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MXene基纳米材料在高性能水系锌离子混合电容器中的研究进展
ZHANG Ming-hui, XU Wen, WU Li-sha, DONG Yan-feng
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60611-5
摘要(119) HTML(43) PDF(22)
摘要:
Aqueous zinc-ion hybrid capacitors (ZHCs) have an intrinsic safety and low cost, and are promising for use in large-scale energy storage devices. However, traditional porous carbon cathodes have inappropriate pore structures for zinc ion storage and diffusion. Moreover, zinc foil anodes suffer from the growth of Zn dendrites and side reactions, so that traditional ZHCs usually have a non-competitive energy density and unsatisfactory service life, seriously inhibiting their practical use. Two-dimensional transition metal carbide/nitride MXenes with a highly conductive matrix and abundant surface functional groups are good choices for constructing high-capacity cathodes and long-life Zn anodes for high-performance ZHCs. Recent progress in MXene-based nanomaterials as electrode materials of advanced ZHCs is summarized. The fundamentals of ZHCs are first introduced, such as working principles and key electrochemical parameters. The use of various MXene-based cathodes and anodes in high-performance aqueous ZHCs are then considered and, finally, the challenges and prospects for MXene-based nanomaterials for next-generation ZHCs are briefly discussed.
炭材料的活性位点设计及其电化学储钾研究进展
GENG Chao, CHEN Ya-xin, SHI Li-luo, SUN Zong-fu, ZHANG Lei, XIAO An-yong, JIANG Jiang-min, ZHUANG Quan-chao, JU Zhi-cheng
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60612-7
摘要(55) HTML(28) PDF(12)
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Carbon materials have attracted considerable attention as anodes for potassium ion batteries owing to their low-cost, nontoxicity, and controllable structures. The potassium storage behavior of carbon materials is highly associated with their active sites. In recent years, significant advances have been made in designing the active sites of carbon materials to meet the requirements of different potassium-based storage devices. Here, potassium storage mechanisms (intercalation and adsorption) for guiding the rational design of carbon materials are discussed. Based on these mechanisms, the review provides fundamental insight into the relationship between the structures and potassium storage performance of different carbon materials, including graphite, soft carbon, hard carbon, porous carbon, heteroatom-doped carbon, hybridized carbon and composited carbon. The structural design principles of carbon anode materials for potassium-ion full cell and potassium-ion capacitors are summarized based on the initial coulombic efficiency, capacity, potential plateau, rate performance, and cyclic stability. Finally, the problems and future research directions for the design of active sites in carbon materials for electrochemical potassium storage are considered.
面向气体分离的聚合物衍生碳分子筛膜研究进展
LI Hao-jie, LIU Yao-dong
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60613-9
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Membrane technology for gas separation and purification has unique economic and environmental advantages over conventional purification processes. Carbon molecular sieve membranes (CMSMs) have a higher gas permeability, selectivity, chemical resistance, and better thermal stability than polymer membranes, and have therefore received more attention. CMSMs are commonly fabricated by the pyrolysis of polymer precursors such as polyimides, resins, cellulose and polyetherimide. The reported fabrication process and gas separation performance of CMSMs made from various precursors are summarized and discussed. Both the chemical and physical structures of the precursor membranes affect the carbon structures and gas separation performances of the resulting CMSMs. Overall, the gas separation performance of CMSMs has been significantly improved in the last 20 years, and their possible commercial use is not far away. An in-depth understanding of this progress on CMSMs should provide researchers from different fields an understanding of how to promote their fabrication and applications.
抑制锂硫电池多硫化物穿梭的隔膜界面工程
LONG Xiang, ZHU Shao-kuan, SONG Ya, ZHENG Min, SHAO Jiao-jing, SHI Bin
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60614-0
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Lithium-sulfur batteries have attracted extensive attention because of their high theoretical specific energy storage capacity and energy density. However, the shuttling of polysulfides greatly hinders their practical use. Many studies show that engineering the interface between separators and cathodes is an effective strategy to solve this problem. Ways to inhibit the shuttling can be divided into physical blocking, chemical adsorption, and catalysis. Among the interfacial materials, carbon materials have attracted enormous attention due to their high electrical conductivity, large specific area, and high pore volume. However, their non-polarity makes it impossible for them to bind polysulfides tightly and heteroatoms/functional groups are incorporated in them or highly polar materials are composited with them in the design of the interfacial materials. In addition, the catalytic effect of the carbon in the polysulfide conversion is believed to be very important in effectively suppressing the shuttling. This review focuses on the detailed strategies and functions of interfacial engineering in addressing the problems and challenges in the use of lithium sulfur batteries. Finally, practical applications of lithium sulfur batteries are proposed, based on a combination of various measures including interfacial engineering.
面向微污染水处理的三重功能电催化炭膜制备及性能
於芳朋, 潘宗林, 李琳, 宋成文, 王同华
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60610-3
摘要(130) HTML(18) PDF(6)
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以椰壳活性炭为原料,设计制备一种具有吸附、电催化氧化、膜过滤三重功能的电催化炭膜(TCM),通过调节原料配比、炭化温度以及原料活性炭的粒径实现对TCM性能的调控。采用SEM、XRD、拉曼和氮吸附等技术对TCM的形貌与结构进行表征,并以TCM为阳极构建电催化膜反应器(ECMR),考察其水处理性能。结果表明,TCM具有发达的孔道结构和较高的比表面积,整体呈现出大孔-介孔-微孔的多级孔道结构,并具有良好的机械强度与导电性;改变活性炭的粒径可以有效调控TCM的孔道结构。TCM对水中微污染有机物和重金属离子均具有较高的吸附量;在外加2 V电压电场下,对水中亚铁氰化钾的氧化率为98.4%,表现出良好的电催化氧化活性;在低压电场的作用下处理真实微污染水时,炭膜的三重功能协同作用使其展现出优异的综合处理性能,其中COD、UV254、浊度以及细菌的去除率分别达到了94.3%、90.5%、96.3%和100%,重金属离子几乎完全去除,出水水质得到显著地改善,并且水渗透通量有所提升,具有良好的抗污染性能。
液相烧结法制备MoSi2改性HfB2-SiC超高温陶瓷抗氧化涂层
REN Xuan-ru, WANG Wei-guang, SUN Ke, HU Yu-wen, XU Lei-hua, FENG Pei-zhong
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60060-4
摘要(244) HTML(129) PDF(32)
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A liquid-phase sintering method combining an in-situ reaction method with a slurry method was used to prepare HfB2-MoSi2-SiC coatings with controllable composition, content and thickness. The effect of the MoSi2 content on the oxidation protection behavior of HfB2-MoSi2-SiC composite coatings under dynamic aerobic environment at room temperature ~1500 °C and static constant temperature air at 1500 °C was investigated. The relative oxygen permeability was used to characterize the oxidation resistance of the coatings. The results of dynamic oxidation test at room temperature ~1500 °C show that the initial oxidation weight loss temperature of the samples is delayed from 775 to 821 °C, and the maximum weight loss rate is decreased from 0.9×10−3 to 0.2×10−3 mg·cm−2·s−1 with increasing the MoSi2 content, the lowest relative oxygen permeability is reduced to 12.2%, resulting in a decrease of the weight loss of the sample from 1.8% to 0.21%. The mechanism of MoSi2 enhancing the ability of oxidation protection of the coatings is revealed. With the increase of the MoSi2 content, the amount of SiO2 glass phase in the coating is increased, and the dispersion of Hf-oxide on the coating surface is promoted, thus, the Hf-Si-O glass layer with higher stability can be formed, and the weight loss rate of the sample is reduced from 0.46% to 0.08% after 200 h oxidation at 1500 °C in constant temperature air.
源自软木塞的碳量子点的水热合成及其生物相融荧光成像应用
Quang Ngo Khoa, Hieu Nguyen Ngoc, Bao Vo Van Quoc, Phuoc Vo Thi, Ngoc Le Xuan Diem, Doc Luong Quang, Tri Nguyen Minh, Son Le Vu Truong, Son Le Van Thanh, Ha Che Thi Cam
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60608-5
摘要(266) HTML(112) PDF(26)
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A low-cost and simple method was presented to synthesize carbon nanodots (CDs) from waste wine cork using hydrothermal treatment. The structural and optical properties of the CDs were characterized by TEM, FTIR, Raman, UV-Vis absorption, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The results indicate that the CDs have an average diameter of ~ 6.2 ± 2.7 nm and excitation-dependent PL relates to the functional groups on the surface of the CD particles. The CDs have a quantum yield of 1.54% as estimated using quinine sulfate as a reference. The CDs have been successfully applied in bioimaging mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). After treatment with the CDs, MSCs exhibit fluorescence of green, yellow and red colors under the excitation wavelengths in the ranges 320-380 nm, 450-490 nm, and 515-560 nm, respectively, demonstrating their potential applications in the field of the fluorescent imaging.
