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Wave Absorption Mechanism and Research Progress of Carbon-coated Magnetic Nanoparticles
LI Hong-sheng, WU Ai-min, CAO Tun, HUANG Hao
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60624-3
Abstract(132) HTML(5) PDF(6)
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The rapid development of electromagnetic waves (EMW) communication technology has provided great convenience for efficient transmission of information, and subsequently the problem of high frequency electronic radiation is becoming increasingly serious. The EMW absorbing materials have become important materials for solving electromagnetic radiation. The development of high-performance EMW absorption materials with "Thin, Light, Wide, Strong" characteristics is the focus and hot spot in the field of wave absorption. According to the transmission line theory, this paper introduces the stealth mechanism of microwave-absorbing material and summarizes the preparation methods. The research progress of carbon-coated magnetic nanoparticle microwave stealth materials is highlighted. The future application prospects and development trend of this nanoparticles are then described. Finally, several suggestions are put forward for the application and development direction of carbon-coated magnetic nano-stealth materials.
Advanced design strategies of multi-dimensional structured carbon materials for high-performance Zn-air batteries
YING Jia-ping, ZHENG Dong, MENG Shi-bo, YIN Rui-lian, DAI Xiao-jing, FENG Jin-xiu, WU Fang-Fang, SHI Wen-hui, CAO Xie-hong
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60623-1
Abstract(35) HTML(12) PDF(7)
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Zn-air batteries (ZABs) featuring high safety, low-cost, high specific capacity and environmentally friendliness have attracted intensive attention and emerged as a hot spot in energy storgae devices. However, the sluggish kinetics of oxygen evolution/reduction reactions (OER/ORR) at the air electrode and the non-negligible dendritic growth at the anode have hindered the large scale applications of ZABs. Carbon materials with low-cost, good electrical conductivity, chemical stability and bifunctional OER/ORR activities have been widely studied for ZABs in the past few years. This review begins with the basic working principle of ZABs, followed by the introduction of various carbon materials which focuses on their roles and superiorities in the applications of ZABs. This review also discusses the essential roles of multi-dimensional carbon materials as major components of ZABs, i.e., air electrodes, zinc anode and separators, in improving performance of ZABs. Finally, the perspectives on the future direction of carbon materials towards ZAB performance enhancement are explored.
A review of biomass-derived carbon materials for lithium metal anodes
LIU Ao, LIU Tie-feng, YUAN Hua-dong, WANG Yao, LIU Yu-jing, LUO Jian-min, NAI Jian-wei, TAO Xin-yong
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60620-6
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Due to the high theoretical capacity and the lowest reduction potential, lithium metal has been considered as the “Holy Grail” anode material for high energy density battery systems. However, the practical application of lithium metal anodes (LMAs) has been plagued by a series of problems such as the hostless of lithium metal, uncontrollable lithium dendrites growth, unstable solid-elezctrolyte interfaces (SEIs), and “dead” lithium accumulation. Biomass-derived carbon materials have been considered as one of the most ideal host materials for Li metal owing to the advantages of high mechanical strength, high conductivity, high surface area, and good chemical stability. This review presents a historical framework of biomass-derived carbon materials in constructing host for LMAs. The rational design and application of biomass-derived carbon materials in suppressing Li dendrites growth and constructing stable LMAs are summarized via discussing the impact of the structure, porosity, “lithiophilicity” modification, etc, putting forward the future trend of biomass-derived carbon materials and the challenges faced.
A sustainable strategy to prepare porous carbons with tailored pores from shrimp shell for use as the supercapacitor electrode materials
GAO Feng, XIE Ya-qiao, ZANG Yun-hao, ZHOU Gang, QU Jiang-ying, WU Ming-bo
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60046-X
Abstract(55) HTML(29) PDF(8)
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Highly efficient synthesis of nitrogen-doped carbons with different porous structures is reported using shrimp shell as the carbon and nitrogen source, and its CaCO3 component as the hard template and the activator. The content of CaCO3 in shrimp shell can be tuned easily in the range of 0-on of CaCO3 acts as the activator and template to tailor the pore sizes of the carbons. CO2 derived from decomposition of CaCO3 also plays an activating role. Their specific surface areas, pore volumes, ratios of micropore volumes to total pore volumes can be adjusted in the range of 117.6-1137 m2 g−1, 0.14-0.64 cm3 g−1, and 0-73.4%, respectively. When used as the electrodes of supercapacitor, the porous carbon obtained with a leaching time of 92 min exhibits the highest capacitances of 328 F g−1 at 0.05 A g−1 in a 6 mol L−1 KOH electrolyte and 619.2 F g−1 at 0.05 A g−1 in a 1 mol L−1 H2SO4 electrolyte. Its corresponding energy density at a power density of 1470.9 W kg−1 is 26.0 Wh kg−1. This work provides a low cost method for fabricating porous carbons to fulfill the high-value-added use of biomass.
