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Recent progress on mesoporous carbon materials used in electrochemical catalysis
LIANG Zhen-jin, HONG Zi-bo, XIE Ming-yue, GU Dong
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60575-4
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Because of their advantages of high specific surface area, uniform and adjustable pore size and shape, and good electrical conductivity and chemical stability, mesoporous carbon materials have been widely used in the fields of catalysis, adsorption, gas separation and electrochemical energy storage. In recent years, doping and hybridizing multi-components with mesoporous carbon materials has given them tunable functionality, making them a hot topic in the field of materials science. This review first introduces strategies for the synthesis of mesoporous carbon materials by the soft-templating, hard-templating and template-free methods. Recent progress on mesoporous carbons and their composites used in electrochemical catalysis are then summarized, including heteroatom-doped mesoporous carbons and their composites with metal compounds. Their use in electrochemical catalysis includes the oxygen reduction reaction, oxygen evolution reaction, and hydrogen evolution reaction. Their use in organic electrocatalytic synthesis is also discussed. Finally, trends in the development of mesoporous carbons and their composites in electrochemical catalysis are considered.
Optimizing the carbon coating to eliminate electrochemical interface polarization in a high performance silicon anode for use in a lithium-ion battery
QI Zhi-yan, DAI Li-qin, WANG Zhe-fan, XIE Li-jing, CHEN Jing-peng, CHENG Jia-yao, SONG Ge, LI Xiao-ming, SUN Guo-hua, CHEN Cheng-meng
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60580-8
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Ordered and disordered carbons have been commonly used as coating materials for silicon (Si) anodes, however the effect of carbons with different crystallinities and pore structures on their electrochemical performance remains controversial. We used pitch and phenolic resin (PR) as the precursors of ordered and disordered carbon, respectively, to prepare carbon-coated silicon (Si@C) with strictly controlled carbon contents and surface functional groups. Their electrochemical behavior was investigated. An ordered crystalline structure is favorable for electron transport, and mesopores and macropores are conducive to the diffusion of lithium ions. Such a coating with a small pore volume is an excellent buffer for the expansion of Si, and the electrode maintains structural integrity for 50 cycles. A disordered porous structure is less robust and produces a large polarization, which produces continuous volume expansion with cycling and leads to inferior electrochemical performance. As a result, the capacity and capacity retention after 100 cycles at 0.5 A g−1 of Si@C-Pitch are respectively 8 times and 1.9 times those of Si@C-PR. This study provides theoretical guidance for the selection of carbon materials used in Si@C anodes.
A flexible hard carbon microsphere/MXene film as a high-performance anode for sodium-ion storage
CAO Hai-liang, YANG Liang-tao, ZHAO Min, LIU Pei-zhi, GUO Chun-li, XU Bing-she, GUO Jun-jie
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60616-4
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Hard carbon is considered the most promising anode material for sodium-ion batteries, but its volume change during sodiation/desodiation limits its cycle life. Hard carbon microspheres (HCSs) with no binder were composited with a MXene film to form an electrode and its sodium storage properties were studied. The microspheres were prepared using Shanxi aged vinegar as a liquid carbon source. Two-dimensional Ti3C2Tx MXene (T is a functional group) was used as a multifunctional conductive binder to fabricate the flexible electrodes. Remarkably, because of the three-dimensional conductive network, the HCS/Ti3C2Tx film electrode has a high capacity of 346 mAh g−1, excellent rate performance and outstanding cycling stability over 1 000 cycles. This remarkable electrochemical performance indicates that the flexible film is a very promising anode for next-generation sodium-ion batteries.
A comprehensive review on 3D printing of sp2 carbons: Materials, properties and applications
Satendra Kumar, Manoj Goswami, Netrapal Singh, Sathish Natarajan, Surender Kumar
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60651-6
Abstract(73) HTML(23) PDF(15)
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Three dimensional (3D) printing is a modern technology in the 4th engineering revolution that has the possibility to transform existing production methods. It offers a novel production method of layered manufacturing and layer-by-layer stacking based on the forming principle, which radically simplifies the manufacturing process and enables large-scale customizable production. However, there are still numerous issues with this new technology. Except pure graphene, sp2 carbons can be 3D printed with little difficulty because of their hydrophilicity. The hydrophobic nature of pure graphene makes it difficult to print and process in water-based media. Thanks to the advancement of capillary inks, which allow for the 3D printing of pure graphene. The current review focuses on the most recent developments in 3D printing of sp2 carbons. A concise overview of 3D printing technologies is presented, followed by a summary of 3D printed sp2 carbons and their diverse applications. Finally, perspectives and opportunities for this new field are discussed.
Advances of sulfur-doped carbon materials as anode for sodium-ion batteries
XIE Jin-ming, ZHUANG Rong, DU Yu-xuan, PEI Yong-wei, TAN De-ming, XU Fei
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60630-9
Abstract(857) HTML(102) PDF(78)
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Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are regarded as one of the most promising candidates for the post-lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) era, due to the abundant nature and low cost of sodium, and similar operating principles to LIBs. Featured by a low sodium intercalation platform, high capacity, and good stability, carbon anode materials appear to be the key to practical applications. In general, heteroatoms doping (e.g., sulfur, nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen, boron doping) has been proved to be an effective way to tune the physical and electrochemical properties, showing great potential in energy storage performance. Among them, sulfur doping has been widely studied in the modification of carbon materials, using a large covalent radius to expand the interlayer spacing of carbons, and increase defects and active sites for sodium storage. The objective of this review is to briefly summarize the research progress in the design, synthesis, and electrochemical properties of sulfur-doped carbon anodes for SIBs, including the sodium storage mechanism, preparation strategies, and structural modulating of carbon materials by sulfur doping, aiming to help readers comprehensively learn the fabrication of sulfur-doped carbon anodes with a large specific capacity, high rate capability, and long cycling life in SIBs. Furthermore, the key problems and possible solutions of sulfur-doped carbon anodes are presented, and a perspective of the research directions is proposed.
Preparation and electrochemical properties of Ni(OH)2/graphite phase carbon nitride/graphene ternary composites
WANG Yan-min, MA Qian, LIU Bin, CUI Jin-long, ZHANG Yong-qiang, HE Wen-xiu
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60625-5
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Ni(OH)2/graphite phase carbon nitride(g-C3N4)/graphene(RGO) ternary composites were prepared by hydrothermal method, the effect of mass ratio of Ni(OH)2∶g-C3N4∶RGO on the structure, morphology and electrochemical properties of the composites was investigated. The surface microstructure and degree of reduction of the material were characterized by X-ray diffraction(XRD), scanning electron microscopy(SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR), Physical adsorption and desorption of nitrogen, transmission electron microscope (TEM). The composite properties of the composite were tested by cyclic voltammetry(CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge(GCD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS). The results show that the ternary composite represents three-dimensional slice space interlaced structure when the quality proportion of Ni(OH)2, g-C3N4 and RGO is 16∶1∶1, and the potential difference ΔE between the oxidation peak and the reduction peak is 0.218 V. When the current density was 1 A/g, the specific capacitance of the composite material is 516.9 F/g, After 3000 cycles of charge-discharge, the capacity retention rate reaches 74.3%, which showed good electrochemical performance.