泥碳基氮掺杂多孔炭用于光热辅助可见光光解水制氢
BAI Jin-peng, XIAO Nan, SONG Xue-dan, XIAO Jian, QIU Jie-shan
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60593-6
摘要(82) HTML(54) PDF(17)
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Photocatalytic H2 evolution is considered as one of the most promising technologies for H2 production. Carbon materials are potential candidates for large-scale and cost-effective photocatalytic water splitting, yet their activity needs to be further enhanced. Here, we report the synthesis of nitrogen-doped porous carbons with peat moss as a precursor and urea as nitrogen source. The properties of the as-synthesized carbons as photothermal-assisted visible-light photocatalysts are investigated. Due to the photothermal effect, the system temperature rises quickly, up to 55 oC within 15 min under visible light irradiation, which subsequently helps to increase the photocatalytic activity by about 25%. It has been found that the crystallinity and doping content of nitrogen of the peat-derived carbon materials can be tuned by changing the carbonization temperature, which have impacts on the photocatalytic activity of the concerned carbons. Under the photothermal-assisted visible-light conditions, the peat-derived carbon with a N content of 4.88 at.% and an appropriate crystallinity exhibits an outstanding photocatalytic activity with a high H2 evolution rate of 75.6 μmol H2 g−1 h−1.
具有高体积比电容的富氮褶皱石墨烯的制备
YU Qiong, WANG Yong-zhi, MENG Meng, SHEN Shu-ling, TANG Zhi-hong, YANG Jun-he
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60599-7
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The low volumetric capacity and sluggish diffusion at high mass loading of active materials per area hindered the improvement of energy density and power density of supercapacitors. Here, a mixture of graphene oxide (GO) and urea in water was treated by an ultrasonic atomizer to form aerosol droplets, which were dried to obtained crumpled GO/urea particles. A crumpled graphene with a nitrogen content of 11.38 atm% was obtained by the heat shock of the particles at 600 °C for 50 s. A volumetric capacitance of 384.0 F cm−3 was achieved by using the crumpled graphene as supercapacitor electrodes. Even at a high current density (10 A g−1) and a high loading of the crumpled graphene (21.00 mg per electrode with a diameter of 6 mm), the specific capacitance retention could still be kept high. It was proposed that N doping in the forms of pyrrole, imide, lactam, and other types of pyridine-like nitrogen and high surface area of the sample were key factors for improving the capacitance. The crumpled structure provided high mass transfer of the ions and high accessibility for ions to surface.
三明治状多孔石墨烯基纳米片用于高性能电容器
SUN Bing, TANG Wen, XIANG Hui, XU Wen-li, CONG Ye, YUAN Guan-ming, ZHU Hui, ZHANG Qin, LI Xuan-ke
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60604-8
摘要(54) HTML(27) PDF(16)
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An ideal electrode consists of three-dimensional (3D) interpenetrating electron and ion pathways with short transport distance. Graphene-based carbon materials offer new and fascinating opportunities for high performance supercapacitor electrodes due to the excellent conductivity in plane and larger surface areas. In this work, a sandwich-like hierarchical porous graphene-based electrode composed of graphene nanosheets sandwiched between resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin carbon (CGCs) with a tunable thickness is constructed, then the pores of CGSs were further enriched via a chemical activation. Such a 3D cross-linked structure provides abundant transport channels for ions, as well as reduced ion-path. The bilateral porous carbon accelerates diffusive mass transport in the electrolyte phase across the porous electrode. Besides, the graphene networks enhance the conductivity, boosting electron transport. As expected, the original CGS activated by KOH (KACGS) with a high surface area of 690 m2 g–1 exhibits a high specific capacitance up to 324 F g–1 in 6 mol L−1 aqueous KOH solution at a current density of 0.2 A g–1. Compared with the initial capacitance, more than 99% of capacitance is well retained after 8000 charge–discharge cycles at a high current density of 5 A g–1, indicating a good cycling stability. This research provides an effective strategy for the development of outstanding electrode materials requiring for enhanced electrons and ion transport.
基于激光离焦直写炭布原位负载二氧化锰高频柔性超级电容器
ZHAO Guang-yao, WANG Fang-cheng, LIU Ming-jie, SUI Yi-ming, ZHANG Zhuo, KANG Fei-yu, YANG Cheng
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60600-0
摘要(164) HTML(66) PDF(20)
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The rapid development of flexible electronics has boosted an enormous demand on supercapacitors. In comparison to batteries, supercapacitors show great advantages in terms of power density and cycling stability. It can also respond well on a time scale of seconds, but most supercapacitors always have poor frequency response, and behave more like pure resistors when used at a high frequency (e.g., above 100 Hz). Therefore, it is still challenging to develop supercapacitors that could work at a high frequency of over one 100 Hz. Herein, we report a high-frequency flexible symmetrical supercapacitor composed of the MnO2/carbon cloth composite electrode (LCC@MnO2), which is synthesized by the defocused-laser ablation method. This LCC@MnO2 based symmetric supercapacitor delivers an excellent specific areal capacitance of 1.53 mF cm−2 at a high frequency of 120 Hz and has good cycle stability which maintains over 92.10% capacitance retention after 100000 cycles at 100 V s−1. The remarkable electrochemical performance can be attributed to the synergistic effect of the high conductivity of 3D structure carbon cloth and the exceptional pseudo-capacitance of the laser-induced MnO2 nanosheets. Besides, the defocused laser ablation method is feasible for large-scale production through roll-to-roll technology, which is promising for the broad applications in high-frequency electronic devices.
石墨晶体的热膨胀系数和热导率
ZHAO Lu, TANG Jiang, ZHOU Min, SHEN Ke
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60603-6
摘要(105) HTML(50) PDF(20)
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Graphite is served as key materials for heat dissipation in electronic devices and nuclear engineering due to the remarkable thermal properties. The thermal expansion and conductivity of graphite have always been frontier scientific issues in the field of carbon materials. Therefore, theoretical and experimental research in this area has received extensive attention. In this paper, the research progress and application status of the thermal expansion coefficient and thermal conductivity of graphite crystals are reviewed. First, the theoretical and experiment results of the thermal expansion coefficient of graphite are introduced. The measurement and application of graphite thermal conductivity are summarized and the special phonon scattering mechanism in graphite is discussed. Finally, the application of graphite in the field of thermal management is summarized, and the development prospects of the field are discussed.
废旧动力锂离子电池全组分回收技术研究进展
GAO Shao-jun, LIU Wei-feng, FU Dong-ju, LIU Xu-guang
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60605-X
摘要(770) HTML(54) PDF(26)
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With the vigorous development of electric vehicles in recent years, the use and decommissioning of Li-ion batteries have been increasing year by year, followed by environmental pollution and resource waste caused by spent Li-ion batteries. Commercial Li-ion batteries are mostly composed of transition metal oxide or phosphate-based cathodes, graphite-based anodes, organic electrolytes containing harmful lithium salts, polymer separators, and plastic or metal shells. After the battery is retired, many precious metals and graphite have high recycling value. Herein, the current research status of Li-ion battery recovery is reviewed in terms of their structure and components, leaching and separation of each component, with the emphasis on the cathode materials, anode materials, and electrolytes in spent Li-ion batteries. The problems encountered are outlined in terms of recycling cost and second pollution for different methods. The future research trends are provided for commercial realization of full recovery of spent Li-ion batteries.
氮掺杂聚丙烯腈基中空碳纤维用于锂硫电池正极
NIU Jing-yi, JING De-qi, ZHANG Xing-hua, SU Wei-guo, ZHANG Shou-chun
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60615-2
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Hollow-shaped porous carbon fiber for Li-S batteries electrodes is prepared by KOH activation using polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as the precursor. The obtained porous carbon fiber has a high specific surface area of 2491 m2·g−1 and a large pore volume of 1.22 cm3·g−1. And it exhibits an initial specific capacity of 330 mAh·g−1 at current density of 1 C. To further improve electrochemical performance, the fiber precursor is modified using hydrazine hydrate to prepare nitrogen doped hollow-shaped porous carbon fiber. The modified fiber shows a specific surface area of 1690 m2·g−1, a pore volume of 0.84 cm3·g−1 and a high nitrogen content of 8.81 at%. Since nitrogen doping can increase the polarity and adsorption capacity, the initial specific capacity of the nitrogen doped porous carbon fiber can be increased to 420 mAh·g−1 at current density of 1 C.
