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Optimizing the carbon coating to eliminate electrochemical interface polarization in a high performance silicon anode for use in a lithium-ion battery
QI Zhi-yan, DAI Li-qin, WANG Zhe-fan, XIE Li-jing, CHEN Jing-peng, CHENG Jia-yao, SONG Ge, LI Xiao-ming, SUN Guo-hua, CHEN Cheng-meng
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60580-8
Abstract(42) HTML(23) PDF(9)
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Ordered and disordered carbons have been commonly used as coating materials for silicon (Si) anodes, however the effect of carbons with different crystallinities and pore structures on their electrochemical performance remains controversial. We used pitch and phenolic resin (PR) as the precursors of ordered and disordered carbon, respectively, to prepare carbon-coated silicon (Si@C) with strictly controlled carbon contents and surface functional groups. Their electrochemical behavior was investigated. An ordered crystalline structure is favorable for electron transport, and mesopores and macropores are conducive to the diffusion of lithium ions. Such a coating with a small pore volume is an excellent buffer for the expansion of Si, and the electrode maintains structural integrity for 50 cycles. A disordered porous structure is less robust and produces a large polarization, which produces continuous volume expansion with cycling and leads to inferior electrochemical performance. As a result, the capacity and capacity retention after 100 cycles at 0.5 A g−1 of Si@C-Pitch are respectively 8 times and 1.9 times those of Si@C-PR. This study provides theoretical guidance for the selection of carbon materials used in Si@C anodes.
Research progress of carbon-based non-metallic nanomaterials for two-electron oxygen reduction towards hydrogen peroxide production
SANG Zhi-yuan, HOU Feng, WANG Si-hui, LIANG Ji
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60583-3
Abstract(5) HTML(4) PDF(0)
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Electrocatalytic two-electron oxygen reduction reaction (2e-ORR) is an effective, safe and green method to produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as an alternative to the industrial anthraquinone process. Carbon-based nanomaterials with advantages of high electronic conductivity, good structural stability, easy regulation of nanostructures and low cost, are recognized as the promising catalysts for H2O2 production via 2e-ORR. A detail overview on the research progress of these carbon based electrocatalysts and the intrinsic active centers or reaction mechanism is helpful to realize a comprehensive and systematic understanding of the latest progress in this field. Herein, fundamental aspects and internal mechanism about the two-electron and four-electron pathways of ORR are first introduced. Second, a comprehensively review about the strategies to carbon-based nanomaterials with optimizing structure, including heteroatoms doping, dual or multiple heteroatoms doping, defect design and surface modification, etc., for the high activity and selectivity of H2O2 synthesis was supplied. Finally, the prospects and challenges for the catalysts with high rate and yield are presented, which should shed light on the future scientific research and application for H2O2.
Design and synthesis of carbon-based nanomaterials with different dimensions for electrochemical energy storage
ZHU Cheng-yu, YE You-wen, GUO Xia, CHENG Fei
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60579-1
Abstract(69) HTML(42) PDF(11)
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With environmental degradation and energy crisis, the storage and utilization of sustainable energy, such as solar, wind energy, etc., become urgent. The attention to electrochemical energy storage (EES) devices, as a means of efficiently storing these emerging energy sources, exhibits an increasing trend. Electrode materials are critical to the performance of EES, and carbon-based nanomaterials have become extremely promising due to their unique and outstanding advantages. The structure design and controllable synthesis of electrode materials thus determine the electrochemical performance of EES to a large extent. Focusing on the unique and outstanding advantages of carbon-based nanomaterials, the preparation progress of carbon-based materials with different dimensions are summarized and discussed, and their applications in different energy storage devices in recent years are also presented. This review facilitates in-depth understanding of the relationship between material structures with different dimensions and electrochemical features, and a perspective and reference to the design and synthesis of exceptional-performance carbon-based nanomaterials for the EES devices are provided.
Carbon-based current collector materials for sodium metal anodes
WANG Yan, ZHU Ming, LIU Hao-xuan, ZHANAG Yuan-jun, WU Kuan, WANG Guan-yao, WU Chao
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60581-X
Abstract(45) HTML(20) PDF(10)
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Room temperature sodium-ion batteries are the most likely alternative to lithium-ion batteries, and are also considered to be one of the most promising candidates for large-scale energy storage. As for the anode side, metallic sodium, showing an ultra-high theoretical capacity and a low redox potential, has been considered as the most promising anode material for sodium-ion batteries with high energy density. However, the application of sodium metal anode has encountered some challenging problems, such as the growth of sodium dendrites, the side reactions between sodium metal and electrolyte, and large volume change during charge and discharge. Among them, the growth of sodium dendrites can not only produce "dead" sodium and accelerate the side reactions, leading to rapid capacity decay. In addition, they may pierce the separators, causing serious safety problems such as fire and battery explosion. Carbon-based materials encompass a large family, showing high mechanical strength, low weight, high conductivity, large specific surface area, and good chemical stability. In recent years, they have been widely reported as the current collectors for Na metal anodes. This article reviews the recent research progress of carbon-based current collector materials for sodium metal anodes, analyzes the relationship between the interface and structures of carbon-based current collectors and the performance sodium metal anodes, and finally discusses the problems faced by the future research of carbon-based current collectors.
Porous carbons: Favored materials in Electro-Fenton and Fenton-like reactions
PAN Zhe-lun, QIAN Xu-fang
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60578-X
Abstract(46) HTML(32) PDF(10)
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Fenton-like reactions which could overcome the limitations of narrow pH range and excessive sludge production have drawn great attention. Despite the poor catalytic activity toward hydrogen peroxide, the porous carbons could play diverse roles, including catalyst carriers, adsorbents and electrocatalysts for production and activation of hydrogen peroxide, which was an oxidant in Fenton-like reaction. Recent developments in the above fields regarding porous carbons were discussed in this review. Porous carbons possess the advantages of diverse functionality, well-developed synthetic methods, and high chemical and thermal stability, making them favored materials as components of composites in Electro-Fenton and Fenton-like reactions. They effectively promote electron and mass transfer, prevent metal leaching and improve the contaminant degradation efficiency.
Carbon based electrocatalysts for selective hydrogen peroxide conversion
YAN Xiao, SHI Wen-wu, WANG Xin-zhong
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60582-1
Abstract(57) HTML(22) PDF(17)
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Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a versatile chemical and promising carbon-free energy carrier. Selective synthesis of H2O2 from water and oxygen is considered a secure and energy-efficient production method. Yet, the design of ideal electrocatalysts with desirable activity, selectivity, and stability remains challenging and should be properly addressed. In this review, recent progress in the development of highly selective and active carbon based catalysts are summarized from a multi-scale perspective, including the design principles for active catalysts, tailoring active sites on the catalyst surface, and catalyst structure engineering. Fundamental principles on oxygen reduction reaction mechanisms are firstly presented. Novel strategies, including heteroatom doping, surface/interface engineering, and supporting single metal atoms, have been highlighted with representative researches. By appropriately tuning the components and engineering the microenvironments of the active sites, we believe that the rational design of efficient catalysts with long-term stability can be achieved to reduce the gap between theoretical prediction and experimental observations. Lastly, perspectives on critical challenges and research opportunities are provided. We hope this review can inspire researchers with bright ideas to eventually achieve on-demand H2O2 production in the near future.
Metal-organic frameworks@resorcinol-formaldehyde resin derived hydrophilic carbon monoliths for atmospheric water harvesting
TANG Song-yuan, WANG Yong-sheng, YUAN Ya-fei, BA Ya-qi, WANG Li-qiu, HAO Guang-ping, LU An-hui
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60576-6
Abstract(77) HTML(44) PDF(25)
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Atmospheric water harvesting (AWH) is considered to be a promising technology to address the issue of global water shortage. The adsorption-based AWH technology, showing the advantages of simple device structure, high energy efficiency, wide application range, etc., and thus has attracted wide attention. For the adsorption method, one of the key issues is to find high-performance porous adsorbents. Porous carbons display exceptional stability, high porosity and low cost. However, they are commonly highly hydrophobic and less affinitive toward polar water molecules. In this work, a class of monolithic porous carbons with impressive hydrophilicity was prepared by interpenetrating metal-organic frameworks into resorcinol-formaldehyde resin networks, in which the metal-organic parts evolved into polar sites in the final products. The AWH test showed that, in the relative humidity of 40-80%, the water capture capacity of the adsorbent could reach about 20%. The surface modification strategy can also provide a novel idea for the preparation of monolithic hydrophilic carbons for other applications.