Coal-based graphene as a promoter of TiO2 for photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes
LIU Guo-yang, LI Ke-ke, JIA Jia, ZHANG Ya-ting
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60047-1
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Graphene oxide (GO) obtained by the Hummers method from coal-based graphite was composited with TiO2 by hydrothermal and wet mixing methods to obtain (H-rGO)/TiO2 and M-TiO2/rGO composites, respectively, which were used as catalysts for photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (Rh B) and methyl orange (MO). Compared with the M-TiO2/GO and M-TiO2/rGO composites, the TiO2 nanoparticles in H-TiO2/rGO were more uniformly decorated on both sides of rGO sheets, forming a stacked-sheet structure while apparent aggregation of TiO2 nanoparticles was found in both M-TiO2/GO and M-TiO2/rGO. H-rGO@TiO2 had the highest catalytic activity towards degradation of Rh B and MO under visible light irradiation among the three, where the incorporation of rGO into TiO2 helps to narrow the band gap of TiO2, inhibits the recombination rate of electron–hole pairs and provides conductive networks for electron transfer.
Chemical vapor deposition of vertically two-dimensional transition metal sulfides on carbon paper for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution
WANG Ke, TANG Fei, YAO Xiao-zhang, Hitanshu Kumar, GAN Lin
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60078-1
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Hydrogen is considered to be the most likely alternative clean energy carrier to traditional fossil fuels. One of the most attractive hydrogen production strategy is water splitting, yet the need of expensive Pt precious metal catalysts for catalyzing the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) becomes the challenge. Recently, two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), especially MoS2, have attracted intense interests as a non-precious HER catalyst due to their low cost and relatively high catalytic activity. However, the poor electron conductivity and the limited number of active sites at the edges have greatly limited their overall catalytic performance. To this end, we report the direct growth of three representative TMDs (MoS2, NbS2 and WS2) on conductive carbon paper substrate by using chemical vapor deposition and studied the effects of temperature and gas flow rate on the morphology and structure of TMDs. All the as-grown TMDs showed 2D nanosheet morphology and vertically grown on the carbon paper. In particular, the WS2 nanosheets showed the smallest size with a diameter of ca. 100-200 nm and more interestingly assembled into one-dimensional nanofiber structure, leading to the highest HER activity. Additional electrochemical cathodic activation further improves the HER activity of the TMDs, and the structural changes after the activation were investigated by TEM combined with in-situ electrochemical Raman spectroscopy. The activated NbS2 showed large triangular or truncated triangular S vacancy area, which is distinctly different from the individual S vacancy on MoS2.
Preparation of Co-loaded ceramic-based microwave absorbing composites for use in microwave absorption using gangue as a reduction agent and precursor of carbon/ceramic components
LI Guo-min, SHI Shu-ping, ZHU Bao-shun, LIANG Li-ping, ZHANG Ke-wei
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60064-1
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In the context of sustainable development, tackling the severe solid waste pollutions has become extremely urgent. Herein, the solid waste gangue was used to synthesize the ceramic-based microwave absorbing composites decorated with Co particles by a novel synthesis method, where the magnetic Co particles were uniformly loaded in the ceramic matrix by pelletizing gangue accompanied by spraying a solution containing Co2+, followed by in-situ carbothermal reduction using the fixed carbon in gangue as the reduction agent. The Co contents in ceramic composites are precisely controlled by adjusting the Co2+ concentration in the solutions. The fixed carbon in gangue is partially consumed and there are residue carbons in the composites, which have more defects as compared with that in gangue and play an important role as an dielectric constitute. Compared with gangue, the optimized composite exhibits excellent microwave absorbing properties with the minimum reflection loss value of −48.2 dB and the effective absorbing band of 4.3 GHz under a coating thickness of 1.5 mm. which is mainly attributed to the enhanced magnetic loss and multiple interface polarization in the composite. Such use of gangue in this work can effectively realize the resource utilization and production of low-cost and light-weight of microwave absorbing materials.
Preparation of molded biomass carbon from coffee grounds and its CH4/N2 separation performance
GAO Yu-zhou, Xu Shuang, WANG Cheng-tong, ZHANG Xue-jie, LIU Ru-shuai, LU An-Hui
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60626-7
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Coffee grounds hold promises in their upgrading to feed excellent porous carbon adsorbent. During the preparation process of porous carbon adsorbent using coffee grounds as the starting materials, sodium silicate was used as binder and pore-forming agent, leading to the preparation of columnar coffee grounds by extrusion molding technology. After carbonization, steam activation and silica removal by alkaline washing, high-strength columnar coffee grounds based porous carbon adsorbents (CGCs) were obtained. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of CGC-1.5 (9% sodium silicate to coffee grounds ratio of 1.5) is 527 m2·g−1. The results of N2 adsorption isotherms and CO2 adsorption isotherms show that CGCs are rich in micropores, mesopores and (individual samples) macropores, and the micropores are mainly concentrated at about 0.48 nm. And, FT-IR results show that CGC-1.5 is rich in oxygen-containing functional groups. Then, the CH4/N2 separation performance was studied by multicomponent breakthrough experiments. At 298 K and 0.1 MPa, the equilibrium adsorption capacity of CGC-1.5 for CH4 was 0.87 mmol·g−1, and the IAST separation selectivity of CH4/N2 (3/7) was 10.3, which was better than most biomass-based porous carbon adsorbents and crystalline materials. The dynamic breakthrough test results showed that CGC-1.5 had excellent CH4/N2 separation performance under high pressure and atmospheric pressure tests. The dynamic selectivity at 298 K, 0.11 MPa and 0.5 MPa reached 10.4 and 17.9 respectively. The adsorption capacity was unchanged after 10 adsorption-desorption cycles. The mechanical strength of CGC-1.5 was as high as 123 N·cm−1, which meeting up the criteria of industrial applications.
Oxygen-incorporated carbon nitride porous nanosheets for highly efficient photoelectrocatalytic CO2 reduction to formate
WANG Hong-zhi, ZHAO Yue-zhu, YANG Zhong-xue, BI Xin-ze, WANG Zhao-liang, WU Ming-bo
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60619-X
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Using CO2 as a renewable carbon source for the production of high-value-added fuels and chemicals has drawn global attention lately. Photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) CO2 reduction (CO2RR) is one of the most realistic and attractive way, which can be realized effectively under sunlight illumination at low overpotential. Here, oxygen-incorporated carbon nitride (CNs) porous nanosheets were synthesized, which were used as photoanodes with Bi2CuO4 as the photocathode to realize the PEC CO2 reduction to formate. The electrical conductivity and the photoelectric response of CNs were tailored by changing the oxygen source. The oxygen obtained from the oxygen-containing precursor could improve the conductivity due to the more negative electronegativity. The oxygen obtained from the calcination atmosphere has lower photoelectric response due to the energy band structure. Under the optimal conditions, the CN has a photocurrent density of 587 μA cm−2 and an activity of PEC CO2 reduction to formate of 273.56 µmol cm−2 h−1, which is nearly 19 times higher than that of the conventional sample. Moreover, the optimal CN sample shows excellent stability with the photocurrent kept constant for 24 h. This work provides a new avenue to achieve catalysts efficient for PEC CO2 reduction to formate, which may be expanded to different PEC reactions using different cathode catalysts.ode catalysts.