硬碳微球/MXene柔性薄膜负极应用于高性能钠离子存储
CAO Hai-liang, YANG Liang-tao, ZHAO Min, LIU Pei-zhi, GUO Chun-li, XU Bing-she, GUO Jun-jie
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60616-4
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Hard carbon is considered as the most promising negative electrode for sodium-ion batteries, but the volume change during sodiation/desodiation limits the cycle life. Herein, a binder- and current-collector-free hard carbon microspheres/MXene film electrode is constructed and its sodium storage properties are also studied. The monodispersed hard carbon microspheres (HCS) were prepared using Shanxi aged vinegar as a liquid carbon source. In addition, two-dimensional Ti3C2Tx MXene nanosheets were used as multifunctional conductive binders to fabricate flexible electrode. Remarkably, benefiting from the three-dimensional conductive network, the Ti3C2Tx bonded HCS film electrode shows high capacity of 346 mAh g−1, excellent rate performance and outstanding cycle stability over 1000 cycles. The remarkable electrochemical properties indicate that such film is a very promising flexible electrode for next-generation flexible secondary rechargeable batteries.
Synthesis of hierarchical porous carbon with lignin-rich residue for high-performance supercapacitor
FANG Yan-yan, ZHANG Qian-yu, ZHANG Dong-dong, CUI Li-feng
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60058-6
摘要(379) HTML(118) PDF(20)
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Designing electrically conductive electrode material with a hierarchical pore structure with abundant raw material remains a significant challenge in the field of energy storage. In this work, 3D porous carbons with high surface areas are synthesized via high-temperature carbonization and activation method. The as-prepared activation carbons deliver a specifical capacitance of 280 F g−1 and area-specific capacitance of 1.3 F cm−2 at a current density of 0.5 A g−1. The assembled symmetric supercapacitor can deliver a high energy output of 7.7 Wh kg−1 at 5200 W kg−1. Thus, it is demonstrated the repurposing of lignin waste as electrode material can be a feasible resource that goes beyond the limitations of utilizing lignin in low value-added applications.
金属有机骨架(ZIF-8@ZIF-67)衍生的Co/N共掺杂碳基催化剂在氧还原反应(ORR)中的应用研究
ZHANG Ya-ting, LI Si-yi, ZHANG Na-na, LIN Gang, WANG Rui-qi, YANG Meng-nan, LI Ke-ke
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60609-7
摘要(27) HTML(20) PDF(6)
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Carbon-based oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts are considered a potential substitution for the expensive platinum-based ORR catalysts in the aspect of energy conversion. Recently, metal and nitrogen codoped carbon materials (M-N-C) formed by transition metals and nitrogen-doped carbon materials have attracted much attention from researchers due to their low cost and excellent activity. Herein, a cobalt- and nitrogen-codoped porous carbon material (Co-N@CNT-C800) is prepared via a simple one-step pyrolysis method by well-designed carambola-shaped MOFs (ZIF-8@ZIF-67). The obtained Co-N@CNT-C800 consists of many carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with substantial Co doping and N doping. A large surface area (428 m2·g−1) and a favorable three-dimensional structure are also observed. The obtained Co-N@CNT-C800 exhibits excellent performance in half-wave potential and limited current density in alkaline media with a value of 0.841 V and 5.07 mA·cm−2, respectively. In addition, Co-N@CNT-C800 also shows excellent electrochemical stability and methanol tolerance compared with commercial Pt/C materials. The proposed strategy inspires a effective way to fabricate low cost and high activity electrocatalysts used for energy conversion.
Incorporation of nano-TiO2 into multichannel carbon fibers for enhanced adsorption of polysulfides in room temperature sodium-sulfur batteries
YE Xin, LI Zhi-qi, SUN Hao, WU Ming-xia, AN Zhong-xun, PANG Yue-peng, YANG Jun-he, ZHENG Shi-you
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60607-3
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With the rapid development of electric vehicles and large-scale power grids, lithium-ion batteries will inevitably face the dilemma that the limited energy density fails to meet the growing demand and the cost keeps rising. Room temperature sodium-sulfur (RT Na-S) batteries, which have the potential to replace lithium-ion batteries, have become the focus of attention. However, the challenging problem of poor cycling performance arising from “shuttle effect” of the reaction intermediate sodium polysulfides needs to be addressed. Herein, we report the incorporation of nano-TiO2 into multichannel carbon fibers (TiO2@MCCFs) to stabilize sulfur and realize high performance RT Na-S batteries. The TiO2@MCCFs are prepared by electrospinning and heat treatment, which then act as matrix to fabricate S/TiO2@MCCFs cathode through melt-diffusion method. The addition of TiO2 nanoparticles enhances the affinity for polysulfides while promoting the conversion of polysulfides to lower order products. As a result, the obtained S/TiO2@MCCFs cathode with around 54% S achieves improved electrochemical properties with the specific capacity of 445.1 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at 0.1 A g−1 as well as nearly 100% Coulombic efficiency. Even at 2 A g−1, the cathode still exhibits a capacity of 300.5 mAh g−1 after 500 cycles, demonstrating excellent rate and cycling performance. The enhanced effect of the incorporation of nano-TiO2 on the adsorption capacity of carbon-based materials is verified by combining characterization and theoretical calculations. This work provides a new path to construct high performance RT Na-S battery cathodes by theoretical and experimental aspects, respectively.
An Innovative and Efficient Preparation of Mesocarbon Microbeads by The Delayed Capillary Breakup Method and Their Electrochemical Performance
DONG Si-lin, YANG Jian-xiao, CHANG Sheng-kai, SHI Kui, LIU Yue, ZOU Jia-ling, LI Jun
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60606-1
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An innovative and efficient preparation method of mesocarbon microbeads (MCMBs) was developed based on the dripping behavior and rheological theory of pitch during the melt-spinning process, named as the delayed capillary breakup (DCB) method. In this work, the MCMBs were prepared by the DCB method with different receiving solvents (water or tetrahydrofuran (THF)), and their microstructure evolutions were compared systematically. Moreover, the MCMBs were further activated with KOH at 750 °C or graphitized at 2800 °C to prepare the A-MCMBs or G-MCMBs, and their electrochemical performance as electrode materials for electronic double layer capacitors (EDLC) or lithium-ion batteries (LIB) was investigated, respectively. The results showed that both MCMB-W prepared from water and MCMB-T prepared from THF had great spherical structure with the size of 1~2 μm. In addition, A-MCMB-T had a high specific surface area (1391 m2 g−1), micropore volume (0.55 cm3 g−1) and mesopore volume (0.24 cm3 g−1), exhibiting 30% higher specific capacitance than the original material, and its capacitance retention was also significantly improved when it was used as an electrode material for EDLC. Moreover, G-MCMB-T had high graphitization degree (0.895) and orderly lamellar structure, which demonstrated high specific capacity of 353.5 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at 100 mA g−1 when it was used as an electrode material for LIB. Therefore, this work proposed and verified a new preparation method of MCMBs, which could provide a strategy for designing and developing traditional energy storage materials.
活性炭纤维布与电纺纤维的杂化及其颗粒物过滤性能
YANG Yun-long, LI Ming-zhe, HOU Shi-yu, LV Rui-tao, KANG Fei-yu, HUANG Zheng-Hong
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60598-5
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Activated carbon fiber (ACF) possess high adsorption capacities and can be used in the treatment of benzene, while electrospun nanofibers are expected to be used as used as filtration material due to their intercepting capability to particles. In this work, two series hybrids of electrospun nanofibers and activated carbon cloths were prepared through electrospinning the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers onto the phenolic resin based activated carbon fiber (PRACFC). The filtration performance of hybrids was evaluated by a filtration efficiency system. The results indicate a positive correlation between the filtration efficiency and the amounts of electrospun nanofiber. Surprisingly, the filtration efficiencies increase with the increasing of air velocity, which is attributed to the piezoelectric effect introduced by electrospun nanofibers. Moreover, the hybrids have a good adsorption capacity towards benzene as well. It suggests that the hybrid of electrospun nanofibers and activated carbon cloth are promising to be used in air pollution treatment.
