掺入提高了新拌浆体的临界剪切速率,使其在较大剪切速率下的流变行为仍然表现为剪切变稀;降低了浆体的剪切增稠程度,提高了浆体的稳定性。
石墨烯/聚合物复合材料的研究进展及其应用前景
曾尤, 王函, 成会明
摘要(521) [PDF 3574 KB](1560)
摘要:
随着石墨烯低成本宏量制备技术的突破,石墨烯的工业化应用进程已引起人们广泛关注。本文介绍了石墨烯在聚合物基复合材料领域的研究进展,侧重阐述石墨烯/聚合物复合材料在力学增强、导电/导热网络构建、防腐阻燃等方面的代表性研究成果,同时对商业化石墨烯产品及其复合材料应用进行了简单评述,探讨了石墨烯/聚合物复合材料领域目前存在的主要问题及未来发展趋势。
凹凸棒石/炭对低浓度亚甲基蓝的吸附性能
吴雪平, 徐艳青, 张先龙, 吴玉程, 高鹏
摘要(695) [PDF 2861 KB](1063)
摘要:
通过水热处理凹凸棒石和纤维素获得凹凸棒石/炭纳米复合材料,研究该复合材料对亚甲基蓝的吸附性能。考察吸附条件对吸附行为的影响,以及吸附动力学和热力学研究。亚甲基蓝的吸附行为符合二级吸附速率方程,吸附等温方程符合Langmuir方程。吸附热力学参数的计算值表明,亚甲基蓝在该复合材料上的吸附是自发、吸热的过程。
石墨烯/炭黑杂化材料:新型、高效锂离子电池二元导电剂
李用, 吕小慧, 苏方远, 贺艳兵, 李宝华, 杨全红, 康飞宇
摘要(685) [PDF 954 KB](1562)
摘要:
采用CTAB为表面活性剂将氧化石墨烯和炭黑均匀分散,经水热过程将二者组装到一起,进而高温热处理得到石墨烯/炭黑杂化材料。该材料是一种具有独特结构和良好性能的石墨烯/炭黑杂化材料作为锂离子电池二元导电剂。炭黑颗粒均匀分布在石墨烯表面,可防止石墨烯片层团聚并进一步提高电子导电效率。由于炭黑可增加对电解液的吸附,促进电极内部锂离子的传输过程,最终提高锂离子电池的倍率性能。结果表明,使用质量分数5% 900 ℃热处理之后的二元导电剂的LiFePO4,在10 C时比容量为73 mAh/g,优于使用10%炭黑导电剂时的LiFePO4 (10 C比容量为62 mAh/g)。按照整个电极质量计算,前者的比容量性能比后者提高了近25%,同时在循环性能方面,前者的稳定性也优于后者。
自组装软模板法制备有序中孔炭研究进展
黄正宏| 王 磊| 白 宇| 康飞宇
摘要(1754) PDF(10260)
摘要:
通过介绍自组装软模板法制备有序中孔炭的发展历程和基本原理,说明该方法具有操作简单、成本低、易于控制等优点。重点评述了自组装软模板法制备有序中孔炭在产物形貌控制和多级孔结构制备方面的研究进展,分析认为,今后的研究可以在拓展前驱体范围、提高宏观产物柔韧性以及导电性等方面得到进一步发展。
石墨烯的化学气相沉积法制备
任文才, 高力波, 马来鹏, 成会明
摘要(2234) PDF(6062)
摘要:
化学气相沉积(CVD)法是近年来发展起来的制备石墨烯的新方法,具有产物质量高、生长面积大等优点,逐渐成为制备高质量石墨烯的主要方法。通过简要分析石墨烯的几种主要制备方法(胶带剥离法、化学剥离法、SiC外延生长法和CVD方法)的原理和特点,重点从结构控制、质量提高以及大面积生长等方面评述了CVD法制备石墨烯及其转移技术的研究进展,并展望了未来CVD法制备石墨烯的可能发展方向,如大面积单晶石墨烯、石墨烯带和石墨烯宏观体的制备与无损转移等。