Incorporation of TiO2 nanoparticles into multichannels of electrospun carbon fibers for enhancing adsorption of polysulfides in room temperature sodium-sulfur batteries
YE Xin, LI Zhi-qi, SUN Hao, WU Ming-xia, AN Zhong-xun, PANG Yue-peng, YANG Jun-he, ZHENG Shi-you
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60607-3
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With the rapid development of electric vehicles and large-scale power grids, lithium-ion batteries inevitably face the dilemma in that the limited energy density and high cost fail to meet the growing demand. Room temperature sodium-sulfur (RT Na-S) batteries, which have the potential to replace lithium-ion batteries, have become the focus of attention. However, the challenging problem of poor cycling performance arising from “shuttle effect” of the reaction intermediates (sodium polysulfides) needs to be addressed. We report a method to incorporate TiO2 nano particles into multichannels of electrospun carbon fibers (TiO2@MCCFs) to stabilize sulfur compounds to produce high-performance RT Na-S batteries. The TiO2@MCCFs were prepared by electrospinning followed by heat treatment, which were infiltrated by molten sulfur to fabricate S/TiO2@MCCF cathode materials. The addition of TiO2 nanoparticles enhances the affinity to polysulfides and promotes the conversion of polysulfides to lower order products, which was verified by DFT calculations. The S/TiO2@MCCF cathode with a S content of 54% has improved electrochemical performance with a specific capacity of 445.1 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at 0.1 A g−1 and a nearly 100% Coulombic efficiency. Even at 2 A g−1, the cathode still exhibits a capacity of 300.5 mAh g−1 after 500 cycles, demonstrating excellent rate and cycling performance. This work provides a new way to construct high performance RT Na-S battery cathodes.
Microstructures and electrochemical properties of coconut shell-based hard carbons as anode materials for potassium ion batteries
HUANG Tao, PENG Da-chun, CHEN Zui, XIA Xiao-hong, CHEN Yu-xi, LIU Hong-bo
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60069-0
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Biomorphic hard carbons have attracted widely interest as anode materials for potassium ion batteries (PIBs) recently owing to their high reversible capacity. But, the high preparation cost and poor cycle stability significantly hinder their practical applications. In this study, coconut shell-derived hard carbon (CSHCs) were prepared from waste biomass coconut shell using a one-step carbonization method, which were used as anode materials for potassium ion batteries. The effects of the carbonization temperature on the microstructures and electrochemical properties of the CSHCs were investigated by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and cyclic voltammetry, etc. Results indicate that the CSHC carbonized at 1 000 °C (CSHC-10) possesses a suitable graphite microcrystalline size, pore structure and surface defect content, which exhibits the best electrochemical performance. Specifically, it presents a high reversible specific capacity of 254 mAh·g−1 at 30 mA·g−1 with an initial Coulombic efficiency of 75.0%, and the capacity retention rates are 87.5% after 100 cycles and 75.9% after 400 cycles at 100 mA·g−1, demonstrating its excellent potassium storage performance.
Graphdiyne: Synthesis, modification and application of a two-dimensional carbonaceous material
ZHANG Ting, WANG Yu-jing, YU Ling-min, SHI Li-min, CHAI Shou-ning, HE Chi
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60653-X
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Graphdiyne is a new kind of two-dimensional carbonaceous material that composed of sp and sp2 hybridized carbon atoms. The highly conjugated and adjustable carbocyclic molecular structure endows it special physicochemical properties, which also facilitate its functional modification and widely application. In the past ten years, theoretical and experimental research of graphdiyne have been carried out extensively, and a series of important progresses have been made in many fields. In this review, the properties of graphdiyne are briefly introduced, and the main synthesis methods of graphdiyne with different morphologies are summarized, including Glaser-Hay cross-coupling, chemical vapor deposition, Van der Waals epitaxy growth, thermal explosion method, interface- confined synthesis and bipolar electrochemical method, etc. Then, the theoretical calculations and experimental studies on non-metal atom, metal doping, and chemical group modification are summarized, and their corresponding effects on the graphdiyne properties are reviewed. Finally, the urgent problems and challenges in the development of graphdiyne are discussed. Through this review, we hope that some frontier information of graphdiyne and a helpful guideline for rational design on functionalized graphdiyne were provided.
Review of chemical recycling and reuse of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy resin composites
TIAN Zi-shang, WANG Yu-qi, HOU Xiang-lin
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60652-8
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Carbon fiber reinforced epoxy resin composites (CFRCs) have been used in automotive and aerospace fields due to their excellent mechanical properties. The recycling of CFRCs attracts attention worldwide in recent years. Chemical recycling is a more promising method, which can selectively destroy the specific bond of resin to achieve controllable degradation. Matrix epoxy resins are degraded into monomers or oligomers, and high-value carbon fibers can be recycled. Therefore, we focus on summarizing the progress of chemical recovery method, mainly including super- and subercritical fluids, oxidation, solvolysis, alcoholysis, electrochemical recycling and so on. In addition, the insertion of reversible chemical bonds into the resin to prepare recyclable resins is beneficial for recyling and reuse of components in CFRCs. Therefore, we also briefly introduce the synthesis and depolymerization mechanism of recyclable thermosetting resins. Finally, the possible development directions of chemical recovery of CFRCs and preparation of high-performance recyclable epoxy resins are proposed.
Preparation and lithium storage property of anthracite-based graphite anode materials
LI Yuan, TIAN Xiao-dong, SONG Yan, YANG Tao, WU Shi-jie, LIU Zhan-jun
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60057-4
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In this work, graphites with various microstructures were prepared by cost-effective anthracite and industrial silicon powder as precursor and catalyst, respectively. The mechanism of catalytic reaction and the electrochemical properties of the as-prepared coal-based graphite as lithium anode were investigated. The correlation between structure and properties of graphite was discussed. The results demonstrate that the as-obtained sample with 5% silicon catalyst (G-2800-5%) exhibits the best overall lithium storage performance. In detail, G-2800-5% displays the best graphite structure with graphitization degree of 91.5%. As anode materials, a high reversible capacity of 369.0 mAh g−1 can be achieved at 0.1 A g−1. Meanwhile, the reversible capacity of 209.0 mAh g−1 can be obtained at the current density of 1 A g−1. It also delivers good cyclic stability with the retention rate of 92.2% after 200 cycles at 0.2 A g−1. The highly developed graphite structure, which is favorable to the formation of stable SEI and reduces lithium ion loss should be responsible for the superior electrochemical performance.