Application and prospective of carbon materials in low temperature type Lithium iron phosphate materials
CAO He, WEN Lei, GUO ZHEN-qiang, PIAO Nan, HU Guang-jian, WU Min-jie, LI Feng
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60584-5
Abstract(17) HTML(8) PDF(7)
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As one of the most widely used cathode material, LiFePO4 possess many excellent properties, such as low-cost, durable life and excellent safety. Unfortunately, its poor performance at low temperature hinders its applications in cold region. Low-temperature performance of LiFePO4 materials is of great significance for battery. The incorporation of advanced carbon materials, which also show excellent electronic and ionic conductivity, into LiFePO4 offers a better way to solve the issue of limited low-temperature performance. In this review, we first briefly introduce the fading mechanism of LiFePO4 cells at low temperature, and then focus on advanced carbon materials such as carbon coating, various carbon conductive and nano-carbon modified LiFePO4 for low-temperature applications. To fabricate low-temperature type LiFePO4 materials, composite carbon source and post-coating method offer a better way to obtain uniform carbon coating. Besides conventional carbon black, new types of conductive additives also show great potential for low-temperature LiFePO4 batteries. LiFePO4/graphene or LiFePO4/CNT composite cathode materials with their controlled microstructure offer great potential for applications in cold region, such as electric vehicles. The preparation strategies, architecture, and electrochemical performance of low temperature type LiFePO4 materials are summarized and discussed in detail. The problems encountered in its application and the future development of this composite are also discussed.
Research progress on metal and covalent organic frameworks-based materials for high-performance supercapacitors
WANG Shuai, GUO Yu-zhe, WANG Fang-xiao, ZHOU Sheng-hu, ZENG Tian-yu, DONG Yu-bin
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60586-9
Abstract(43) HTML(28) PDF(9)
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Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) and covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are serials of crystalline porous materials. MOFs, COFs and their derivatives have attracted much attention in energy storage devices due to their highly ordered structures, large surface areas, tunable pore sizes and topologies as well as well-defined redox-active porous skeletons. Furthermore, MOFs, COFs and their derivatives should have structural stability, an abundance of redox-active sites and improved electronic conductivity to fabricate high-performance supercapacitor electrodes. In this study, we review the recent research progress on the design strategy of MOFs and COFs, the hybridization of MOFs or COFs with conductive materials (e.g. conductive polymer, graphene and carbon nanotubes) and MOF- and COF-derived carbon materials, whose chemical and physical properties, capacitive performances and the structure-property relationships are also discussed. Finally, the challenges and prospects of MOFs- and COFs-based electrode materials are presented.
Glycine-derived nitrogen-doped ordered mesoporous carbons with bimodal mesopores for supercapacitor and oxygen reduction
SHAO Ying, HU Ze-yu, YAO Yan, WEI Xiang-ru, GAO Xing-min, WU Zhang-xiong
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60585-7
Abstract(28) HTML(13) PDF(9)
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Nitrogen-doped carbon materials are promising for electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Dopant control and pore engineering play important roles in improving their performance. This work demonstrates the synthesis of nitrogen-doped ordered mesoporous carbons (N-OMCs) with bimodal mesopores using the facile solvent-free nanocasting method. The simplest amino acid (glycine, Gly) is adopted as the sole precursor and the ordered mesoporous silica SBA-15 as the hard template. The confined pyrolysis of Gly in SBA-15 leads to efficient carbonization and nitrogen doping and interesting structuration. The N-OMCs possess high surface areas (923–1374 m2·g−1), large pore volumes (1.32–2.21 cm3·g−1), bimodal mesopores (4.8 and 6.2–20 nm) and high nitrogen contents (3.66%–12.23%). The effects of Gly/SBA-15 mass ratio (1–3) and temperature (700–1000 °C) on the physicochemical properties of the N-OMCs are studied. The N-OMCs as electrode materials possess high performance in supercapacitor. The typical sample shows a large specific capacitance of 298 F·g−1, a good rate capability (70 % retention at 30 A·g−1) and a high stability. The different capacitance and rate capability of the N-OMCs are discussed by correlating with their physicochemical properties. The balance of surface area, graphitization, and nitrogen doping and open mesoporous structure is essential to achieve the best performance. The O-NMCs also show good performance in electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The typical sample shows high onset and half-wave potentials of 0.92 and 0.83 V and a large limiting current density of 5.06 mA·cm−2.
In-situ templating synthesis of porous carbons for energy-related applications: A review
GUAN Lu, HU Han, TENG Xiao-ling, ZHU Yi-fan, ZHANG Yun-long, CHAO Hui-xia, YANG Hao, WANG Xiao-shan, WU Ming-bo
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60574-2
Abstract(44) HTML(27) PDF(10)
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Owing to their large specific surface area, high chemical and thermal stability, and good electronic conductivity, porous carbons have found wide applications in the field of electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Their performance hinges heavily on the structure, making the structure regulation of porous carbons the research frontier in the development of these materials. In addition to the straightforward hard-templating processes, the in-situ templating synthesis has been considered as another appealing strategy for the precise engineering of porous carbons. Herein, the recent progress on synthesizing porous carbon materials via in-situ templating processes for energy storage and conversion is summarized. First, the rising of in-situ templating synthesis of porous carbons is outlined by elaborately comparing with the traditional hard templating methods. Then, the in-situ templating methods are classified based on the template formation processes including top-down, state-change, and bottom-up during the syntheses. After that, the performance of these materials in the application of electrochemical energy storage and conversion is presented, highlighting the advantages of the in-situ templating syntheses. At last, the possible obstacles and future perspectives are provided.
Advances of carbon materials for stable lithium metal batteries
JIN Cheng-bin, SHI Peng, ZHANG Xue-qiang, HUANG Jia-qi
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60573-0
Abstract(148) HTML(54) PDF(39)
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Lithium (Li) metal is regarded as a promising anode material to construct next-generation high-energy-density batteries. However, the plating/stripping process of Li metal is often accompanied by the formation of high-tortuosity dendrites, which induces the short lifespan and even safety hazards of batteries. To date, various approaches have been developed to suppress the dendrite growth and regulate the uniformity of solid electrolyte interphase. Carbon materials with lightweight, highly conductive, hierarchically porous, chemically and physically stable features have been designed and employed for stabilizing Li metal in distinguishable types. Based on different functions, this review summarizes the advances of carbon materials categorized as hosts, electrolyte additives, and coating layers in stabilizing Li metal batteries (LMBs). The advantages and limitations of various carbon materials have been discussed in terms of structural and chemical aspects. Finally, the outlooks on future developments of carbon materials for propelling the applications of LMBs are proposed.
Synthesis of mesoporous carbon materials from renewable plant polyphenol for environmental and energy application
FENG You-you, CHEN Yi-qing, WANG Zheng, WEI Jing
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60577-8
Abstract(69) HTML(35) PDF(16)
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Mesoporous carbon materials exhibit high specific surface area, tunable composition and pore structure, good chemical stability and conductivity. They have attracted intensive attentions due to their multifarious applications in environmental remediation, industrial catalysis, energy conversion and storage. The carbon source is an important parameter for synthesis of mesoporous carbon with different properties. Plant polyphenols are one kind of universal biomass for carbon source with low cost, nontoxicity and sustainability. Most importantly, the good adhesive property and metal chelate ability for plant polyphenol can be used to synthesize mesoporous carbon composites. Despite great progress, there are few reviews on the topic of mesoporous carbon derived from plant polyphenol. In this review, different kinds of mesoporous carbon materials originated from plant polyphenols have been systematically summed up, including porous carbon foam, ordered mesoporous carbon, mesoporous carbon spheres, heteroatom doped carbon, and mesoporous metal/carbon composites. Then, the applications of these mesoporous carbon in environmental and energy are summarized. This review will bring the bridge for the research of polyphenol chemistry and nanoporous carbon. It would inspire more researchers to explore the functional mesoporous carbon employing plant polyphenol as a sustainable carbon source.