由乙烯焦油制备碳质前驱体的氧化反应机理及其反应动力学
GUO Tian-rui, CHEN Rong-qi, GAO Wei, WANG Yan-li, ZHAN Liang
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60597-3
摘要(44) HTML(75) PDF(13)
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To obtain excellent carbonaceous precursors, the oxidation reaction mechanism and kinetics of ethylene tar were investigated. The oxidation process of ethylene tar was divided into three stages (350-550 K, 550-700 K and 700-900 K) according to the thermogravimetric curve. To reveal the oxidation reaction mechanism of ethylene tar, the components of evolved gases at different stages were further analyzed online by mass spectrometry and infrared technology. Then, based on the thermogravimetric curve of ethylene tar at different reaction temperatures, the whole reaction process was divided into four parts to perform kinetics simulation calculation. With the help of the iso-conversional method (Coats-Redfern) to analyze the linear regression rates (R2) between 17 common reaction kinetics models and experimental data, the optimal reaction kinetics model for expressing oxidation process of ethylene tar was determined. The results show that: (1) In the oxidation process, the side chains of aromatic compounds firstly react with oxygen to form alcohols and aldehydes, leaving peroxy-radicals to aromatic rings. After that, the aromatic compounds with peroxy-radicals undergo polymerization/condensation reaction to form larger molecular. (2) The fourth-order of reaction model is adopted to describe the first three parts of the oxidation process, and the activation energies are 47.330 kJ·mol−1, 18.689 kJ·mol−1 and 9.004 kJ·mol−1 respectively. The three-dimensional diffusion model is applied to the fourth part of the oxidation process, and the activation energy is 88.369 kJ·mol−1.
Se encapsulated into honeycomb 3D porous carbon with Se-C bonds as superb performance cathodes for Li-Se Batteries
XIA Zhi-gang, ZHANG Jing-jing, FAN Mei-qiang, LV Chun-ju, CHEN Zhi, LI Chao
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60596-1
摘要(33) HTML(14) PDF(1)
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Li-Se Batteries has been considered as promising lithium-ion batteries due to their super volumetric energy density and high electrical conductivity of Se. However, the development of Li-Se batteries application is impeded by the boring volume expansion and polyselenide dissolution of electrodes during cycling, as well as the low selenium loading. A feasible and effective approach to settle these three issues is to keep selenium into a carbon host with sufficient pore volume and simultaneously enhance the interfacial interaction between selenium and carbon. A novel cathode material of Se encapsulated into honeycomb 3D porous carbon (HPC@Se) with Se-C bonds for Li-Se Batteries is synthesized by impregnating Se into the tartrate salt derived honeycomb 3D porous carbon. The pore volume of the obtained honeycomb 3D porous carbon is up to 1.794 cm3 g−1, which allows 65%wt selenium to be uniformly encapsulated. Moreover, the strong chemical bonds between selenium and carbon are beneficial for stabilizing selenium, thus further relieving its huge volume expansion and polyselenide dissolution as well as promote the charge transfer during cycling. As expected, HPC@Se cathode presents fantastic cyclability and rate performance. After 200 cycles, its specific capacity remained at 561 mA h g−1 (83% of the theoretical specific capacity) at 0.2 C. And the capacity recession is just 0.058 percentage each cycle. Besides, HPC@Se cathode can also demonstrate a considerable capacity of 472.8 mA h g−1 under the higher current density of 5 C.
高性能超级电容器用N/S共掺杂多孔炭纳米片电极材料
WEI Yu-chen, ZHOU Jian, YANG Lei, GU Jing, CHEN Zhi-peng, HE Xiao-jun
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60595-X
摘要(73) HTML(33) PDF(10)
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It is a big challenge to synthesize porous carbon nanosheets without acid treatment for high-performance supercapacitors (SCs). Herein, we report a facile and no pickling method to construct N/S co-doped interconnected porous carbon nanosheets (NS-IPCNs) from coal tar pitch (CTP). The as-prepared NS-IPCN800 has interconnected three-dimensional (3D) structure composed of two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets with abundant hierarchical pores. Of which, rich microspores increase active sites for electrolyte ion adsorption and short mesopores provide channels for ion transmission. In addition, interconnected 3D structure provides highways for electrons transportation. Heteroatom doping provides additional pseudocapacitance for NS-IPCNs electrodes. Benefitting from these merits, NS-IPCN800 electrode exhibits an excellent capacitance of 302 F g−1 at 0.05 A g−1 in 6 mol L−1 KOH electrolyte. Besides, the NS-IPCN800 capacitor shows high energy density of 9.71 Wh kg−1 at power density of 25.98 W kg−1. More importantly, NS-IPCN800 capacitor exhibits superior cycle stability with capacitance retention over 94.2% after 10,000 charge-discharge cycles. This work opens a less harmful strategy for constructing NS-IPCNs from CTP as high-performance SC electrode materials.
基于还原氧化石墨烯的非纳西丁电化学检测研究
MENG Xiao-tong, ZHU De-jing, JIANG Yu-hang, CAO Yue, SI Wei-meng, CAO Jun, LI Qiu-hong Li, LI Jiao, LEI Wu
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60087-2
摘要(78) HTML(80) PDF(6)
摘要:
It is known that the electrochemical determination of phenacetin, a widely used analgesic, is challenging for the interference of these electroactive intermediates acetaminophen (APAP). Phenacetin has been proved being electroactive in 1980s, but the electrochemical determination have not been widely reported. We studied the electrochemical behavior on electrochemical reduced graphene (ERGO) modified electrode, and the comparative experiment was performed on ERGO several nitrogen-doped graphene. ERGO was proved possessing higher current response and lower oxidation potential, A detection limit of 0.91 μM was established. It suggested ERGO modified electrode is a desirable phenacetin sensor. The redox mechanism of phenacetin was interfered via electrochemical experiments, and the reaction under different pH value was proposed. Acetaminophen was considered the main intermediate. The interfering between acetaminophen and phenacetin was studied, the main electroactive intermediate acetaminophen was proved not interfered the determination of phenacetin. But phenacetin was considered interfered with the response of APAP obviously, suggesting that simultaneous detection of phenacetin and APAP via DPV is not reliable. Interference experiment results further illustrated that usual species, such as Cu2+, Al3+, methanol, ethylene glycol, glucose, and ascorbic acid, hardly caused interference.
Rational design of 3D CNTs/Ti3C2Tx aerogel modified separator as a LiPS regulator for Li–S batteries
YIN Fei, JIN Qi, ZHANG Xi-tian, WU Li-li
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60085-9
摘要(160) HTML(84) PDF(22)
摘要:
Lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries suffer from fast capacity fading and inferior rate performance due to severe polysulfide (LiPS) shuttle and slow redox kinetics. To solve these issues, three-dimensional (3D) CNTs/Ti3C2Tx aerogel was successfully prepared with Ti3C2Tx as the active matrix and CNTs as the conductive pillars, and utilized as a LiPS immobilizer and promoter to modify the commercial Li–S battery separator. The unique design of highly porous 3D aerogel structure results in the sufficient exposure of Ti3C2Tx active sites by preventing their restacking, which not only offers abundant charge transport pathways, but also strengthens the adsorption and catalytic conversion of LiPSs. Moreover, the introduction of CNTs forms a highly conductive network to connect the adjacent Ti3C2Tx sheets, thereby improving the conductivity and structure robustness of the 3D aerogel. Owing to these merits, Li–S cells using CNTs/Ti3C2Tx aerogel modified separator show a high rate capacity of 1043.2 mAh g–1 up to 2 C and an admirable cycling life over 800 cycles at 0.5 C with a low capacity decay rate of 0.07% per cycle.
Structure and Electrochemical properties of coconut shell-based hard carbon as anode materials for potassium ion batteries
HUANG Tao, PENG Da-chun, CHEN Zui, XIA Xiao-hong, CHEN Yu-xi, LIU Hong-bo
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60069-0
摘要(542) HTML(254) PDF(46)
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Biomorphic hard carbon recently attracted widely interest as anode materials for potassium ion batteries (PIBs) owing to their high reversible capacity, but high preparation cost and poor cycle stability significantly hinder its practical application. In this study, coconut shell-derived hard carbon (CSHC) was prepared from waste biomass coconut shell using a one-step carbonization method, which was further used as anode materials for potassium ion batteries. The effects of carbonization temperature on the microstructure and electrochemical properties of the CSHC materials were investigated by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and cyclic voltammetry, etc. The results suggested that the coconut shell hard carbon carbonized at 1 000 °C (CSHC-10) possessed suitable graphite microcrystallines size, pore structure and surface defect content, which exhibited the best electrochemical performance. Specifically, CSHC-10 presented a high reversible specific capacity of 254 mAh·g−1 at 30 mA·g−1 with an initial Coulombic efficiency of 75.0%, and the capacity retention was 87.5% after 100 cycles and 75.9% after 400 cycles at 100 mA·g−1. The CSHC with high capacity and good cycling stability demonstrates to be an excellent potassium storage material.