Electrospun carbon nanofibers for use in capacitive desalination of water
Bethwel K Tarus, Yusufu A C Jande, Karoli N Njau
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60645-0
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Capacitive deionization (CDI) has rapidly become a promising approach for water desalination. The technique removes salt from water through applying an electric potential between two porous electrodes to cause adsorption of charged species on the electrode surfaces. The nature of CDI favors the use of nanostructured porous carbon materials with high specific surface area and appropriate surface functional groups. Electrospun carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are quite ideal as they have high specific surface area and surface characteristics for doping/grafting with electroactive agents. Compared with powdered materials, CNF electrodes are free-standing and don’t require binders that increase resistivity. Hierarchically structured CNFs with an appropriate distribution of mesopores and micropores have better desalination performance. Compositing CNFs with faradaic materials enhances ion storage by additional pseudocapacitance besides the electric double layer capacitance. Herein, the use of electrospun CNFs as electrodes for CDI is summarized with emphasis on the major precursor materials used and structure modification, and their relations to the performance in salt electrosorption.
Effects of Polyurethane Sizing Agent on Interfacial Properties of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polyurethane Composites
LI Sheng-xia, YANG Chang-ling, YAO Li-li, WU Bo, LU Yong-gen
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(23)60705-X
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An anodized carbon fiber tow is sized continuously. The effects of aqueous polyurethane as the sizing agent for enhancing the interfacial properties of carbon fiber reinforced polyurethane composite is investigated based on interlaminar shear strength (ILSS), elemental and functional group analysis, thermal gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The results show the polyurethane as the sizing agent of carbon fiber can significantly improve the interfacial properties of the composites. The ILSS of the sized carbon fiber reinforced composite is increased by 17.5%, from 39.5 MPa to 46.4 MPa compared with that the oxidized carbon fiber reinforced. Treating the sized carbon fiber reinforced composite at 170 °C can further increase the ILSS by 9.5%, to 50.8 MPa. It is considered the sizing agent can form chemical binding with the oxygen-contained functional groups on the oxidized carbon fiber surface and form hydrogen bonds with the matrix resin. After heat treatment at 170 °C, the blocking groups in the sizing agent are unblocked to reveal the isocyanate roots that react with the carbamate of the matrix to form allophanate. It can be concluded that the polyurethane sizing agent is suitable for improving the interface performance of carbon fiber reinforced polyurethane resin composites. Unsealing the sizing agent at high temperature treatment after curing can further improve the interface performance of the composite.
KOH Treated Mesocarbon Microbeads as High Rate Anode for Potassium-Ion Batteries
XIAO Nan, GUO Hong-da, XIAO Jian, WEI Yi-bo, MA Xiao-qing, ZHANG Xiao-yu, QIU Jie-shan
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60059-8
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Graphite is one of the most promising anode materials for potassium-ion batteries (PIBs) due to its low cost and stable discharge plateau. However, its poor rate performance still needs to be improved. Herein, a novel graphitic anode was designed from commercial mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) by KOH treatment. Through limited oxidation and slight intercalation, an expanded layer with enlarged interlayer spacing formed on the surface of MCMB, by which the K+ diffusion rate was significantly improved. When served as the PIB anode, this modified MCMB delivered a high plateau capacity below 0.25 V (271 mAh g−1), superior rate capability (160 mAh g−1 at 1.0 A g−1), excellent cycling stability (about 184 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at 0.1 A g−1), and high initial coulombic efficiency with carboxymethyl cellulose as binder (79.2%). This work provides a facile strategy to prepare graphitic materials with superior potassium storage property.
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preface
2022, 37(5): 1-4.  
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2022, 37(5): 1-1.  
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2022, 37(5): 2-2.  
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Reviews
Progress and prospects of graphene for in-plane micro-supercapacitors
LI Hu-cheng, SHEN Hao-rui, SHI Ying, WEN Lei, LI Feng
2022, 37(5): 781-801.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60640-1
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Micro-supercapacitors hold great promise for powering the Internet of Things devices owing to their high power density and long cycling life. However, the limited energy density hinders their practical use. Electrode materials play an important role in the performance of micro-supercapacitors. With the advantages of a large specific surface area and a high electrical conductivity, graphene has been considered a good candidate for the electrode material of micro-supercapacitors. The two-dimensional surface of graphene is parallel to the direction of transport of the electrolyte ions for micro-supercapacitors with an in-plane structure, which helps improve the ion accessibility of the electrodes. Therefore, the construction of graphene-based in-plane micro-supercapacitors has aroused great interest among researchers. Here, we summarize the recent advances in graphene and graphene-based materials for in-plane micro-supercapacitors from the perspective of electrode material design. The electrode materials include graphenes produced by chemical vapor deposition, liquid-phase exfoliation, reduction of graphene oxide, laser induction and heteroatom doping, as well as graphene-based composites, such as carbon nanotube/graphene, transition metal oxide/graphene, conducting polymer/graphene and two-dimensional material/graphene composites. Challenges and opportunities in graphene-based in-plane micro-supercapacitors are discussed, and future research directions and development trends are proposed.
Self-healing polymer binders for the Si and Si/carbon anodes of lithium-ion batteries
WU Shuai, DI Fang, ZHENG Jin-gang, ZHAO Hong-wei, ZHANG Han, LI Li-xiang, GENG Xin, SUN Cheng-guo, YANG Hai-ming, ZHOU Wei-min, JU Dong-ying, AN Bai-gang
2022, 37(5): 802-826.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60638-3
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A silicon anode with a high specific capacity is one of the most promising candidates for developing advanced rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, the problems of low electrical conductivity, severe volume changes during use and an unstable solid electrolyte interface seriously hinder their use in LIBs. Although using the carbon materials used to construct Si/C composite anodes have demonstrated their advantages in improving the performance of Si-based anodes, the binder, another key component of the electrode, also has a significant effect on the electrochemical performance of a battery. A self-healing binder uses non-covalent and reversible covalent bonds to effectively improve the cycling stability of LIBs by repairing the internal/external damage caused by the huge volume change of a Si-based anode. As for the solid-state polymer electrolytes (SPEs) of flexible lithium batteries, the use of self-healing polymers can also quickly repair the damages or cracks in the SPEs, and have a promising prospect in the development of flexible and wearable electronics. The paper gives an overview of the synthesis, characterization and self-healing mechanisms of the self-healing polymer binders for use in Si and Si/C anodes and their recent application in flexible lithium batteries is briefly summarized. The related technical challenges and design requirements for self-healing polymer binders used in the Si and Si/C anodes of LIBs are discussed.
Recent advances in carbon materials for flexible zinc ion batteries
WU Li-sha, ZHANG Ming-hui, XU Wen, DONG Yan-feng
2022, 37(5): 827-851.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60628-0
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The ever-growing demands for wearable devices has stimulated the development of advanced flexible energy storage devices. Aqueous rechargeable zinc ion batteries (ZIBs) have gained much attention due to their low cost and intrinsic safety. Carbon materials with excellent conductivity, high mechanical strength, and light weight, can be used to construct flexible ZIBs (FZIBs). Here, we summarize the recent advances in carbon materials (e.g., carbon nanotubes, carbon fibers, graphene) for high-performance FZIBs with one-dimensional cable-shaped, two-dimensional planar, and three-dimensional sandwich configurations. Ways for constructing different types of FZIBs for better electrochemical performance are emphasized. The vital roles of carbons as the conductive materials and current collectors of cathodes, the current collectors and host materials of anodes, and modifiers of functional separators are discussed. The challenges and prospects of advanced carbon materials for next-generation FZIBs are also briefly discussed.