Recent progress of mesoporous carbon materials applied in electrochemical catalysis
LIANG Zhen-jin, HONG Zi-bo, XIE Ming-yue, GU Dong
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60575-4
Abstract(86) HTML(52) PDF(31)
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Owing to the advantages of high specific surface area, uniform and adjustable pore size and shape, good electrical conductivity and chemical stability, mesoporous carbon materials have been widely used in the fields of catalysis, adsorption, separation and electrochemical energy storage. In recent years, the doping and hybrid of multi-components enabled mesoporous carbon materials with tunable functionality, that make it a hot topic in the field of materials science. This review firstly introduces the synthesis of mesoporous carbon materials, including soft-templating method, hard-templating method and template-free method. Next, recent progress on mesoporous carbons and their composites that used in electrochemical catalysis are discussed, including heteroatom doping of mesoporous carbon and composites between carbon and metal compounds. The electrochemical catalysis reactions include oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), oxygen evolution reaction (OER), hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). In addition, the applications of such materials in organic electrocatalytic synthesis are also discussed. Finally, the development trend of mesoporous carbon and their composite materials in electrochemical catalysis is prospected.
Sensitive electrochemical detection of phenacetin on electrochemically reduced graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrode
MENG Xiao-tong, ZHU De-jing, JIANG Yu-hang, CAO Yue, SI Wei-meng, CAO Jun, LI Qiu-hong Li, LI Jiao, LEI Wu
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60087-2
Abstract(30) HTML(35) PDF(2)
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It is known that the electrochemical determination of phenacetin, a widely used analgesic, is challenging for the interference of these electroactive intermediates acetaminophen (APAP). Phenacetin has been proved being electroactive in 1980s, but the electrochemical determination have not been widely reported. We studied the electrochemical behavior on electrochemical reduced graphene (ERGO) modified electrode, and the comparative experiment was performed on ERGO several nitrogen-doped graphene. ERGO was proved possessing higher current response and lower oxidation potential, A detection limit of 0.91 μM was established. It suggested ERGO modified electrode is a desirable phenacetin sensor. The redox mechanism of phenacetin was interfered via electrochemical experiments, and the reaction under different pH value was proposed. Acetaminophen was considered the main intermediate. The interfering between acetaminophen and phenacetin was studied, the main electroactive intermediate acetaminophen was proved not interfered the determination of phenacetin. But phenacetin was considered interfered with the response of APAP obviously, suggesting that simultaneous detection of phenacetin and APAP via DPV is not reliable. Interference experiment results further illustrated that usual species, such as Cu2+, Al3+, methanol, ethylene glycol, glucose, and ascorbic acid, hardly caused interference.
Preparation of 3D graphene-carbon nanotubes-magnetic hybrid aerogels for dye adsorption
Zu Rong Ang, Ing Kong, Rachel Shin Yie Lee, Cin Kong, Akesh Babu Kakarla, Ai Bao Chai, Wei Kong
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60029-X
Abstract(481) HTML(223) PDF(47)
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Novel hybrid aerogels, which can be magnetically extracted from water to avoid filtration, were prepared by adding ZnCl2, NiCl2·6H2O, FeCl2·4H2O and FeCl3·6H2O into a suspension of graphene oxide and oxidzed carbon nanotubes followed by co-precipatation under basic condition, crosslinking with polyvinyl alcohol in water and freeze-drying. The hybrid aerogels consist of magnetic Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles, graphene oxide, carbon nanotubes and polyvinyl alcohol, which have active sites that attract dye molecules and can be extracted from water by applying magnetic field. Under an optimal mass ratio of the components, the optimized hybrid aerogel has a high adsorption capacity (qe=71.03 mg g−1 for methylene blue) and a moderate magnetic strength of MS = 3.519 emu g−1. Its removal efficiencies for methylene blue, methyl orange, crystal violet and their mixture with an equal mass are 70.1%, 4.2%, 8.9% and 11.1%, respectively under the same dye concentration of 0.025 mg. mL−1. It can be reused for 3 regeneration cycles with a regeneration efficiency of over 82%. Also it is not toxic to the living organism, suggesting that it is promising as an adsorbent for treating industrial wastewater.
Structure and Electrochemical properties of coconut shell-based hard carbon as anode materials for potassium ion batteries
HUANG Tao, PENG Da-chun, CHEN Zui, XIA Xiao-hong, CHEN Yu-xi, LIU Hong-bo
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60069-0
Abstract(315) HTML(167) PDF(27)
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Biomorphic hard carbon recently attracted widely interest as anode materials for potassium ion batteries (PIBs) owing to their high reversible capacity, but high preparation cost and poor cycle stability significantly hinder its practical application. In this study, coconut shell-derived hard carbon (CSHC) was prepared from waste biomass coconut shell using a one-step carbonization method, which was further used as anode materials for potassium ion batteries. The effects of carbonization temperature on the microstructure and electrochemical properties of the CSHC materials were investigated by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and cyclic voltammetry, etc. The results suggested that the coconut shell hard carbon carbonized at 1 000 °C (CSHC-10) possessed suitable graphite microcrystallines size, pore structure and surface defect content, which exhibited the best electrochemical performance. Specifically, CSHC-10 presented a high reversible specific capacity of 254 mAh·g−1 at 30 mA·g−1 with an initial Coulombic efficiency of 75.0%, and the capacity retention was 87.5% after 100 cycles and 75.9% after 400 cycles at 100 mA·g−1. The CSHC with high capacity and good cycling stability demonstrates to be an excellent potassium storage material.
Coal-based graphene as a promoter of TiO2 for photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes
LIU Guo-yang, LI Ke-ke, JIA Jia, ZHANG Ya-ting
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60047-1
Abstract(315) HTML(168) PDF(23)
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A reduced graphene oxide (H-rGO)/TiO2-composite (H-TiO2@rGO) as a catalyst for photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (Rh B) and methyl orange (MO) was prepared by hydrothermal treating a dispersant of TiO2 nanoparticles with sizes of 5-10 nm and GO obtained by the Hummers method from coal-based graphite in water. Compared with the M-TiO2@GO and M-TiO2@rGO composites by a wet mixing method, results indicated that the TiO2 nanoparticles in H-TiO2@rGO were uniformly decorated on both sides of rGO sheet, forming a stacked-sheet structure while apparent aggregation of TiO2 nanoparticles was found in both M-TiO2@GO and M-TiO2@rGO. Therefore, H-rGO@TiO2 had the highest catalytic activity towards degradation of Rh B and MO under visible light irradiation among the three, where the incorporation of rGO into TiO2 helps to narrow the band gap of TiO2, inhibit the recombination rate of electron–hole pairs and provide conductive networks for electron transfer.
A wet granulation to dense graphite particles for high volumetric lithium-ion storage
ZHANG Jia-peng, WANG Deng-ke, ZHANG Li-hui, LIU Hai-yan, LIU Zhao-bin, XING Tao, MA Zhao-kun, CHEN Xiao-hong, SONG Huai-he
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60051-3
Abstract(287) HTML(190) PDF(29)
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Graphite is the most widely used anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), and increasing the sphericity and density of graphite is the main way to further improve energy density of LIBs. Herein, we report a simple preparation of high tap-density graphite granules by the high-shear wet granulation. In this way, we densified two kinds of graphite into granule, namely wet-granulation graphitic onion-like carbon (WG-GOC) and wet-granulation artificial graphite (WG-AG). It is found that, compared with the original graphite before granulation, the tap density of WG-GOC increases by ca.34%, and WG-AG increases by ca.44%. Therefore, when as the anode of LIBs,, the volumetric capacities of WG-GOC and WG-AG have increased by ca.35% and ca.55%, respectively, at the current density of 50 mA g−1. In addition, the rate performance of WG-GOC also has been significantly improved. The volumetric capacity of WG-GOC increased by 169.1% at the current density of 2000 mA g−1. The significant improvement of electrochemical performance benefits from the higher tap density of the prepared graphite granules. Hence, we developed a facile wet-granulation to prepare high tap-density graphite anodes, which conducive to the development of high volumetric capacity.
Preparation of high-performance anthracite-based graphite anode materials and their lithium storage properties
LI Yuan, TIAN Xiaodong, SONG Yan, YANG Tao, WU Shijie, LIU Zhanjun
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60057-4
Abstract(157) HTML(109) PDF(28)
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In this study, cost-effective anthracite and industrial silicon powder were used as precursor and catalyst, respectively, to prepare graphite with various structure, during which the catalytic mechanism was analyzed. The results demonstrate that the as-obtained sample with 5% silicon catalyst (G-2800-5%) exhibits the best overall lithium storage performance. In detail, G-2800-5% display the best graphite structure with graphitization degree of 91.5%. As anode materials, a high reversible capacity of 369.0 mAh g−1 can be achieved at 0.1 A g−1. Meanwhile, the reversible capacity of 209.0 mAh g−1 can be obtained at the current density of 1 A g−1. It also delivers good cyclic stability with a 92.2% retention after 200 cycles at 0.2 A g−1. The highly developed graphite structure, which is favorable to the formation of stable SEI and reduced lithium ion loss should be responsible for the superior electrochemical performance.