Rational construction of Co-loaded ceramic composites by recycling gangue for microwave absorption
LI Guo-min, SHI Shu-ping, ZHU Bao-shun, LIANG Li-ping, ZHANG Ke-wei
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60064-1
摘要(112) HTML(59) PDF(52)
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In the context of sustainable development, tackling the severe solid wastes pollution has become extremely urgent. Herein, the solid waste gangue was successfully recycled to synthesize the ceramic based composite microwave absorbing materials decorated with Co particles through a novel synthesis method. The magnetic Co particles were uniformly loaded in the ceramic matrix by the pelletizing process with gangue and Co2+ following by the in situ carbothermal reaction, and the Co content in ceramic composites can be precisely controlled by adjusting the Co2+ concentration. Furthermore, compared with gangue, the obtained composites displayed optimized performance, the minimum reflection loss value reached −48.2 dB and the effective absorbing band was measured to be 4.3 GHz with the coating thickness of 1.5 mm, which is mainly attributed to the enhanced magnetic loss and multiple interface polarization. Such innovative design of recycling gangue in this work can effectively realize the resource utilization of gangue, which is also beneficial for the low-cost and light-weight of microwave absorbing materials as well.
煤基石墨烯促进TiO2光催化降解有机物
LIU Guo-yang, LI Ke-ke, JIA Jia, ZHANG Ya-ting
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60047-1
摘要(444) HTML(259) PDF(34)
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A reduced graphene oxide (H-rGO)/TiO2-composite (H-TiO2@rGO) as a catalyst for photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (Rh B) and methyl orange (MO) was prepared by hydrothermal treating a dispersant of TiO2 nanoparticles with sizes of 5-10 nm and GO obtained by the Hummers method from coal-based graphite in water. Compared with the M-TiO2@GO and M-TiO2@rGO composites by a wet mixing method, results indicated that the TiO2 nanoparticles in H-TiO2@rGO were uniformly decorated on both sides of rGO sheet, forming a stacked-sheet structure while apparent aggregation of TiO2 nanoparticles was found in both M-TiO2@GO and M-TiO2@rGO. Therefore, H-rGO@TiO2 had the highest catalytic activity towards degradation of Rh B and MO under visible light irradiation among the three, where the incorporation of rGO into TiO2 helps to narrow the band gap of TiO2, inhibit the recombination rate of electron–hole pairs and provide conductive networks for electron transfer.
石墨烯负载单原子钴催化剂的制备及其电催化二氧化碳还原反应性能研究
ZHANG Hui-nian, WANG Hui-qi, JIA Su-ping, CHANG Qin, LI Ning, LI Ying, SHI Xiao-lin, LI Zi-yuan, HU Sheng-liang
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60061-6
摘要(424) HTML(135) PDF(42)
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Developing highly selective, economical and stable catalysts for electrochemical converting CO2 into value-added carbon products to mitigate both CO2 emission and energy crisis is still challenging. Here, we report an efficient and robust electrocatalyst for CO2 reduction reaction (CO2RR) by embedding single-atom CoN4 active sites into graphene matrix. These highly dispersed CoN4 sites show an extraordinary CO2RR activity, with a high CO Faradaic efficiency of nearly 95% at −0.76 V (vs. RHE) and remarkable durability. The corresponding overpotential is 0.65 V. Our finding could pave the way for the design of high-efficiency electrocatalyst for CO2RR at the atomic scale.
高性能无烟煤基石墨的制备及其储锂性能研究
LI Yuan, TIAN Xiaodong, SONG Yan, YANG Tao, WU Shijie, LIU Zhanjun
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60057-4
摘要(222) HTML(143) PDF(42)
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In this study, cost-effective anthracite and industrial silicon powder were used as precursor and catalyst, respectively, to prepare graphite with various structure, during which the catalytic mechanism was analyzed. The results demonstrate that the as-obtained sample with 5% silicon catalyst (G-2800-5%) exhibits the best overall lithium storage performance. In detail, G-2800-5% display the best graphite structure with graphitization degree of 91.5%. As anode materials, a high reversible capacity of 369.0 mAh g−1 can be achieved at 0.1 A g−1. Meanwhile, the reversible capacity of 209.0 mAh g−1 can be obtained at the current density of 1 A g−1. It also delivers good cyclic stability with a 92.2% retention after 200 cycles at 0.2 A g−1. The highly developed graphite structure, which is favorable to the formation of stable SEI and reduced lithium ion loss should be responsible for the superior electrochemical performance.
石墨磷引起的缺陷碳纳米管展现出较高的氢析出活性
AI Jie, LIU Zi-wu, SUN Mao-mao, LIU Ling, WANG Quan-de
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60052-5
摘要(202) HTML(111) PDF(14)
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The phosphorus-doped carbon materials as one of novel carbon catalysts towards the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) have attracted considerable attention over the past years. However, the role of C-P species palyed in the HER activity is still not clear up to now. Phosphorus-doped carbon nanotubes (P-CNTs) were prepared by chemical vapor deposition and annealed at 900, 1000 and 1200 ℃ to remove all or parts of phosporus species, resulting in four samples with different proportions of graphite-, pyridine- and pyrrole-like P species. The correlations between their HER activity and the contents of three types of P species were investigated. Results showed that the content of graphite-like P decreased with the annealing temperature and no graphite-like P was retained at 1200℃. The HER activity increased with the annealing temperature and the one annealed at 1200 ℃ had the highest HER activity in an acid medium with an overpotential of 0.266 V at a current density of 10 mA/cm−2. Density functional theory calculations revealed that the pentagon- and nine-membered ring defects formed by the destruction of graphite-P species contributed mainly to the HER activity, which gave a deep insight into the active sites for HER.
氢氧化钾处理中间相碳微球应用于高倍率钾离子电池负极
XIAO Nan, GUO Hong-da, XIAO Jian, WEI Yi-bo, MA Xiao-qing, ZHANG Xiao-yu, QIU Jie-shan
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60059-8
摘要(371) HTML(133) PDF(34)
摘要:
Graphite is one of the most promising anode materials for potassium-ion batteries (PIBs) due to its low cost and stable discharge plateau. However, its poor rate performance still needs to be improved. Herein, a novel graphitic anode was designed from commercial mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) by KOH treatment. Through limited oxidation and slight intercalation, an expanded layer with enlarged interlayer spacing formed on the surface of MCMB, by which the K+ diffusion rate was significantly improved. When served as the PIB anode, this modified MCMB delivered a high plateau capacity below 0.25 V (271 mAh g−1), superior rate capability (160 mAh g−1 at 1.0 A g−1), excellent cycling stability (about 184 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at 0.1 A g−1), and high initial coulombic efficiency with carboxymethyl cellulose as binder (79.2%). This work provides a facile strategy to prepare graphitic materials with superior potassium storage property.
功能集成策略制备孔结构可控的虾壳基多孔炭及超电应用
Gao Feng, Xie Ya-qiao, Zang Yun-hao, ZHOU Gang, QU Jiang-ying, WU Ming-bo
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60019-7
摘要(50) HTML(26) PDF(7)
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Highly efficient synthesis of nitrogen-doped carbons with different porous structures is reported using shrimp shell as the carbon and nitrogen source, and its CaCO3 component as the hard template and the activator. The content of CaCO3 in shrimp shell can be tuned easily in the range of 0-100% by leaching with an acetic acid solution for different times. CaO derived from decomposition of CaCO3 acts as the activator and template to tailor the pore sizes of the carbons. CO2 derived from decomposition of CaCO3 also plays an activating role. Their specific surface areas, pore volumes, ratios of micropore volumes to total pore volumes can be adjusted in the range of 117.6-1137 m2 g-1, 0.14-0.64 cm3 g-1, and 0-73.4%, respectively. When used as the electrodes of supercapacitor, the porous carbon obtained with a leaching time of 92 min exhibits the highest capacitances of 328 F g-1 at 0.05 A g-1 in a 6 M KOH electrolyte and 619.2 F g-1 at 0.05 A g-1 in a 1 M H2SO4 electrolyte. Its corresponding energy density at a power density of 1470.9 W kg-1 is 26.0 Wh kg-1. This work provides a low cost method for fabricating porous carbons to fulfill the high-value-added use of biomass.
中文目次
2022年2期中文目次
2022, 37(2): 1-1.  
摘要(108) HTML(42) PDF(35)
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英文目次
2022年2期英文目次
2022, 37(2): 1-5.  