Carbon-based flexible electrodes for electrochemical potassium storage
WU Yu-han, WU Xiao-nan, GUAN Yin-yan, XU Yang, SHI Fa-nian, LIANG Ji-yan
2022, 37(5): 852-874.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60631-0
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Abstract:
With the rapid growth of the flexible and wearable electronics market, there have been big advances in flexible electrochemical energy storage technologies. Developing flexible electrodes with a low cost, superior safety, and high performance remains a great challenge. In recent years, potassium-based electrochemical energy storage devices have received much attention by virtue of their cost competitiveness and the availability of potassium resources. Carbon materials have been widely used as electrode materials or substrates for flexible energy storage devices due to their excellent properties, such as low weight, non-toxicity and abundance. Here, we summarize the recent advances in carbon materials (e.g. carbon nanofibers, carbon nanotubes, and graphene) for use in flexible electrochemical potassium storage devices, including potassium-ion batteries, potassium-ion hybrid capacitors, and K-S/Se batteries. Strategies for the synthesis of carbon-based flexible electrodes and their reported electrochemical performance are outlined. Finally, the challenges of future developments in this field are discussed.
Recent progress on freestanding carbon electrodes for flexible supercapacitors
ZHAO Yi-rong, LIU Cong-cong, LU Qiong-qiong, OMAR Ahmad, PAN Xiao-jun, MIKHAILOVA Daria
2022, 37(5): 875-897.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60637-1
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Abstract:
The construction of flexible supercapacitors with high electrochemical performance and excellent mechanical properties to power flexible electronics and sensors is very important. Freestanding electrodes play a crucial role in flexible supercapacitors, and carbon has been widely used in this role because of its high electronic conductivity, tunable porosity, adjustable surface area, excellent mechanical properties, low density and easy functionalization. It is also abundant and cheap. Recent progress on the fabrication of freestanding carbon electrodes based on various carbon materials for use in flexible supercapacitors is summarized, and remaining challenges and future opportunities are discussed.
Three-dimensional printed carbon-based microbatteries: progress on technologies, materials and applications
HE Su-jiao, ZHANG Kai-qiang, ZOU Ya-jun, TIAN Zhi-hong
2022, 37(5): 898-917.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60634-6
Abstract(302) HTML(123) PDF(110)
Abstract:
Next-generation wearable and portable devices require rechargeable microbatteries to provide energy storage. Three-dimensional (3D) printing, with its ability to build geometrically complex 3D structures, enables the manufacture of microbatteries of different sizes and shapes, and with high energy and power densities. Lightweight carbon materials have a great advantage over other porous metals as electrode materials for rechargeable batteries, because of their large specific surface area, superior electrical conductivity and high chemical stability. In recent years, a variety of rechargeable microbatteries of different types have been successfully printed using carbon-based inks. To optimize their electrochemical performance and extend their potential applications, it is important to analyze the design principles with respect to the 3D printing technique, printable carbon materials and promising applications. This paper provides a perspective on recent progress in the four major 3D printing techniques, elaborates on conductive carbon materials in addressing the challenging issues of 3D printed microbatteries, and summarizes their applications in a number of energy storage devices that integrate with wearable electronics. Current challenges and future opportunities for carbon-based microbattery fabrication by 3D printing techniques are discussed.
Progress on carbonene-based materials for Zn-ion hybrid supercapacitors
ZHOU Yi-jing, LUO Jin-rong, SHAO Yan-yan, XIA Zhou, SHAO Yuan-long
2022, 37(5): 918-935.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60642-5
Abstract(192) HTML(75) PDF(91)
Abstract:
Along with the emergence of wearable electronic devices, green energy devices like Zn-ion hybrid supercapacitors (ZHSCs), which are extremely safe and cheap, and have excellent stability and high power energy densities, have received great attention. Carbonenes, mainly including graphene and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), are promising materials for ZHSCs because of their exceptional electrical conductivity and excellent mechanical stability. A comprehensive overview of strategies for the modification of carbonene-based materials for ZHSCs, and a brief summary of their energy storage mechanisms is given and topics for potential research are suggested.
Research articles
Controllable synthesis of 2D mesoporous nitrogen-doped carbon/graphene nanosheets for high-performance micro-supercapacitors
YANG Zhi, ZHOU Feng, ZHANG Hong-tao, QIN Jie-qiong, WU Zhong-shuai
2022, 37(5): 936-943.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60633-4
Abstract(232) HTML(82) PDF(150)
Abstract:
Graphene-based 2D mesoporous materials have been considered ideal electrode materials for micro-supercapacitors (MSCs). 2D mesoporous nitrogen-doped carbon/graphene (mNC/G) nanosheets were prepared by the solution polymerization of aniline as the carbon and nitrogen precursor, in mixtures of graphene oxide as a guide for the 2D structure and silica nanospheres as a mesopore template. This was followed by leaching with dilute NaOH to remove the silica, freeze drying and carbonization. The nanosheets were formed from the templated mesoporous nitrogen-doped carbon decorating both sides of the graphene sheets. Precise regulation of the mesopore size and optimization of the electrochemical performance of the material were achieved. mNC/G with a pore size of 7 nm (mNC/G-7) had a specific capacitance of 267 F g−1, and quasi-solid-state planar MSCs based on it had a high volumetric capacitance of 21.0 F cm−3 and an energy density of 1.9 mWh cm−3, indicating the tremendous potential of 2D mNC/G for MSCs.
Construction of a flexible, integrated rechargeable Li battery based on a coaxial anode with a carbon fiber core encapsulated in FeNiMnO4 and a nitrogen-doped carbon sheath
ZOU Yi-ming, SUN Chang-chun, LI Shao-wen, BAI Miao, DU Yu-xuan, ZHANG Min, XU Fei, MA Yue
2022, 37(5): 944-955.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60617-6
Abstract(148) HTML(93) PDF(96)
Abstract:
A coaxial anode with a carbon fiber core encapsulated in nanocrystalline FeNiMnO4 with a nitrogen-doped carbon sheath was prepared using carbon fiber cloth as the core, FeNiMnO4 nanocrystallite arrays as the first coating layer and nitrogen-doped carbon derived from F127 (a kind of triblock copolymer)-resorcinol-melamine gel as the outer layer. After annealing at 600 °C it was used as the anode material of an all solid flexible lithium ion battery using LiFePO4 as the cathode material and boron nitride modified polyethylene oxide as the electrolyte. The battery had a large areal capacity of ~1.40 mAh cm−2 and satisfactory cycling stability under different bending and strain states. Annealing below 600 °C leads to incomplete carbonization of the nitrogen-doped carbon and thus a low electrical conductivity while above 600 °C aggregation of FeNiMnO4 nanocrystallites and their detachment during cycling are observed under bending and strain.