Study on the preparation of MoSi2 modified HfB2-SiC ultra high tem-perature ceramic anti-oxidation coating by liquid phase sintering
REN Xuan-ru, WANG Wei-guang, SUN Ke, HU Yu-wen, XU Lei-hua, FENG Pei-zhong
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60060-4
Abstract(147) HTML(93) PDF(22)
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In this paper, a liquid-phase sintering method was developed by combining in-situ reaction method with slurry method to prepare HfB2-MoSi2-SiC coatings with controllable composition, content and thickness. The effect of MoSi2 content on the oxidation protection behavior of HfB2-MoSi2-SiC composite coating under dynamic aerobic environment at room temperature ~ 1500 ℃ and static constant temperature air at 1500 ℃ was studied, the relative oxygen permeability was used to characterize the oxidation resistance of the coating. The results of dynamic oxidation test at room temperature ~ 1500 ℃ showed that the initial oxidation weight loss of the samples was delayed from 775 ℃ to 821 ℃, and the maximum weight loss rate decreased from 0.9×10−3 mg·cm−2·s−1 to 0.2×10−3 mg·cm−2·s−1 with the increase of MoSi2 content, the lowest relative oxygen permeability was reduced to 12.2%, resulting in the weight loss of the sample from 1.8% to 0.21%. In this paper, the mechanism of MoSi2 enhancing the ability of oxidation protection of the coating is revealed. With the increase of MoSi2 content, the amount of SiO2 glass phase in the coating is increased, and the dispersion of Hf-oxide on the coating surface is promoted, thus, the Hf-Si-O compound glass layer with higher stability can be formed, and the weight loss rate of the sample reduced from 0.46% to 0.08% after 200 h oxidation at 1500 ℃ in constant temperature air.
Hierarchical Porous Carbon from lignin-rich residue for High-Performance Supercapacitor
FANG Yan-yan, ZHANG Qian-yu, ZHANG Dong-dong, CUI Li-feng
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60058-6
Abstract(275) HTML(92) PDF(12)
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Designing electrically conductive electrode material with a hierarchical pore structure from abundant raw material remains a significant challenge in the development of energy storage research. In this work, 3D porous carbons with high surface areas are synthesized via high-temperature carbonization and activation. The synthesized activated carbons deliver a specifical capacitance of 280 F g−1 and area-specific capacitance of 1.3 F cm−2 at a current density of 0.5 A g−1. The assembled symmetric supercapacitor can deliver a high energy output (7.7 Wh kg−1 at 5200 W kg−1). Thus, it is demonstrated the repurposing of lignin waste as electrode material can be a feasible resource that goes beyond the limitations of utilizing lignin in low value-added applications.
A correlation of the hydrogen evolution reaction activity to the defects formed by the decomposition of doped phosphorus species in carbon nanotubes
AI Jie, LIU Zi-wu, SUN Mao-mao, LIU Ling, WANG Quan-de
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60052-5
Abstract(160) HTML(90) PDF(12)
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The phosphorus-doped carbon materials as one of novel carbon catalysts towards the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) have attracted considerable attention over the past years. However, the role of C-P species palyed in the HER activity is still not clear up to now. Phosphorus-doped carbon nanotubes (P-CNTs) were prepared by chemical vapor deposition and annealed at 900, 1000 and 1200 ℃ to remove all or parts of phosporus species, resulting in four samples with different proportions of graphite-, pyridine- and pyrrole-like P species. The correlations between their HER activity and the contents of three types of P species were investigated. Results showed that the content of graphite-like P decreased with the annealing temperature and no graphite-like P was retained at 1200℃. The HER activity increased with the annealing temperature and the one annealed at 1200 ℃ had the highest HER activity in an acid medium with an overpotential of 0.266 V at a current density of 10 mA/cm−2. Density functional theory calculations revealed that the pentagon- and nine-membered ring defects formed by the destruction of graphite-P species contributed mainly to the HER activity, which gave a deep insight into the active sites for HER.
KOH Treated Mesocarbon Microbeads as High Rate Anode for Potassium-Ion Batteries
XIAO Nan, GUO Hong-da, XIAO Jian, WEI Yi-bo, MA Xiao-qing, ZHANG Xiao-yu, QIU Jie-shan
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60059-8
Abstract(217) HTML(83) PDF(23)
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Graphite is one of the most promising anode materials for potassium-ion batteries (PIBs) due to its low cost and stable discharge plateau. However, its poor rate performance still needs to be improved. Herein, a novel graphitic anode was designed from commercial mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) by KOH treatment. Through limited oxidation and slight intercalation, an expanded layer with enlarged interlayer spacing formed on the surface of MCMB, by which the K+ diffusion rate was significantly improved. When served as the PIB anode, this modified MCMB delivered a high plateau capacity below 0.25 V (271 mAh g−1), superior rate capability (160 mAh g−1 at 1.0 A g−1), excellent cycling stability (about 184 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at 0.1 A g−1), and high initial coulombic efficiency with carboxymethyl cellulose as binder (79.2%). This work provides a facile strategy to prepare graphitic materials with superior potassium storage property.
A sustainable strategy to prepare porous carbons with tailored pores from shrimp shell for use as the supercapacitor electrode materials
Gao Feng, Xie Ya-qiao, Zang Yun-hao, ZHOU Gang, QU Jiang-ying, WU Ming-bo
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60019-7
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Highly efficient synthesis of nitrogen-doped carbons with different porous structures is reported using shrimp shell as the carbon and nitrogen source, and its CaCO3 component as the hard template and the activator. The content of CaCO3 in shrimp shell can be tuned easily in the range of 0-100% by leaching with an acetic acid solution for different times. CaO derived from decomposition of CaCO3 acts as the activator and template to tailor the pore sizes of the carbons. CO2 derived from decomposition of CaCO3 also plays an activating role. Their specific surface areas, pore volumes, ratios of micropore volumes to total pore volumes can be adjusted in the range of 117.6-1137 m2 g-1, 0.14-0.64 cm3 g-1, and 0-73.4%, respectively. When used as the electrodes of supercapacitor, the porous carbon obtained with a leaching time of 92 min exhibits the highest capacitances of 328 F g-1 at 0.05 A g-1 in a 6 M KOH electrolyte and 619.2 F g-1 at 0.05 A g-1 in a 1 M H2SO4 electrolyte. Its corresponding energy density at a power density of 1470.9 W kg-1 is 26.0 Wh kg-1. This work provides a low cost method for fabricating porous carbons to fulfill the high-value-added use of biomass.
Display Method:
2021, 36(6): 1-1.  
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2021, 36(6): 1-7.  
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Reviews
Two-dimensional layer materials for highly efficient molecular sensing based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering
YU Ling-xiao, LU Rui-tao
2021, 36(6): 995-1015.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60098-5
Abstract(261) HTML(85) PDF(90)
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Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been regarded as an attractive technique for efficient molecular sensing because of its nondestructive detection, fast response and high sensitivity. However, the majority of studies on SERS are still based on noble metals (e.g. Au, Ag), which suffer from the drawbacks of high-cost, low uniformity and poor stability, thus limiting their widespread use. Graphene shows an efficient SERS performance because of its two-dimensional (2D) atomically flat surface, large specific surface area, high stability and unique electronic/optical properties, which open up new avenues for SERS research. In recent years, other 2D inorganic layer materials, such as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), black phosphorus (BP), and MXenes, have also attracted increasing research attention. We summarize the SERS mechanisms and state-of-the-art progress on substrates based on 2D materials, including graphene and other 2D inorganic layer materials. The challenges and prospects for future research on high-performance SERS substrates are considered.