摘要(64) HTML(43) PDF(15)
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综合评述
碳基材料在电还原二氧化碳制甲酸中的研究进展
李文斌, 于畅, 谭新义, 崔崧, 张亚方, 邱介山
2022, 37(2): 277-289.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60592-4
摘要(341) HTML(99) PDF(116)
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The electroreduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) driven by renewable energy is an important route for CO2 conversion and utilization. Formic acid (HCOOH), as an important chemical and safe hydrogen storage material, is one of the main and promising materials for CO2 electroreduction. The physical and chemical properties of CO2 and the reaction mechanisms for its electroreduction to HCOOH are outlined and the recent development of carbon-based catalysts, including metal-free carbon catalysts and carbon-supported catalysts, for CO2 electroreduction to HCOOH is reviewed. The design of reactors for HCOOH production and strategies for their optimization are summarized and discussed. Hybrid CO2 electrolysis technology is analyzed, such as electroreduction coupled with the methanol electrooxidation reaction. Lastly, key challenges and development trends for CO2 electroreduction to HCOOH are presented, which are expected to provide guidance for the development of this technique.
褶皱氧化石墨烯的制备与应用研究进展
曾旭, 朱彬彬, 邱伟, 李伟丽, 郑晓慧, 徐斌
2022, 37(2): 290-302.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60594-8
摘要(223) HTML(80) PDF(119)
摘要:
氧化石墨烯(GO)作为二维纳米材料石墨烯的衍生物,具有制备简单、成本低、官能团丰富、易于改性等特点。在GO二维纳米片层上引入褶皱,可改变其形貌和结构,带来特殊的物理、化学、生物等特性,在一些领域具有独特的应用优势。本文综述了国内外近年来在褶皱氧化石墨烯(WGO)的制备与应用方面的研究进展,重点讨论了预拉伸法、溶剂诱导法、快速干燥法和pH值调控法等制备WGO的原理和特点,同时总结了WGO在智能器件、生物医药和水处理方面的应用。还分析了当前在WGO制备和应用方面存在的问题,并展望了其未来发展趋势。
MXene材料用于柔性传感器的研究进展
姜晶, 陈星, 牛夷, 何欣芮, 胡娅林, 王超
2022, 37(2): 303-320.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60589-4
摘要(527) HTML(400) PDF(181)
摘要:
随着柔性电子学的快速发展,有望实现具有高灵敏度和宽检测范围的柔性传感器。近年来,二维层状过渡金属碳氮材料MXene由于具有高导电性、高比表面积、优异的亲水性及良好的机械性能等特点,且能够与包括炭材料(碳纳米管、炭纤维、石墨烯等)在内的多种材料形成性能优异的复合材料,在柔性传感器领域受到众多研究者们的关注。本综述首先介绍MXene材料的结构、合成等内容,随后总结MXene柔性传感器的结构、性能指标和常用制备工艺。在此基础上,回顾了多种MXene柔性传感器,详细介绍其传感机制和制备技术。最后,总结MXene材料用于柔性传感器的研究趋势。
杂原子掺杂对碳基电催化剂析氧反应的影响
王勇智, 唐志红, 沈淑玲, 杨俊和
2022, 37(2): 321-337.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60591-2
摘要(296) HTML(130) PDF(58)
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Various types of energy conversion and storage devices have been developed in recent years to tackle with the problems of the over-consumption of fossil fuels and the environmental pollution they cause. The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is the key half-cell reaction of many energy conversion and storage devices. The influences of the heteroatom doping of metal-free carbon-based electrocatalysts with N, P, S or B and co-doping with N/P or N/S on their performance as OER electrocatalysts are reviewed. Doping methods to prepare metal-free carbon-based electrocatalysts are summarized, and problems that need to be solved are discussed and challenges for future research are proposed.
碳基非金属氧还原电催化剂:过去、现在和未来
安复, 包晓清, 邓晓阳, 马自在, 王孝广
2022, 37(2): 338-357.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60590-0
摘要(295) HTML(107) PDF(64)
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In recent years, metal-free carbon materials have been the subject of much research concerning their potential use in replacing high-cost Pt-based oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalysts. Myriads of research papers in this field have been dedicated to the preparation and characterization of various metal-free nanocarbon materials, as well as to their practical applications. Non-metal heteroatom doping and the introduction of edge defects are typical nanocarbon modification methods, which can significantly reduce the overpotential of the ORR in alkaline and acidic electrolytes. In order to have good activity in actual devices such as fuel cells, it is necessary to increase the ORR intrinsic activity of nanocarbons. Despite many studies of the subject, the intrinsic relationship between nanocarbon composition, structure regulation and catalytic activity is still not clear and needs further exploration. This review details the various nanocarbons used for the ORR as well as their reaction mechanisms in an attempt to propose scientific and specific structural modification strategies. The development of carbon-based metal-free electrocatalysts in the field of oxygen reduction catalysis in recent years is summarized, with a view to providing relevant knowledge for the future design, synthesis and applications of these carbon-based non-metallic catalysts for the ORR.
聚阴离子化合物在固态电解质中的应用研究进展
张思雨, 李跃然, 邢涛, 刘海燕, 刘昭斌, 李忠涛, 吴明铂
2022, 37(2): 358-370.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60588-2
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固态电解质是全固态锂电池的关键组分,其室温离子电导率和可加工性是影响电解质性能的关键指标。聚阴离子型固态电解质具有较高的锂离子迁移率,与其它类型陶瓷电解质相比,该电解质对水氧不敏感、成本低廉且原料无毒等特殊优点,明显降低了后期产业化的难度。本文首先总结了聚阴离子型固态电解质的分类和离子传输机制,然后介绍了提高材料本体锂离子传输性的原理和方法,最后介绍了通过表面修饰和复合改性提高电解质界面稳定性和可加工性方面的进展。结合全固态电池产业化对电解质膜片的需求,探索了目前聚阴离子型固态电池存在的问题和未来发展方向。作为一种具有优异的水氧稳定性和高离子电导率的电解质材料,聚阴离子电解质在下一代全固态电池中有着巨大的应用潜力。
研究论文
原位AFM探索钠离子电池溶剂依赖型石墨界面演绎过程
张馨壬, 杨佳迎, 任增英, 谢科予, 叶谦, 徐飞, 刘兴蕊
2022, 37(2): 371-380.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60601-2
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Graphite has proved to be inactive for Na+ storage in ester-based electrolytes when used as the anode material. Recent studies have shown the feasibility of a graphite anode for Na+ storage with a large capacity and a high initial Coulombic efficiency (ICE) in linear ether-based electrolytes. Understanding such solvent-dependent electrochemical behavior at the nanometer scale is essential but has remained elusive, especially the direct visualization of the graphite/electrolyte interface. We report the in-situ observation by atomic force microscopy of a working battery that allowed us to monitor and visualize the changes of the graphite/electrolyte interface in both linear ether and ester-based electrolytes. Results indicate that there is no solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation in the linear ether-based electrolytes and the co-intercalation is reversible and stable in the following cycles, which are responsible for the relatively high ICE, large capacity and excellent stability. In the ester-based electrolytes, SEI deposition is obvious during the sodiation process, but not in the desodiation process, leading to a serious consumption of the electrolyte, and thus a low ICE and irreversible Na+ storage. Our findings provide insights into the dynamics of changes in the graphite/electrolyte interface and reveal the solvent-dependent Na+ storage at the nanometer scale, paving the way to develop high-performance Na+ batteries.
无限互溶共溶剂制备高电化学性能石墨烯/聚苯胺均相复合材料
刘美丽, 龙翔, 汤海燕, 范新航, 陈朝轶, 邵姣婧
2022, 37(2): 381-391.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60099-9
摘要(103) HTML(29) PDF(25)
摘要:
The electrochemical properties of graphene-polyaniline (PANI) hybrids are largely determined by their microstructures and the distribution of PANI on the graphene network. Uniform hybridization of each component is critical to avoid the re-stacking of the graphene sheets and the agglomeration of PANI nanoassemblies during the use of the hybrids. Conventional strategies, such as layer-by-layer assembly or electrochemical in-situ polymerization, involve intricate procedures, making it difficult to achieve the large-scale production of the hybrids. We report a completely miscible cosolvent consisting of N, N-dimethylformamide and water that solves this problem and was used to produce graphene-PANI hybrid flexible fibers. It was found that the composite fiber had a homogeneous microstructure with PANI nanoassemblies uniformly distributed on the graphene sheets, and had outstanding electrochemical properties, much better than the counterpart fabricated using only water as the solvent. The work proposes a universal but simple strategy to achieve the mass production of graphene-PANI hybrids or similar materials with uniform hybridization of the two components.