A 3D printed freestanding ZnSe/NC anode for Li-ion microbatteries
LIU Huai-zhi, LI Xiao-jing, LI Qiang, LIU Xiu-xue, CHEN Feng-jun, ZHANG Guan-hua
2022, 37(5): 956-967.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60627-9
Abstract(235) HTML(110) PDF(93)
Abstract:
The rapid development of micro/nanomanufactured integrated microsystems in recent years requires high performance micro energy storage devices (MESDs). Li-ion microbatteries (LIMBs) are the most studied MESDs, but the low mass loading of active materials and the less-than-perfect energy density hinder their further application. A 3D printed ZnSe/N-doped carbon (ZnSe/NC) composite electrode was designed and fabricated by extrusion-based 3D printing and a post-treatment strategy for use as the anode of LIMBs. The high capacity ZnSe nanoparticles are confined in the NC, where the NC not only improves the conductivity but also acts as a buffer layer to reduce the volume expansion and provide additional active sites for electrochemical reactions. The interconnected design of the 3D printed electrode is good for fast mass transfer and ion transport. A freestanding 3D printed ZnSe/NC electrode with a high mass loading of 3.15 mg cm−2 was achieved by direct ink printing, which had a superior energy density and decent reversibility in high-power LIMBs. This strategy can be used for other high-performance electrodes to achieve a high-mass-loading of active materials for microbatteries, opening up a new way to construct advanced MESDs.
High-performance Zn microbattteries based on a NiCo-LDH@ITO nanowire/carbon cloth composite
LI Xi-juan, LIU Guo, WU Qing-feng, WANG Xu-kun, SUI Xin-yi, WANG Xin-ge, FAN Zi-ye, XIE Er-qing, ZHANG Zhen-xing
2022, 37(5): 968-977.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60629-2
Abstract(213) HTML(113) PDF(79)
Abstract:
Following the fast growth of micro-energy storage devices, there is an urgent need to develop miniaturized electronic devices with excellent performance that are both green and safe. Planar interdigitated rechargeable Zn microbatteries (MBs) have gained widespread attention in recent years due to their ease of series-parallel integration, mechanical flexibility and no need for traditional separators. We prepared a patterned cathode of NiCo layered double hydroxide (LDH)@indium tin oxide (ITO) nanowires (NWs) @carbon cloth (CC) by the chemical vapor deposition of ITO NWs on the carbon fibers in a CC, laser patterning, and finally the electrodeposition of NiCo-LDH to coat the ITO NW@carbon fibers. The cathode was combined with a patterned Zn foil anode to form a planar MB. Because of the highly conductive ITO NWs@CC current collector, the interdigitated MB had a satisfactory performance. The planar MB has a high specific capacity of 453.5 mAh g−1 (corresponding to 0.56 mAh cm−2) in an alkaline water-based electrolyte at 1 mA cm−2. After 4 000 cycles the capacity increased to 216% of the initial value due to gradual penetration of electrolyte into the three-dimensional NiCo-LDH@ITO NW@CC network. It also had excellent energy (798.4 μWh cm−2, corresponding to 649.9 Wh kg−1) and power densities (4.1 mW cm−2, corresponding to 3 282.7 mW kg−1). Furthermore, MBs connected in series-parallel in lighting tests illustrate the excellent performance of the device. Therefore, these fast and simple Zn MBs with an in-plane interdigital structure provide a reference for next-generation high-performance, environmentally-friendly, and scalable planar micro-energy storage systems.
Controllable fabrication of superhierarchical carbon nanonetworks from 2D molecular brushes and their use in electrodes of flexible supercapacitors
LU Yu-heng, TANG You-chen, TANG Ke-han, WU Ding-cai, MA Qian
2022, 37(5): 978-987.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60641-3
Abstract(149) HTML(88) PDF(70)
Abstract:
Three-dimensional carbon nanonetworks (3D CNNs) have interconnected conductive skeletons and accessible pore structures, which provide multi-level transport channels and thus have promising applications in many areas. However, the physical stacking of these network units to form long-range conductive paths is hard to accomplish, and the introduction of micropores and small mesopores is usually difficult. We report a simple yet efficient strategy to construct CNNs with a nitrogen-doped micro-meso-macroporous carbon nanonetwork using Schiff-base gelation followed by carbonization. Using a polyacrolein-grafted graphene oxide molecular brush as the building block and tetrakis (4-aminophenyl) methane as the crosslinking agent, the obtained molecular brush nanonetworks have a high carbon yield and largely retain the original morphology, leading to the formation of a 3D continuous nanonetwork after carbonization. The materials have a micro-meso-macroporous structure with a high surface area and a highly conductive N-doped carbon backbone. This unique structure has a large number of exposed active sites and excellent charge/mass transfer ability. When loaded on carbon cloth and used as the electrodes of a flexible supercapacitor, the CNN has a specific capacitance of 180 F g−1 at 1 A g−1 and a high capacitance retention of 91.4% after 10 000 cycles at 8 A g−1 .
The interfacial embedding of halogen-terminated carbon dots produces highly efficient and stable flexible perovskite solar cells
LIU Chen, JIA Ning, ZHAI Ji-zhou, ZHAO Peng-zhen, GUO Peng-fei, WANG Hong-qiang
2022, 37(5): 988-999.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60639-5
Abstract(211) HTML(85) PDF(68)
Abstract:
Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite films made by low-temperature solution processing offer promising opportunities to fabricate flexible solar cells while formidable challenges regarding their environmental and mechanical stability remain due to their ionic and fragile nature. This work explores the possibility of chemical crosslinking between adjacent grains by the interfacial embedding of laser-derived carbon dots with halogen-terminated surfaces to improve the flexibility and stability of the polycrystalline films. A series of halogen-terminated carbon dots was generated in halobenzene solvents by pulsed laser irradiation in the liquid, and were then placed in the surface and grain boundaries of the perovskite film by an antisolvent procedure, where an immiscible solvent was poured onto the coating surface with a suspension containing carbon dots and perovskite precursors to cause precipitation. Strong interaction between perovskite and the carbon dots results in effective defect passivation, lattice anchoring and a change in the carrier dynamics of the perovskite films. Because of this, unencapsulated flexible perovskite solar cells after the interfacial embedding have power conversion efficiencies up to 20.26%, maintain over 90% of this initial value for 90 days under a relative humidity of 40% and have a thermal stability of 200 h even at 85 °C. The flexible devices withstand mechanical deformation, retaining over 80% of their initial values after 500 bend cycles to a radius of curvature of 4 mm.
A high-rate and ultrastable anode for lithium ion capacitors produced by modifying hard carbon with both surface oxidation and intercalation
ZHANG Lu-yao, WANG He, QIN Nan, ZHENG Jun-sheng, ZHAO Ji-gang
2022, 37(5): 1000-1010.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60632-2
Abstract(197) HTML(79) PDF(92)
Abstract:
Due to the difference of energy storage mechanisms between the anode and cathode materials, the power density or rate performance of a lithium-ion capacitor is greatly limited by its anode material. Hard carbon is a promising anode material for lithium ion capacitors, and its modification is an important way to improve the electrochemical performance of lithium-ion capacitors. A commercial hard carbon from Kuraray Inc was modified by oxidation followed by intercalation with ZnCl2 (ZnCl2―OHC). The reversible capacity of a half-cell prepared using this material was 257.4 mAh·g−1 at 0.05 A·g−1, which is obviously higher than the unmodified one (172.5 mAh·g−1). The capacity retention of a full cell prepared using ZnCl2―OHC as the anode and activated carbon as the cathode reached 43.3% when the current density increased from 0.1 to 10 A·g−1, which is more than twice that of the untreated hard carbon. After 5 000 charge-discharge cycles at 1 A·g−1, the capacity retention of the full cell was about 98.4%. The modification of hard carbon by surface oxidation and intercalation is therefore a promising way to improve its anode performance for lithium ion capacitors.