Research progress on carbon-based materials for electromagnetic wave absorption and the related mechanisms
YANG Wang, JIANG Bo, CHE Sai, YAN Lu, LI Zheng-xuan, LI Yong-feng
2021, 36(6): 1016-1033.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60095-1
Abstract(295) HTML(165) PDF(107)
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With the development of electronic information technology, the use of microwaves in military and civilian fields is becoming more and more widespread. The corresponding electromagnetic radiation pollution has become a global concern. Numerous efforts have been made to synthesize thin electromagnetic wave absorbing materials with a low density, wide absorption bandwidth and high absorption. Carbon-based materials have great potential in electromagnetic wave absorption because of their lightweight, high attenuation ability, large specific surface area and excellent physicochemical stability. The attenuation theory of absorption materials and the factors that influence their absorption performance are provided first. Next, we summarize the research status of carbon materials with different morphologies (such as 0D carbon spheres, 1D carbon nanotubes, 2D carbon platelets, and 3D porous carbons) and their composites with various materials such as magnetic substances, ceramics, metal sulfides, MXene and conductive polymers. The synthesis methods, properties and attenuation mechanisms of these absorbers are highlighted, and prospects and challenges are considered.
Recent progress on controlling dislocation density and behavior during heteroepitaxial single crystal diamond growth
WANG Wei-hua, WANG Yang, SHU Guo-yang, FANG Shi-shu, HAN Jie-cai, DAI Bing, ZHU Jia-qi
2021, 36(6): 1034-1048.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60096-3
Abstract(293) HTML(129) PDF(60)
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Dislocations are considered crucial linear defects in the synthesis of heteroepitaxial single crystal diamond. Minimizing the dislocation density is a significant challenge for using diamond in electronics. This especially holds for diamond growth on iridium substrates with a large lattice constant difference of 7.1%. We first discuss several aspects of dislocations in heteroepitaxial diamond nucleation and growth, including their generation, types and characterization. Next, methods to reduce dislocation density are summarized, including increasing dislocation reactions (increasing the diamond film thickness and off-axis substrate growth), removing dislocations (conventional epitaxial lateral growth, pendeoepitaxial lateral growth and patterned nucleation growth), and other methods (three-dimensional growth, metal-assisted termination and using a pyramidal substrate). The dislocation density has been reduced to 6×105 cm−2, based on the use of a micrometric laser-pierced hole array, a method similar to patterned nucleation growth. To further reduce dislocation density and improve crystal quality, proposed ways of controlling the introduction of dislocations (substrate patterning, buffer layer and compliant substrate methods) are highlighted.
Research progress on tantalum carbide coatings on carbon materials
LIU Xing-liang, DAI Yu, WANG Zhuo-jian, WU Jian
2021, 36(6): 1049-1061.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60101-4
Abstract(118) HTML(53) PDF(36)
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Carbon materials, such as graphite, carbon fibers and C/C composites, have a high specific modulus and specific strength, especially at high temperatures. However, they corrode easily in air or ammonia at high temperatures and have poor scratching resistance. Tantalum carbide (TaC) has an excellent high-temperature mechanical stability, high-temperature corrosion resistance, high-temperature ablation resistance and good chemical and mechanical compatibility with carbon materials. This paper summarizes research progress on coating TaC on graphite, carbon fibers and C/C composites. The coating methods and their effects on the properties of carbon materials are introduced, including plasma spraying, chemical vapor deposition, chemical vapor infiltration, slurry coating, sol coating and reactive coating in molten salt media with a focus on chemical vapor deposition. Development trends and research directions on the subject of TaC coating are discussed.
Research articles
A DFT study of the effect of stacking on the quantum capacitance of bilayer graphene materials
CUI Guang-yu, YI Zong-lin, SU Fang-yuan, CHEN Cheng-meng, HAN Pei-de
2021, 36(6): 1062-1072.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60079-3
Abstract(519) HTML(126) PDF(543)
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Graphene is acknowledged as one of the ideal active electrode materials for electric double-layer capacitors because of its extremely high specific surface area and outstanding electronic conductivity. By introducing defects or heteroatoms into the graphene sheet, the electronic structure around the defects can be altered, which could lead to an increased quantum capacitance (CQ) and therefore te capacitive performance. One of the unavoidable problems for manufacturing and using graphene materials is that the stacking of the layers affects their electronic structure, and eventually their capacitance. DFT calculations were used to investigate the effect of layer stacking in bilayer graphene materials on CQ and the surface charge density. A two layer, AB-stacked graphene model, in which the top layer is defective and the bottom one is perfect was assumed for the calculations. The defective graphenes investigated are those containing Stone-Thrower-Wales defects, single vacancies (SV), three with double vacancies (5-8-5, 555-777 and 5555-6-7777), pyrrole-N graphene and the pyridine-N graphene. Results indicate that both the values and waveform of CQ of the materials are changed by stacking. The CQ values of most of these graphenes are significantly increased after stacking. The CQ waveforms of the SV and N-doped graphene are relatively insensitive to stacking. The basal layer contributes a considerable amount of charge, which is most obvious for the pyrrolic-N double-layer graphene and 5-8-5 double-vacancy graphene. The surface charge density provided by the defective top layer is increased by interlayer interaction, especially for the N-doped graphene. The uniform distribution of charge on the bottom layer partially alleviates fluctuations in the CQ waveform. These findings provide theoretical guidance for the micro-structural design of graphene materials to optimize their performance as electrode active materials.
Effect of the air oxidation stabilization of pitch on the microstructure and sodium storage of hard carbons
GUO Hong-yi, LI Yao-yu, WANG Chun-lei, HE Lei, LI Chen, GUO Yong-qiang, ZHOU Ying
2021, 36(6): 1073-1080.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60075-6
Abstract(118) HTML(55) PDF(27)
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Hard carbon anode materials for sodium ion batteries were prepared from petroleum pitch by air oxidation stabilization followed by carbonization. The effects of the oxidation stabilization temperature on the compositions and microstructures of the oxidized samples, as well as on the morphology, microstructure and sodium storage property of the carbonized samples were investigated. Results show that air oxidation introduces a large number of oxygen-containing functional groups, induces dehydrogenation condensation and oxidative crosslinking reactions, and transforms the petroleum asphalt from thermoplastic to thermosetting. The air oxidation stabilization treatment effectively hinders the inherent tendency of asphalt to graphitize during high temperature carbonization, resulting in carbons with randomly oriented carbon layers with more defects. Electrochemical tests show that o-PDC-350-1400 (oxidation stabilization at 350 °C, carbonization at 1400 °C) has a high charging specific capacity of 276.8 mAh g−1 at 100 mA g−1 and a high initial coulombic efficiency of 73.38%. Compared with sample PDC-1400 that was directly carbonized at 1400 °C, the charging specific capacity was increased by about 1.8 times and the initial coulombic efficiency was increased by 22%. The charging specific capacity of o-PDC-350-1400 after 200 cycles reached 170.2 mAh g−1, indicating good cycling stability.
High-surface-area porous carbons produced by the mild KOH activation of a chitosan hydrochar and their CO2 capture
WANG Jing, CHEN Shuang, XU Jia-yu, LIU Li-cheng, ZHOU Ji-cheng, CAI Jin-jun
2021, 36(6): 1081-1093.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60074-4
Abstract(69) HTML(40) PDF(17)
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Hydrothermal treatment of biomass is effective in producing hydrochar, but the product usually has a low surface area and is not suitable for direct use as an adsorbent for CO2 capture. We report the use of chitosan as a precursor for carbon prepared by a combination of hydrothermal treatment and mild KOH activation. The effect of an additive salt (eutectic salt of KCl/LiCl with a mass ratio of 5.5/4.5) in the hydrothermal treatment and activation temperature on the porosities and surface chemical states of the obtained carbons and their CO2 capture were studied by N2 adsorption, XPS, SEM and XRD. Results indicated that the porosities of the carbons were increased by increasing the activation temperature. The salt additive introduced mesopores in the hydrochar and slightly reduced the surface area of the porous carbon after activation, but was useful in increasing the number of N-species during hydrothermal treatment and activation. The carbons produced using the salt additive had much larger CO2 uptakes under ambient conditions than those prepared without the salt, suggesting that porosity is not the only factor that determines the CO2 uptake. The CO2 uptake on the carbon activated by KOH at 600 °C produced from the salt-assisted hydrochar was the highest (as high as 4.41 mmol/g) although its surface area was only 1 249 m2/g, indicating that CO2 uptake was determined by both the microporosity and the active N-species in the carbon.