电化学制备超细g-C3N4量子点及其电催化析氢性能
杨娜娜, 陈志刚, 赵志刚, 崔义
2022, 37(2): 392-401.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60045-8
摘要(622) HTML(357) PDF(58)
摘要:
Because of its high concentration of in-plane elemental nitrogen, superior chemical/thermal stability, tunable electronic band structure and environmentally friendly nature, graphite-like carbon nitride (g-C3N4) is a new promising metal-free material that has drawn much attention in photo-/electric catalysis. Compared with the regulation of the band structure in photocatalysis, the deliberate synthesis of g-C3N4 electrocatalysts is mainly focused on the construction of catalytic sites and the modulation of the charge transfer kinetics. This work reports a rapid method for synthesizing ultrafine g-C3N4 quantum dots (QDs) by electrochemical exfoliation using Al3+ ions as an intercalation agent. Uniform g-C3N4 QDs with small lateral size and thickness were collected more easily due to the higher charge density and stronger electrostatic force of Al3+ ions in the lattice of the host material, compared to conventional univalent alkali cations. The QDs had an average lateral dimension and thickness of 3.5 nm and 1.0 nm, respectively, as determined by TEM and AFM measurements. The presence of a large number of C/N defects was verified by the UV-vis spectra. The ultrafine g-C3N4 QDs had a superior hydrogen evolution reaction performance with an ultra-low onset-potential approaching 0 V, and a low overpotential of 208 mV at 10 mA cm−2, as well as a remarkably low Tafel slope (52 mV·dec−1) in an acidic electrolyte.
用于锂离子高体积储存致密石墨颗粒的湿法制备
张家鹏, 王登科, 张利慧, 刘海燕, 刘昭斌, 邢涛, 马兆昆, 陈晓红, 宋怀河
2022, 37(2): 402-411.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60051-3
摘要(456) HTML(254) PDF(72)
摘要:
Graphite is the most widely used anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Increasing the sphericity and tap density of the graphite particles is important for improving their volumetric energy density. We report a simple approach to prepare high tap-density graphite granules by high-shear wet granulation. Graphitic onion-like carbon (GOC) and artificial graphite (AG) were densified into granules by wet-granulation to obtain WG-GOC and WG-AG, respectively. Results indicate that, compared with the original graphite before granulation, the tap densities of WG-GOC and WG-AG increased by 34% and 44%, respectively. The respective volumetric energy densities of WG-GOC and WG-AG increased by 35% and 55% at a current density of 50 mA g−1. The rate performance of WG-GOC was also significantly improved. The volumetric capacity of WG-GOC at a current density of 2 000 mA g−1 was 169.1% of the original GOC. The significant improvement of electrochemical performance is ascribed to the increased tap density of the graphite granules.
铜改性生物质基分级多孔炭及其电容性能
胡家荣, 周佳伟, 贾雨欣, 李爽
2022, 37(2): 412-423.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60602-4
摘要(89) HTML(34) PDF(33)
摘要:
Porous carbons are widely used in supercapacitors, owing to their long cycle life and natural abundance. However, most of these electrode materials give a low capacitance, which leads to low energy density. Cu-doped biomass-derived activated carbons (Cu-ACs) were synthesized using a simple, low-cost carbonization and KOH activation method. The copper nanoparticles had mixed valence states (CuO, Cu2O, Cu0) and were uniformly dispersed on the surface of the AC. Due to the fast electron/ion transfer paths provided by the pore structure, and an accelerated redox reaction between the three Cu species, the Cu-ACs achieved an excellent capacitive performance. In a three-electrode system, the Cu-AC sample prepared by KOH activation with a KOH/ (Cu+char)mass ratio of 2 had a high specific capacitance of 360 F g−1 at 0.5 A g−1, 1.21 times that of AC (163 F g−1). When it was fabricated into a symmetric capacitor, the device had a good electrochemical performance with a specific capacitance of 143.44 F g−1 at 0.5 A g−1 and a good cyclic stability with an 81.8% capacitance retention after 6000 cycles.
三维石墨烯-碳纳米管磁性气凝胶的制备及其染料吸附性能
Zu Rong Ang, Ing Kong, Rachel Shin Yie Lee, Cin Kong, Akesh Babu Kakarla, Ai Bao Chai, Wei Kong
2022, 37(2): 424-434.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60029-X
摘要(802) HTML(334) PDF(103)
摘要:

Novel hybrid aerogels were prepared by adding ZnCl2, NiCl2·6H2O, FeCl2·4H2O and FeCl3·6H2O to a suspension of equal weights of graphene oxide and oxidized carbon nanotubes, followed by co-precipitation under basic conditions. The aerogels were then crosslinked with polyvinyl alcohol in water and freeze-dried. They consisted of magnetic Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles, graphene oxide, carbon nanotubes and polyvinyl alcohol, which have active sites that attract dye molecules and could be extracted from water by applying a magnetic field. Using optimum mass ratios of ZnCl2/NiCl2·6H2O/FeCl2·4H2O/FeCl3·6H2O/(graphene oxide+oxidized carbon nanotube) at 6∶6∶12∶12∶1, the hybrid aerogel has a high adsorption capacity of 71.03 mg g−1 for methylene blue and a moderate magnetic strength of MS = 3.519 emu g−1. Its removal efficiencies for methylene blue, methyl orange, crystal violet and a mixture of equal masses of the three were 70.1%, 4.2%, 8.9% and 11.1%, respectively for the same dye concentration of 0.025 mg mL−1. It could be used for 3 regeneration cycles with a regeneration efficiency of over 82%. It was also not toxic to the living organisms, suggesting that it is a promising adsorbent for treating industrial wastewater.

超级电容器电极材料与电解液的研究进展
焦琛, 张卫珂, 苏方远, 杨宏艳, 刘瑞祥, 陈成猛
摘要(781) [PDF 1209 KB](3210)
摘要:
超级电容器具有高功率密度、长循环寿命、良好的低温使用性能和安全性的优点,已经广泛应用到电子产品、能量回收和储能等领域。电极材料和电解液是决定超级电容器性能的两大关键因素,超级电容器常用的电极材料包括碳质材料(活性炭、碳纳米管、石墨烯、炭纤维、纳米洋葱碳等)、金属氧化物(金属氢氧化物)、导电聚合物及复合材料等;电解液主要有水系电解液、有机系电解液与离子液体。本文综述了超级电容器电极材料与电解液的研究现状,详细介绍了电极材料、电解液的性能及优缺点,并对新型电极材料和电解液的研究趋势提出展望。
氧化石墨烯对水泥基复合材料微观结构和力学性能的影响
王琴, 王健, 吕春祥, 刘伯伟, 张昆, 李崇智
摘要(766) [PDF 2388 KB](431)
摘要:
研究了不同掺量下氧化石墨烯(GO)对水泥石以及胶砂微观结构和力学性能的影响。含16.5%水的水泥浆、0.05%GO及3倍于水泥的沙子共混物作为添加剂制备成砂浆。通过SEM、液氮吸附仪和一系列标准实验分别对水泥石的微观形态、孔隙结构、抗压抗折强度以及水泥净浆的流动度、黏度、凝结时间进行表征;考察不同GO掺量下水泥水化放热的变化情况。结果表明:GO对水泥浆有显著增稠和促凝作用;GO的掺入可以有效降低水泥的水化放热量;GO对水泥石有显著的增强增韧效果,28天龄期时,GO质量分数为0.05%的水泥石,3、7和28 d抗压强度和抗折强度同比对照组分别增加52.4%、46.5%、40.4%和86.1%、68.5%、90.5%,胶砂的抗压强度和抗折强度同比对照组分别增加43.2%、33%、24.4%和69.4%、106.4%、70.5%;GO在水泥硬化过程中对水泥石中晶体产物的产生有促进作用并能规整晶体的排布而形成针状晶体簇,改善水泥石中的孔结构,降低水泥石中微孔的体积,增加水泥石的密实度,对水泥石有显著地增强增韧效果。
抗烧蚀C/C复合材料研究进展
付前刚, 张佳平, 李贺军
摘要(1095) [PDF 2126 KB](1278)
摘要:
C/C复合材料因优异的高温性能被认为是高温结构件的理想材料。然而,C/C复合材料在高温高速粒子冲刷环境下的氧化烧蚀问题严重制约其应用。因此,如何提高C/C复合材料的抗烧蚀性能显得尤为重要。笔者综述C/C复合材料抗烧蚀的研究现状。目前,提高C/C复合材料抗烧蚀性能的途径主要集中于优化炭纤维预制体结构、控制热解炭织构、基体中陶瓷掺杂改性和表面涂覆抗烧蚀涂层等4种方法。主要介绍以上4种方法的研究现状,重点介绍基体改性和抗烧蚀涂层的最新研究进展。其中,涂层和基体改性是提高C/C复合材料抗烧蚀性能的两种有效方法。未来C/C 复合材料抗烧蚀研究的潜在方向主要集中于降低制造成本、控制热解炭织构、优化掺杂的陶瓷相以及将基体改性和涂层技术相结合。
工程应用C/C复合材料的性能分析与展望
苏君明, 周绍建, 李瑞珍, 肖志超, 崔红
摘要(1210) [PDF 739 KB](1206)
摘要:
评价了中国40多年来在航天、航空、光伏、粉末冶金、工业高温炉领域成功应用的针刺C/C,正交3D C/C、径编C/C、穿刺C/C、轴编C/C等五类C/C复合材料的物理、力学、热学、烧蚀、摩擦磨损、使用寿命等性能及特点,并与其他国家相应材料性能进行分析对比,为建立工程应用C/C复合材料共享的数据库平台奠定基础。揭示了炭纤维预制体、炭基体类型、界面结合状态与材料性能的关联度。指出炭纤维预制体结构单元精细化研究和其结构的梯度设计,以及炭基体的优化组合匹配技术,仍是C/C复合材料性能稳定化提升的重点研究方向。
原位聚合法与溶液混合法制备石墨烯/聚酰亚胺复合材料及其性能
马朗, 王国建, 戴进峰
摘要(857) [PDF 2344 KB](1348)
摘要:
利用化学氧化还原法制备出石墨烯。通过原位聚合法及溶液混合法制备出石墨烯/聚酰亚胺复合材料,考察不同复合材料制备方法对其机械性能及导电性能的影响,并对其作用机理进行探讨。结果表明,制备的石墨烯为二维的单层或寡层材料,加入到聚酰亚胺中能够增强其机械性能及电导率。相比溶液混合法,采用原位聚合法时石墨烯在聚酰亚胺基体中分散更均匀,对其团聚作用有更好的抑制作用,制备的复合材料性能更优异。采用该法加入石墨烯的量为1.0 wt%时,拉伸强度达到了132.5 MPa,提高了68.8%;加入量增加到3.0 wt%时,电导率达6.87×10-4S·m-1,提高了8个数量级,对聚酰亚胺的性能有显著的增强作用。
多孔掺磷碳纳米管:磷酸水热合成及其在氧还原和锂硫电池中的应用
郭梦清, 黄佳琦, 孔祥屹, 彭翃杰, 税晗, 钱方圆, 朱林, 朱万诚, 张强
摘要(670) [PDF 2507 KB](671)
摘要:
碳纳米管优异的物理性质和可调的化学组成使其拥有广泛的应用前景。采用低温过程在碳骨架中引入磷原子预期带来可调的化学特性。本研究采用170℃下水热处理碳纳米管-磷酸混合物获得磷掺杂的碳纳米管。磷掺杂的碳管的磷含量为1.66%,比表面积为132 m2/g,热失重峰在纯氧环境下提升至694℃。当掺磷碳纳米管用于氧还原反应时,其起始电位为-0.20 V,电子转移数为2.60,反应电流显著高于无掺杂的碳纳米管。当其用作锂硫电池正极导电材料时,电极的起始容量为1106 mAh/g,电流密度从0.1 C提升至1 C时容量保留率为80%,100次循环的衰减率为每圈0.25%。
氧化石墨烯水泥浆体流变性能的定量化研究
王琴, 王健, 吕春祥, 崔鑫有, 李时雨, 王皙
摘要(657) [PDF 3710 KB](689)
摘要:
采用流变仪和激光共聚焦显微镜对不同氧化石墨烯(GO)掺量的新拌水泥浆体的流变参数以及浆体微观形态进行了定量化研究,并采用Modified-Bingham(M-B)模型和Herschel-Bulkley(H-B)模型对所测数据进行了拟合处理,提出了GO影响新拌水泥浆体的作用机理。结果表明,GO的掺入可以使新拌浆体中在减水剂作用下分散的水泥颗粒发生再次凝聚,形成重组絮凝结构,且随着GO掺量的增加,重组絮凝结构的数量越多,从而使得浆体流变性发生显著变化。一方面,新拌浆体的塑性粘度、屈服应力以及触变性随GO掺量的提高而显著增加。另一方面,GO的掺入提高了新拌浆体的临界剪切速率,使其在较大剪切速率下的流变行为仍然表现为剪切变稀;降低了浆体的剪切增稠程度,提高了浆体的稳定性。
石墨烯/聚合物复合材料的研究进展及其应用前景
曾尤, 王函, 成会明
摘要(660) [PDF 3574 KB](1571)
摘要:
随着石墨烯低成本宏量制备技术的突破,石墨烯的工业化应用进程已引起人们广泛关注。本文介绍了石墨烯在聚合物基复合材料领域的研究进展,侧重阐述石墨烯/聚合物复合材料在力学增强、导电/导热网络构建、防腐阻燃等方面的代表性研究成果,同时对商业化石墨烯产品及其复合材料应用进行了简单评述,探讨了石墨烯/聚合物复合材料领域目前存在的主要问题及未来发展趋势。
不粘煤基活性炭作超级电容器电极材料:硼、氮掺杂对其电化学性能的影响
陆倩, 徐园园, 木沙江, 李文翠
摘要(288) [PDF 1318 KB](439)
摘要:
以新疆不粘煤为原料,三聚氰胺为氮源,硼酸为硼源,通过球磨和后续活化过程合成硼,氮掺杂及硼氮共掺杂煤基活性炭。氮吸附结果显示杂原子掺杂可提高活性炭中介孔的含量。红外和X光电子能谱结果显示,硼、氮原子存在于炭骨架中。循环伏安,恒流充放电及电化学阻抗分析说明硼、氮掺杂活性炭的电化学性能优于非掺杂活性炭。其中,硼氮共掺杂活性炭具有176 F·g-1的高比容量。循环20 000次容量保持率为96%。共掺杂活性炭优异的电化学性能归因于硼氮的协同作用。
磷酸活化法活性炭孔隙结构的调控机制
左宋林
摘要(597) [PDF 3299 KB](627)
摘要:
磷酸活化法是植物纤维原料制备活性炭的主要化学活化方法。笔者系统综述了磷酸活化过程中活性炭孔隙结构的调控机制。从化学的观点,笔者提出植物纤维原料的磷酸活化在本质上是磷酸-生物高分子复合体的形成与热处理两个过程。基于这一概念,分析了植物纤维原料的组成与结构、浸渍条件等因素对磷酸-生物高分子复合体的组成与结构的影响,全面总结了植物纤维原料种类与预处理、植物细胞壁结构和结晶度、浸渍比、浸渍方式、温度和时间等组成、结构与条件对磷酸法活性炭孔隙结构的形成与发展的影响规律。在磷酸-生物高分子热处理过程中,系统总结了炭化温度、升温速率与中间停留温度等加热历程、惰性气体、氧化性气体和水蒸气等气氛对磷酸活化法活性炭孔隙结构的影响规律。最后概述了氧化性气氛和氧化试剂对磷酸活化过程的影响机理,以及磷酸活化过程中固相炭化和气相炭化对活性炭孔隙结构发展的贡献。
自组装软模板法制备有序中孔炭研究进展
黄正宏| 王 磊| 白 宇| 康飞宇
摘要(1844) PDF(10266)
摘要:
通过介绍自组装软模板法制备有序中孔炭的发展历程和基本原理,说明该方法具有操作简单、成本低、易于控制等优点。重点评述了自组装软模板法制备有序中孔炭在产物形貌控制和多级孔结构制备方面的研究进展,分析认为,今后的研究可以在拓展前驱体范围、提高宏观产物柔韧性以及导电性等方面得到进一步发展。
石墨烯的化学气相沉积法制备
任文才, 高力波, 马来鹏, 成会明
摘要(2591) PDF(6099)
摘要:
化学气相沉积(CVD)法是近年来发展起来的制备石墨烯的新方法,具有产物质量高、生长面积大等优点,逐渐成为制备高质量石墨烯的主要方法。通过简要分析石墨烯的几种主要制备方法(胶带剥离法、化学剥离法、SiC外延生长法和CVD方法)的原理和特点,重点从结构控制、质量提高以及大面积生长等方面评述了CVD法制备石墨烯及其转移技术的研究进展,并展望了未来CVD法制备石墨烯的可能发展方向,如大面积单晶石墨烯、石墨烯带和石墨烯宏观体的制备与无损转移等。