The regeneration of graphite anode from spent lithium-ion batteries by washing with a nitric acid/ethanol solution
XU Yi-jian, SONG Xiao-hui, CHANG Qiang, HOU Xiang-long, SUN Yi, FENG Xu-yong, WANG Xiang-ru, ZHAN Miao, XIANG Hong-fa, YU Yan
2022, 37(5): 1011-1020.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60648-6
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Abstract:
Graphite is one of the main components of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) because of its good recycling performance and uniform layers suitable for lithium intercalation. This study focused on the separation of spent LIBs, the isolation of the anode and the washing of its surface to remove the solid electrolyte interphase that leads to an increase in the electrical resistance. The spent graphite was incubated in a nitric acid/ethanol solution which cleans the spent graphite anode while retaining its original morphology. The regenerated graphite anode has a better electrochemical performance when used in a new lithium-ion battery than does the spent graphite, with no capacity loss at a current density of 50 mA·g−1 for 60 cycles. A full battery using regenerated graphite as the anode and lithium iron phosphate as the cathode has a capacity retention of 92% at 0.5 C after 100 cycles. Our work provides a new strategy for regeneration of the anode graphite.
Research progress on electrode materials and electrolytes for supercapacitors
JIAO Chen, ZHANG Wei-ke, SU Fang-yuan, YANG Hong-yan, LIU Rui-xiang, CHEN Cheng-meng
2017, 32(2): 106-115.  
Abstract(1162) PDF(3331)
摘要:
超级电容器具有高功率密度、长循环寿命、良好的低温使用性能和安全性的优点,已经广泛应用到电子产品、能量回收和储能等领域。电极材料和电解液是决定超级电容器性能的两大关键因素,超级电容器常用的电极材料包括碳质材料(活性炭、碳纳米管、石墨烯、炭纤维、纳米洋葱碳等)、金属氧化物(金属氢氧化物)、导电聚合物及复合材料等;电解液主要有水系电解液、有机系电解液与离子液体。本文综述了超级电容器电极材料与电解液的研究现状,详细介绍了电极材料、电解液的性能及优缺点,并对新型电极材料和电解液的研究趋势提出展望。
Influence of graphene oxide additions on the microstructure and mechanical strength of cement
WANG Qin, WANG Jian, LU Chun-xiang, LIU Bo-wei, ZHANG Kun, LI Chong-zhi
2015, 30(4): 349-356.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(15)60194-9
Abstract(841) PDF(501)
摘要:
研究了不同掺量下氧化石墨烯(GO)对水泥石以及胶砂微观结构和力学性能的影响。含16.5%水的水泥浆、0.05%GO及3倍于水泥的沙子共混物作为添加剂制备成砂浆。通过SEM、液氮吸附仪和一系列标准实验分别对水泥石的微观形态、孔隙结构、抗压抗折强度以及水泥净浆的流动度、黏度、凝结时间进行表征;考察不同GO掺量下水泥水化放热的变化情况。结果表明:GO对水泥浆有显著增稠和促凝作用;GO的掺入可以有效降低水泥的水化放热量;GO对水泥石有显著的增强增韧效果,28天龄期时,GO质量分数为0.05%的水泥石,3、7和28 d抗压强度和抗折强度同比对照组分别增加52.4%、46.5%、40.4%和86.1%、68.5%、90.5%,胶砂的抗压强度和抗折强度同比对照组分别增加43.2%、33%、24.4%和69.4%、106.4%、70.5%;GO在水泥硬化过程中对水泥石中晶体产物的产生有促进作用并能规整晶体的排布而形成针状晶体簇,改善水泥石中的孔结构,降低水泥石中微孔的体积,增加水泥石的密实度,对水泥石有显著地增强增韧效果。
Advances in the ablation resistance of C/C composites
FU Qian-gang, ZHANG Jia-ping, LI He-jun
2015, 30(2): 97-105.  
Abstract(1172) PDF(1337)
摘要:
C/C复合材料因优异的高温性能被认为是高温结构件的理想材料。然而,C/C复合材料在高温高速粒子冲刷环境下的氧化烧蚀问题严重制约其应用。因此,如何提高C/C复合材料的抗烧蚀性能显得尤为重要。笔者综述C/C复合材料抗烧蚀的研究现状。目前,提高C/C复合材料抗烧蚀性能的途径主要集中于优化炭纤维预制体结构、控制热解炭织构、基体中陶瓷掺杂改性和表面涂覆抗烧蚀涂层等4种方法。主要介绍以上4种方法的研究现状,重点介绍基体改性和抗烧蚀涂层的最新研究进展。其中,涂层和基体改性是提高C/C复合材料抗烧蚀性能的两种有效方法。未来C/C 复合材料抗烧蚀研究的潜在方向主要集中于降低制造成本、控制热解炭织构、优化掺杂的陶瓷相以及将基体改性和涂层技术相结合。
A review of carbon-carbon composites for engineering applications
SU Jun-ming, ZHOU Shao-jian, LI Rui-zhen, XIAO Zhi-chao, CUI Hong
2015, 30(2): 106-114.  
Abstract(1334) PDF(1273)
摘要:
评价了中国40多年来在航天、航空、光伏、粉末冶金、工业高温炉领域成功应用的针刺C/C,正交3D C/C、径编C/C、穿刺C/C、轴编C/C等五类C/C复合材料的物理、力学、热学、烧蚀、摩擦磨损、使用寿命等性能及特点,并与其他国家相应材料性能进行分析对比,为建立工程应用C/C复合材料共享的数据库平台奠定基础。揭示了炭纤维预制体、炭基体类型、界面结合状态与材料性能的关联度。指出炭纤维预制体结构单元精细化研究和其结构的梯度设计,以及炭基体的优化组合匹配技术,仍是C/C复合材料性能稳定化提升的重点研究方向。
Preparation and properties of reduced graphene oxide/polyimide composites produced by in-situ polymerization and solution blending methods
MA Lang, WANG Guo-jian, DAI Jin-feng
2016, 31(2): 129-134.  