High performance lithium-sulfur batteries using three-dimensional hierarchical porous carbons to host the sulfur
SHAN Yu-hang, LI Li-bo, DU Jin-tian, ZHAI Mo
2021, 36(6): 1094-1102.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60063-X
Abstract(149) HTML(65) PDF(14)
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Lithium-sulfur batteries are promising for future energy storage because of their high-energy density and low price. However, they have many problems, especially the large volume change during cycling and the shuttle effect of the soluble polysulfides. To solve these problems, a three-dimensional porous carbon (3D-HPC) was investigated as the sulfur host of a lithium-sulfur battery. The 3D-HPC was prepared by a template method using polymethyl methacrylate and zinc oxide as the templates to form mesopores and macropores, respectively. The results showed that the interconnected macroporous channels and abundant large mesopores formed a three-dimensional conductive carbon network which is beneficial for electron/ion transfer and relieves the cathode volume change by the physical limiting effect. The pores alleviate the shuttle effect by the capillary condensation. A 3D-HPC-S composite used as the cathode has excellent electrochemical properties. The first discharge specific capacity of the 3D-HPC-S is 1 314.6 mAh g−1 at 0.2 C with a sulfur loading of 70%. After 100 cycles, the capacity retention rate is 69.13%. At 0.5 C, the capacity retention rate after 200 cycles is 59.02% and the average coulombic efficiency is 98.16%.
Porous V2O3/C composite anodes with pseudocapacitive characteristics for lithium-ion capacitors
REN Xiao-long, AI De-sheng, LU Rui-tao, KANG Fei-yu, HUANG Zheng-hong
2021, 36(6): 1103-1108.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60070-7
Abstract(820) HTML(99) PDF(49)
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Vanadium trioxide materials have attracted great interest owing to their low cost and high theoretical lithium storage capacity. In this work, porous V2O3@C composites were prepared via a NaCl template-assisted freeze-drying strategy. Benefiting from the unique three-dimensional porous carbon-based structure, the V2O3@C composite anode exhibits a high-rate pseudocapacitive behavior. A lithium-ion capacitor (LIC) based on this V2O3@C composite anode and a commercial AC cathode was constructed. Results show that the as-constructed device exhibits high energy density, high power density as well as long cycling stability, indicating the great promise of our porous V2O3@C composites for the high-performance LICs.
Electrochemical oxidation of 2D B, N-codoped carbon nanosheets to improve their pseudo-capacitance
HU You-ren, DONG Xiao-ling, HOU Lu, ZHUANG Hong-kun, LI Wen-cui
2021, 36(6): 1109-1117.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60084-7
Abstract(151) HTML(107) PDF(35)
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Introducing redox pseudocapacitance could effectively improve the specific capacitance of carbon-based electrode materials, and is a promising way to overcome the low energy density of carbon-based supercapacitors. An in-situ electrochemical oxidation method was used to electrochemically generate active oxygen-containing functional groups for B, N co-doped carbon nanosheets to significantly increase the pseudocapacitance. Results show that the degree of oxidation, the pseudocapacitance, and the charge transfer rate of the oxidized carbon nanosheets were effectively increased by co-doping with B and N. Compared with the constant potential oxidation method, the cyclic voltammetry oxidation method was more effective in increasing the total oxygen content of the oxidized electrode and to selectively generate electrochemically active quinone groups. The oxidized electrode had a high specific capacitance of 601.5 F g−1 at a current density of 1 A g−1, retaining 74.8% of the original value at 20 A g−1, revealing a favorable rate capability. The oxidized electrode also had excellent cycle stability, retaining 92.6% of the initial capacitance after 8 000 cycles at 5 A g−1.
Coating a Na3V2(PO4)3 cathode material with carbon to improve its sodium storage
CHEN Yan-jun, CHENG Jun, SUN Shi-qi, WANG Yan-zhong, GUO Li
2021, 36(6): 1118-1127.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60098-7
Abstract(60) HTML(60) PDF(15)
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A sodium superionic conductor (NASICON)-type Na3V2(PO4)3 (NVP) with a 3D framework is a promising cathode material for sodium ion batteries. We used citric and oxalic acids as carbon sources to prepare carbon-coated NVP/C cathode materials by a sol-gel method. Their effect on the crystal structure, morphology and electrochemical performance of the coated NVP were investigated. Results indicate that compared with the NVP/C prepared from oxalic acid, NVP/C using citric acid as the carbon source has larger unit cell parameters of NVP, a smaller particle size, a thinner carbon coating layer, wider channels and shortened paths for Na+ migration, and superior kinetic characteristics. It had a high capacity of 112.3 mAh g−1 at 0.1 C and an excellent rate capability with reversible capacities of 90.0 and 89.1 mAh g−1 at 2 and 5 C, respectively. It also had an excellent cycling stability with capacity retention rates of nearly 100%, 92.7% and 90.0% after cycling 200 times at 1, 2 and 5 C, respectively. It is therefore a promising cathode material for practical use.
Preparation of a N-P co-doped waste cotton fabric-based activated carbon for supercapacitor electrodes
HUANG Ling, WANG Shuai, ZHANG Yu, HUANG Xiang-hong, PENG Jun-jun, YANG Feng
2021, 36(6): 1128-1137.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60054-9
Abstract(236) HTML(100) PDF(24)
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Transforming waste resources into energy storage materials is a new way to convert them into value-added products and help solve the problems of energy shortage and environmental pollution. A nitrogen-phosphorus co-doped activated carbon was synthesized from waste cotton fabric by combining carbonization and activation in ammonium polyphosphate and a molten salt system (ZnCl2 and KCl with a molar ratio of 52∶48). The morphology, microstructure and composition of the activated carbon were characterized by SEM, nitrogen adsorption, Raman spectroscopy and XPS. Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge were used to test the supercapacitor performance of the activated carbon. Results show that the co-doped activated carbon had a specific surface area of 751 m2·g−1, a specific capacitance of 423 F·g−1 at a current density of 0.25 A·g−1, and a capacitance retention rate of 88.9% after 5 000 cycles at a current density of 5 A·g−1. The energy density was 28.67 Wh·kg−1 at a power density of 200 W·kg−1 for a symmetrical supercapacitor using the activated carbon.
Preparation of a N, S, P co-doped and oxidized porous carbon for the efficient adsorption of uranium(VI)
LIU Yan, LIU Xiao-peng, DAI Ying, WANG Yun, YUAN Ding-zhong, LIU Jin-biao, CHEW Jia-wei
2021, 36(6): 1138-1148.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60055-0
Abstract(527) HTML(126) PDF(21)
Abstract:
A N, S, P co-doped and oxidized porous carbon was prepared by the carbonization of poly (cyclotriphosphazene-co-4,4’-sulfonyldiphenol) at 750 °C, followed by KOH activation and HNO3 oxidation. The carbon was used as an adsorbent for uranium(VI) in aqueous solutions. TEM, SEM, XPS and FTIR were used to characterize its microstructure before and after adsorption. Results indicate that there is an optimum pH value of 6 for U(VI) adsorption. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms were fitted well by the pseudo-second-order and the Langmuir models, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity determined by the Langmuir model at 298 K and a pH value of 6 was 402.9 mg g−1. The carbon has excellent reusability and retains 70% of the capacity of the original value after five adsorption-desorption cycles. The high U(VI) adsorption capacity is mainly attributed to the carboxyl, and P and S groups by the formation of the UO22+(COO)2 complex, and U―O―P and U―O―S bonds.
Micro/mesopore carbon spheres derived from sucrose for use in high performance supercapacitors
SHI Jing, TIAN Xiao-dong, LI Xiao, LIU Ye-qun, SUN Hai-zhen
2021, 36(6): 1149-1157.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60044-6
Abstract(210) HTML(122) PDF(53)
Abstract:
Micro/mesopore carbon spheres for use as the electrode materials of supercapacitors were prepared by hydrothermal carbonization followed by KOH/NaOH activation using sucrose as the carbon precursor. The effects of the KOH and NaOH activation parameters on the specific surface area, pore size distribution and electrochemical performance of the carbon spheres were investigated. Results indicate that the use of NaOH leads to the development of mesopores while the use of KOH increases the specific surface area and micropore volume. The pore size distribution of carbon spheres could be adjusted by varying the relative amounts of the reagents in the activation. Using a NaOH/KOH mass ratio of 2∶1 and a reagent/carbon sphere mass ratio of 3∶1, a good capacitance and rate performance of the supercapacitor electrode in both a 6 mol L−1 KOH aqueous electrolyte and a 1 mol L−1 MeEt3NBF4/propylene carbonate electrolyte was achieved. The prepared activated carbon gave a capacitance of 235 F g−1 at 0.1 A g−1 and a capacitance retention of 81.5% at 20 A g−1 in the 6 mol L−1 KOH aqueous electrolyte, and in a cell using the 1 mol L−1 MeEt3NBF4/propylene carbonate electrolyte, it gave the highest energy density of 30.4 Wh kg−1 and a power output of 18.5 kW kg−1.
Preparation of a porous carbon from Enteromorpha prolifera with excellent electrochemical properties
LI Shi-jie, ZHANG Ming-yang, GAO Yan, LI Hui, WANG Qian, ZHANG Lin-hua
2021, 36(6): 1158-1168.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60068-9
Abstract(138) HTML(82) PDF(19)
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Enteromorpha prolifera (EP) was carbonized, treated by HCl pickling to remove Ca2+ ions to form an "egg-box" structure, and activated by KOH to obtain a porous carbon (PC). The porous texture and electrochemical performance of the PC were compared with one produced without the HCl pickling stage. Results indicate that the HCl treatment leads to the formation of a porous structure with a high specific surface area (SBET), up to 3 283 m2 g−1, with more than 66% of the surface area contributed by mesopores, while the carbon prepared without HCl treatment is microporous. The PC with the HCl treatment had an excellent electrochemical performance when used as the electrode material of a supercapacitor even at high current densities. Its gravimetric capacitance reached 361 F g−1 at a current density of 0.1 A g−1, and the capacitance remained at 323 F g−1 at a current density of 10 A g−1, both of which are higher than obtained using the PC without HCl treatment.
Effect of surface functionalization on the surface and interfacial properties of thermoplastic-coated carbon fibers
SU Ya-nan, JING De-qi, ZHANG Xing-hua, ZHANG Shou-chun
2021, 36(6): 1169-1178.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60049-5
Abstract(158) HTML(84) PDF(24)
Abstract:
Hydroxyl- and amino- functionalized carbon fibers (CF―OH and CF―NH2) were prepared by surface oxidation with an acid mixture (H2SO4∶HNO3 of 3∶1 v/v) followed by grafting with ethylenediamine. The functionalized CFs were sized with a sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) sizing agent to prepare CF―OH―SPEEK and CF―NH2―SPEEK materials. The effect of surface functionalization on the surface properties of the CFs and their interfacial properties in PEEK matrix composites were investigated. Results showed that the content of polar functional groups and wettability of the CFs increased significantly after surface functionalization. Chemical reactions between the modified CFs and the sizing agent, improved the interfacial adhesion between them. The interfacial shear strengths of CF―OH―SPEEK and CF―NH2―SPEEK reinforced PEEK matrix composites were increased by 6.2% and 14.0%, respectively, compared with that of the composites reinforced with desized-SPEEK CFs. The surface functionalization helps improve the interfacial adhesion of thermoplastic-coated CF/PEEK composites.
A new strategy for the efficient exfoliation of graphite into graphene
CHAI Lin, CUI Xiao-jing, QI Yong-qin, TENG Na, HOU Xiang-lin, DENG Tian-sheng
2021, 36(6): 1179-1187.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60100-2
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Ultrasonication is regarded as the most convenient and cleanest approach for graphene preparation from graphite. However, the yields are low in large scale preparation because after ultrasonication the exfoliated graphite is difficult to exfoliate into graphene, which leads to a great deal of waste. A new strategy for the efficient exfoliation of the exfoliated graphite into graphene was investigated by combining ultrasonication and grinding treatments. Results indicated that the exfoliated graphite produced by ultrasonication could be further exfoliated into graphene by combining ultrasonication and grinding. The obtained graphene sheets were all comprised of fewer than 10 layers with a yield of 4.73%. This was attributed to the destruction of the regular stacking of the graphite layers and scrolling and folding their edges to provide entry points for the solvent to overcome the interlayer forces between adjacent layers. This work provides a new strategy for the efficient exfoliation of graphite into few-defect graphene on a large scale.
Preparation of fixed length carbon fiber reinforced plastic composite sheets with isotropic mechanical properties
XIANG Yu-xin, SHEN Ke, WU Hao, HE Zhi-cheng, LI Xuan-ke
2021, 36(6): 1188-1194.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60094-X
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Molded carbon composite sheets with different fiber volume fractions were prepared by dispersing fixed length (30 mm) carbon fibers in a vinyl resin matrix, which was then made into a carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite sheet by vacuum hot-pressing. The influence of the volume fraction (15%–40% (vol.)) of the carbon fibers on the tensile and bend strengths, and the in-plane isotropic characteristics of mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. Results show that the tensile strength in different in-plane directions of the composites varied by only 2%-3% at a 25%-30% (vol.) fiber content, indicating that the carbon fibers are well dispersed in the resin, and composite sheets with these fiber volume fractions are isotropic in the plane. By increasing the carbon fiber volume fraction from 15% to 40%, the composites had a maximum tensile strength of 141.4 MPa at 25% fiber volume and a maximum bend strength of 549.0 MPa at 30% fiber volume, which are respectively 112.8% and 129.6% higher than the values at a fiber volume fraction of 15%.
Research progress on electrode materials and electrolytes for supercapacitors
JIAO Chen, ZHANG Wei-ke, SU Fang-yuan, YANG Hong-yan, LIU Rui-xiang, CHEN Cheng-meng
2017, 32(2): 106-115.  
Abstract(609) PDF(3178)
摘要:
超级电容器具有高功率密度、长循环寿命、良好的低温使用性能和安全性的优点,已经广泛应用到电子产品、能量回收和储能等领域。电极材料和电解液是决定超级电容器性能的两大关键因素,超级电容器常用的电极材料包括碳质材料(活性炭、碳纳米管、石墨烯、炭纤维、纳米洋葱碳等)、金属氧化物(金属氢氧化物)、导电聚合物及复合材料等;电解液主要有水系电解液、有机系电解液与离子液体。本文综述了超级电容器电极材料与电解液的研究现状,详细介绍了电极材料、电解液的性能及优缺点,并对新型电极材料和电解液的研究趋势提出展望。
Influence of graphene oxide additions on the microstructure and mechanical strength of cement
WANG Qin, WANG Jian, LU Chun-xiang, LIU Bo-wei, ZHANG Kun, LI Chong-zhi
2015, 30(4): 349-356.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(15)60194-9
Abstract(693) PDF(423)
摘要:
研究了不同掺量下氧化石墨烯(GO)对水泥石以及胶砂微观结构和力学性能的影响。含16.5%水的水泥浆、0.05%GO及3倍于水泥的沙子共混物作为添加剂制备成砂浆。通过SEM、液氮吸附仪和一系列标准实验分别对水泥石的微观形态、孔隙结构、抗压抗折强度以及水泥净浆的流动度、黏度、凝结时间进行表征;考察不同GO掺量下水泥水化放热的变化情况。结果表明:GO对水泥浆有显著增稠和促凝作用;GO的掺入可以有效降低水泥的水化放热量;GO对水泥石有显著的增强增韧效果,28天龄期时,GO质量分数为0.05%的水泥石,3、7和28 d抗压强度和抗折强度同比对照组分别增加52.4%、46.5%、40.4%和86.1%、68.5%、90.5%,胶砂的抗压强度和抗折强度同比对照组分别增加43.2%、33%、24.4%和69.4%、106.4%、70.5%;GO在水泥硬化过程中对水泥石中晶体产物的产生有促进作用并能规整晶体的排布而形成针状晶体簇,改善水泥石中的孔结构,降低水泥石中微孔的体积,增加水泥石的密实度,对水泥石有显著地增强增韧效果。
Advances in the ablation resistance of C/C composites
FU Qian-gang, ZHANG Jia-ping, LI He-jun
2015, 30(2): 97-105.  
Abstract(991) PDF(1272)
摘要:
C/C复合材料因优异的高温性能被认为是高温结构件的理想材料。然而,C/C复合材料在高温高速粒子冲刷环境下的氧化烧蚀问题严重制约其应用。因此,如何提高C/C复合材料的抗烧蚀性能显得尤为重要。笔者综述C/C复合材料抗烧蚀的研究现状。目前,提高C/C复合材料抗烧蚀性能的途径主要集中于优化炭纤维预制体结构、控制热解炭织构、基体中陶瓷掺杂改性和表面涂覆抗烧蚀涂层等4种方法。主要介绍以上4种方法的研究现状,重点介绍基体改性和抗烧蚀涂层的最新研究进展。其中,涂层和基体改性是提高C/C复合材料抗烧蚀性能的两种有效方法。未来C/C 复合材料抗烧蚀研究的潜在方向主要集中于降低制造成本、控制热解炭织构、优化掺杂的陶瓷相以及将基体改性和涂层技术相结合。
Preparation and properties of reduced graphene oxide/polyimide composites produced by in-situ polymerization and solution blending methods
MA Lang, WANG Guo-jian, DAI Jin-feng
2016, 31(2): 129-134.  