Abstract(955) PDF(1397)
摘要:
利用化学氧化还原法制备出石墨烯。通过原位聚合法及溶液混合法制备出石墨烯/聚酰亚胺复合材料,考察不同复合材料制备方法对其机械性能及导电性能的影响,并对其作用机理进行探讨。结果表明,制备的石墨烯为二维的单层或寡层材料,加入到聚酰亚胺中能够增强其机械性能及电导率。相比溶液混合法,采用原位聚合法时石墨烯在聚酰亚胺基体中分散更均匀,对其团聚作用有更好的抑制作用,制备的复合材料性能更优异。采用该法加入石墨烯的量为1.0 wt%时,拉伸强度达到了132.5 MPa,提高了68.8%;加入量增加到3.0 wt%时,电导率达6.87×10-4S·m-1,提高了8个数量级,对聚酰亚胺的性能有显著的增强作用。
Rheological behavior of fresh cement pastes with a graphene oxide additive
WANG Qin, WANG Jian, LU Chun-xiang, CUI Xin-you, LI Shi-yu, WANG Xi
2016, 31(6): 574-584.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(16)60033-1
Abstract(741) PDF(781)
摘要:
采用流变仪和激光共聚焦显微镜对不同氧化石墨烯(GO)掺量的新拌水泥浆体的流变参数以及浆体微观形态进行了定量化研究,并采用Modified-Bingham(M-B)模型和Herschel-Bulkley(H-B)模型对所测数据进行了拟合处理,提出了GO影响新拌水泥浆体的作用机理。结果表明,GO的掺入可以使新拌浆体中在减水剂作用下分散的水泥颗粒发生再次凝聚,形成重组絮凝结构,且随着GO掺量的增加,重组絮凝结构的数量越多,从而使得浆体流变性发生显著变化。一方面,新拌浆体的塑性粘度、屈服应力以及触变性随GO掺量的提高而显著增加。另一方面,GO的掺入提高了新拌浆体的临界剪切速率,使其在较大剪切速率下的流变行为仍然表现为剪切变稀;降低了浆体的剪切增稠程度,提高了浆体的稳定性。
A review of the control of pore texture of phosphoric acid-activated carbons
ZUO Song-lin
2018, 33(4): 289-302.  
Abstract(818) PDF(696)
摘要:
磷酸活化法是植物纤维原料制备活性炭的主要化学活化方法。笔者系统综述了磷酸活化过程中活性炭孔隙结构的调控机制。从化学的观点,笔者提出植物纤维原料的磷酸活化在本质上是磷酸-生物高分子复合体的形成与热处理两个过程。基于这一概念,分析了植物纤维原料的组成与结构、浸渍条件等因素对磷酸-生物高分子复合体的组成与结构的影响,全面总结了植物纤维原料种类与预处理、植物细胞壁结构和结晶度、浸渍比、浸渍方式、温度和时间等组成、结构与条件对磷酸法活性炭孔隙结构的形成与发展的影响规律。在磷酸-生物高分子热处理过程中,系统总结了炭化温度、升温速率与中间停留温度等加热历程、惰性气体、氧化性气体和水蒸气等气氛对磷酸活化法活性炭孔隙结构的影响规律。最后概述了氧化性气氛和氧化试剂对磷酸活化过程的影响机理,以及磷酸活化过程中固相炭化和气相炭化对活性炭孔隙结构发展的贡献。
Hydrothermal synthesis of porous phosphorus-doped carbon nanotubes and their use in the oxygen reduction reaction and lithium-sulfur batteries
GUO Meng-qing, HUANG Jia-qi, KONG Xiang-yi, PENG Hong-jie, SHUI Han, QIAN Fang-yuan, ZHU Lin, ZHU Wan-cheng, ZHANG Qiang
2016, 31(3): 352-362.  
Abstract(772) PDF(709)
摘要:
碳纳米管优异的物理性质和可调的化学组成使其拥有广泛的应用前景。采用低温过程在碳骨架中引入磷原子预期带来可调的化学特性。本研究采用170℃下水热处理碳纳米管-磷酸混合物获得磷掺杂的碳纳米管。磷掺杂的碳管的磷含量为1.66%,比表面积为132 m2/g,热失重峰在纯氧环境下提升至694℃。当掺磷碳纳米管用于氧还原反应时,其起始电位为-0.20 V,电子转移数为2.60,反应电流显著高于无掺杂的碳纳米管。当其用作锂硫电池正极导电材料时,电极的起始容量为1106 mAh/g,电流密度从0.1 C提升至1 C时容量保留率为80%,100次循环的衰减率为每圈0.25%。
Research progress and potential applications for graphene/polymer composites
ZENG You, WANG Han, CHENG Hui-ming
2016, 31(6): 555-567.  
Abstract(787) PDF(1625)
摘要:
随着石墨烯低成本宏量制备技术的突破,石墨烯的工业化应用进程已引起人们广泛关注。本文介绍了石墨烯在聚合物基复合材料领域的研究进展,侧重阐述石墨烯/聚合物复合材料在力学增强、导电/导热网络构建、防腐阻燃等方面的代表性研究成果,同时对商业化石墨烯产品及其复合材料应用进行了简单评述,探讨了石墨烯/聚合物复合材料领域目前存在的主要问题及未来发展趋势。
The effect of nitrogen and/or boron doping on the electrochemical performance of non-caking coal-derived activated carbons for use as supercapacitor electrodes
LU Qian, XU Yuan-yuan, MU Sha-jiang, LI Wen-cui
2017, 32(5): 442-450.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(17)60133-1
Abstract(364) PDF(492)
摘要:
以新疆不粘煤为原料,三聚氰胺为氮源,硼酸为硼源,通过球磨和后续活化过程合成硼,氮掺杂及硼氮共掺杂煤基活性炭。氮吸附结果显示杂原子掺杂可提高活性炭中介孔的含量。红外和X光电子能谱结果显示,硼、氮原子存在于炭骨架中。循环伏安,恒流充放电及电化学阻抗分析说明硼、氮掺杂活性炭的电化学性能优于非掺杂活性炭。其中,硼氮共掺杂活性炭具有176 F·g-1的高比容量。循环20 000次容量保持率为96%。共掺杂活性炭优异的电化学性能归因于硼氮的协同作用。
Recent progress in the preparation of ordered mesoporous carbons using a self-assembled soft template
HUANG Zheng-hong
2012, 27(05): 321-336.  
Abstract(1888) PDF(23)
Abstract:
The preparation of self-assembled ordered mesoporous carbons (SA-OMCs) using a soft template method has many advantages, such as low cost, ease of preparation and control. This paper review the development periods, the basic principles and preparation procedures with an emphasis on the control of morphology and multi-level pore structure of OMCs based on SA-OMCs. And suggest that further research in this area can be focused on expanding the scope of the precursor, improving the flexibility and conductivity of the shaped products, such as fibers and membranes.
Preparation of graphene by chemical vapor deposition
REN Wen-cai, GAO Li-bo, MA Lai-peng, CHENG Hui-ming
2011, 26(01): 71-80.  
Abstract(2758) PDF(194)
Abstract:
Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is an effective way for the preparation of graphene with large area and high quality. In this review, the mechanism and characteristics of the four main preparation methods of graphene are briefly introduced, including micromechanical cleavage, chemical exfoliation, SiC epitaxial growth and CVD. The recent advances in the CVD growth of graphene and the related transfer techniques in terms of structure control, quality improvement and large area graphene synthesis were discussed. Other possible methods for the CVD growth of graphene were analyzed including the synthesis and nondestructive transfer of large area single crystalline graphene, graphene nanoribbons and graphene macrostructures.

Editor-in-Chief: Chun-xiang Lu, Ph.D

Charged by:Chinese Academy of Sciences

Sponsored by:Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences

Published by:Science Press, Elsevier

CN 14-1407/TQ

ISSN 2097-1605

eISSN 1872-5805

Since 1985 Bimonthly

CiteScore: 3.5

IF: 3.70

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