Abstract(768) PDF(1345)
摘要:
利用化学氧化还原法制备出石墨烯。通过原位聚合法及溶液混合法制备出石墨烯/聚酰亚胺复合材料,考察不同复合材料制备方法对其机械性能及导电性能的影响,并对其作用机理进行探讨。结果表明,制备的石墨烯为二维的单层或寡层材料,加入到聚酰亚胺中能够增强其机械性能及电导率。相比溶液混合法,采用原位聚合法时石墨烯在聚酰亚胺基体中分散更均匀,对其团聚作用有更好的抑制作用,制备的复合材料性能更优异。采用该法加入石墨烯的量为1.0 wt%时,拉伸强度达到了132.5 MPa,提高了68.8%;加入量增加到3.0 wt%时,电导率达6.87×10-4S·m-1,提高了8个数量级,对聚酰亚胺的性能有显著的增强作用。
A review of carbon-carbon composites for engineering applications
SU Jun-ming, ZHOU Shao-jian, LI Rui-zhen, XIAO Zhi-chao, CUI Hong
2015, 30(2): 106-114.  
Abstract(1073) PDF(1184)
摘要:
评价了中国40多年来在航天、航空、光伏、粉末冶金、工业高温炉领域成功应用的针刺C/C,正交3D C/C、径编C/C、穿刺C/C、轴编C/C等五类C/C复合材料的物理、力学、热学、烧蚀、摩擦磨损、使用寿命等性能及特点,并与其他国家相应材料性能进行分析对比,为建立工程应用C/C复合材料共享的数据库平台奠定基础。揭示了炭纤维预制体、炭基体类型、界面结合状态与材料性能的关联度。指出炭纤维预制体结构单元精细化研究和其结构的梯度设计,以及炭基体的优化组合匹配技术,仍是C/C复合材料性能稳定化提升的重点研究方向。
Hydrothermal synthesis of porous phosphorus-doped carbon nanotubes and their use in the oxygen reduction reaction and lithium-sulfur batteries
GUO Meng-qing, HUANG Jia-qi, KONG Xiang-yi, PENG Hong-jie, SHUI Han, QIAN Fang-yuan, ZHU Lin, ZHU Wan-cheng, ZHANG Qiang
2016, 31(3): 352-362.  
Abstract(598) PDF(671)
摘要:
碳纳米管优异的物理性质和可调的化学组成使其拥有广泛的应用前景。采用低温过程在碳骨架中引入磷原子预期带来可调的化学特性。本研究采用170℃下水热处理碳纳米管-磷酸混合物获得磷掺杂的碳纳米管。磷掺杂的碳管的磷含量为1.66%,比表面积为132 m2/g,热失重峰在纯氧环境下提升至694℃。当掺磷碳纳米管用于氧还原反应时,其起始电位为-0.20 V,电子转移数为2.60,反应电流显著高于无掺杂的碳纳米管。当其用作锂硫电池正极导电材料时,电极的起始容量为1106 mAh/g,电流密度从0.1 C提升至1 C时容量保留率为80%,100次循环的衰减率为每圈0.25%。
Rheological behavior of fresh cement pastes with a graphene oxide additive
WANG Qin, WANG Jian, LU Chun-xiang, CUI Xin-you, LI Shi-yu, WANG Xi
2016, 31(6): 574-584.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(16)60033-1
Abstract(594) PDF(686)
摘要:
采用流变仪和激光共聚焦显微镜对不同氧化石墨烯(GO)掺量的新拌水泥浆体的流变参数以及浆体微观形态进行了定量化研究,并采用Modified-Bingham(M-B)模型和Herschel-Bulkley(H-B)模型对所测数据进行了拟合处理,提出了GO影响新拌水泥浆体的作用机理。结果表明,GO的掺入可以使新拌浆体中在减水剂作用下分散的水泥颗粒发生再次凝聚,形成重组絮凝结构,且随着GO掺量的增加,重组絮凝结构的数量越多,从而使得浆体流变性发生显著变化。一方面,新拌浆体的塑性粘度、屈服应力以及触变性随GO掺量的提高而显著增加。另一方面,GO的掺入提高了新拌浆体的临界剪切速率,使其在较大剪切速率下的流变行为仍然表现为剪切变稀;降低了浆体的剪切增稠程度,提高了浆体的稳定性。
Research progress and potential applications for graphene/polymer composites
ZENG You, WANG Han, CHENG Hui-ming
2016, 31(6): 555-567.  
Abstract(610) PDF(1564)
摘要:
随着石墨烯低成本宏量制备技术的突破,石墨烯的工业化应用进程已引起人们广泛关注。本文介绍了石墨烯在聚合物基复合材料领域的研究进展,侧重阐述石墨烯/聚合物复合材料在力学增强、导电/导热网络构建、防腐阻燃等方面的代表性研究成果,同时对商业化石墨烯产品及其复合材料应用进行了简单评述,探讨了石墨烯/聚合物复合材料领域目前存在的主要问题及未来发展趋势。
Adsorption of low-concentration methylene blue onto a palygorskite/carbon composite
WU Xue-ping, XU Yan-qing, ZHANG Xian-long, WU Yu-cheng, GAO Peng
2015, 30(1): 71-78.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(15)60176-7
Abstract(769) PDF(1064)
摘要:
通过水热处理凹凸棒石和纤维素获得凹凸棒石/炭纳米复合材料,研究该复合材料对亚甲基蓝的吸附性能。考察吸附条件对吸附行为的影响,以及吸附动力学和热力学研究。亚甲基蓝的吸附行为符合二级吸附速率方程,吸附等温方程符合Langmuir方程。吸附热力学参数的计算值表明,亚甲基蓝在该复合材料上的吸附是自发、吸热的过程。
The effect of nitrogen and/or boron doping on the electrochemical performance of non-caking coal-derived activated carbons for use as supercapacitor electrodes
LU Qian, XU Yuan-yuan, MU Sha-jiang, LI Wen-cui
2017, 32(5): 442-450.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(17)60133-1
Abstract(240) PDF(437)
摘要:
以新疆不粘煤为原料,三聚氰胺为氮源,硼酸为硼源,通过球磨和后续活化过程合成硼,氮掺杂及硼氮共掺杂煤基活性炭。氮吸附结果显示杂原子掺杂可提高活性炭中介孔的含量。红外和X光电子能谱结果显示,硼、氮原子存在于炭骨架中。循环伏安,恒流充放电及电化学阻抗分析说明硼、氮掺杂活性炭的电化学性能优于非掺杂活性炭。其中,硼氮共掺杂活性炭具有176 F·g-1的高比容量。循环20 000次容量保持率为96%。共掺杂活性炭优异的电化学性能归因于硼氮的协同作用。
Recent progress in the preparation of ordered mesoporous carbons using a self-assembled soft template
HUANG Zheng-hong
2012, 27(05): 321-336.  
Abstract(1813) PDF(13)
Abstract:
The preparation of self-assembled ordered mesoporous carbons (SA-OMCs) using a soft template method has many advantages, such as low cost, ease of preparation and control. This paper review the development periods, the basic principles and preparation procedures with an emphasis on the control of morphology and multi-level pore structure of OMCs based on SA-OMCs. And suggest that further research in this area can be focused on expanding the scope of the precursor, improving the flexibility and conductivity of the shaped products, such as fibers and membranes.
Preparation of graphene by chemical vapor deposition
REN Wen-cai, GAO Li-bo, MA Lai-peng, CHENG Hui-ming
2011, 26(01): 71-80.  
Abstract(2428) PDF(86)
Abstract:
Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is an effective way for the preparation of graphene with large area and high quality. In this review, the mechanism and characteristics of the four main preparation methods of graphene are briefly introduced, including micromechanical cleavage, chemical exfoliation, SiC epitaxial growth and CVD. The recent advances in the CVD growth of graphene and the related transfer techniques in terms of structure control, quality improvement and large area graphene synthesis were discussed. Other possible methods for the CVD growth of graphene were analyzed including the synthesis and nondestructive transfer of large area single crystalline graphene, graphene nanoribbons and graphene macrostructures.