The permselective graphene-based membranes and their applications in the seawater desalination
GAO Yi-fu, WANG Yao, ZHOU Dong, LV Wei, KANG Fei-yu
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60618-8
Abstract(90) HTML(48) PDF(14)
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Two-dimensional materials represented by graphene are widely used to fabricate membranes with nanopores or nanochannels, demonstrating great application prospects in the field of mass separation, especially seawater desalination. Here, we review the research progress and applications of graphene and its derivatives, including single-layer graphene, nanoporous graphene and graphene oxide, in the field of seawater desalination. Based on an overview of the intrinsic properties of graphene, the permeability and selectivity of porous graphene membranes with one-dimensional nanopores and lamellar graphene oxide membranes with two-dimensional nanochannels are first discussed. In addition, different preparation processes and their effects on the permselectivity of graphene-based membranes are compared. Furthermore, the regulation methods and mechanism of the permselectivity of graphene-based membranes to various solutions are analyzed. Finally, the applications of graphene-based membranes in the seawater desalination and the existing limitations are summarized, and perspectives for future developments of this research area are proposed.
Synthesis of hierarchical porous carbon with lignin-rich residue for high-performance supercapacitor
FANG Yan-yan, ZHANG Qian-yu, ZHANG Dong-dong, CUI Li-feng
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60058-6
Abstract(409) HTML(124) PDF(21)
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Designing electrically conductive electrode material with a hierarchical pore structure with abundant raw material remains a significant challenge in the field of energy storage. In this work, 3D porous carbons with high surface areas are synthesized via high-temperature carbonization and activation method. The as-prepared activation carbons deliver a specifical capacitance of 280 F g−1 and area-specific capacitance of 1.3 F cm−2 at a current density of 0.5 A g−1. The assembled symmetric supercapacitor can deliver a high energy output of 7.7 Wh kg−1 at 5200 W kg−1. Thus, it is demonstrated the repurposing of lignin waste as electrode material can be a feasible resource that goes beyond the limitations of utilizing lignin in low value-added applications.
Rational design of a 3D CNTs/Ti3C2Tx aerogel modified separator for Li–S batteries to circumvent the shuttle effect and slow redox kinetics of polysulfides
YIN Fei, JIN Qi, ZHANG Xi-tian, WU Li-li
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60085-9
Abstract(180) HTML(85) PDF(22)
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Lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries suffer from fast capacity fading and inferior rate performance due to the severe shuttle effect of polysulfides (LiPSs) and slow redox kinetics. To solve these issues, a three-dimensional (3D) CNTs/Ti3C2Tx aerogel was successfully prepared with Ti3C2Tx as the active matrix and CNTs as the conductive pillars, which was utilized as a LiPS immobilizer and promoter to modify the commercial Li–S battery separator. The unique design of highly porous 3D aerogel structure results in the sufficient exposure of Ti3C2Tx active sites by preventing their restacking, which not only offers abundant charge transport pathways, but also strengthens the adsorption and catalytic conversion of LiPSs. Moreover, the incorporation of CNTs forms a highly conductive network to connect the adjacent Ti3C2Tx sheets, thereby improving the conductivity and structure robustness of the 3D aerogel. Owing to these merits, the Li–S cell using the CNTs/Ti3C2Tx aerogel modified separator show a high rate capacity of 1043.2 mAh g–1 up to 2 C and an excellent cycling life over 800 cycles at 0.5 C with a low capacity decay rate of 0.07% per cycle.
Review on H2S selective oxidation over carbon-based materials at low temperature: from pollutant to energy storage materials
SUN Ming-hui, WANG Xu-zhen, ZHAO Zong-bin, QIU Jie-shan
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60622-X
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Carbon materials that are widely used for room-temperature selective oxidation of H2S have attracted growing attention in the last few decades. Here, recent development of carbon-based desulfurization catalysts is reviewed, including activated carbon modified by alkaline, porous carbon doped with nitrogen or modified with functional groups, and carbon composites with other species such as alkaline metal oxides. The oxidation mechanisms of H2S upon various catalysts are also discussed, and the important function of carbons in desulfurization are focused, including large specific area, developed porous structure and adjustable surface chemistry. In addition to the catalytic oxidation of H2S, this review also covers the extended application of the spent catalysts, the sulfur/carbon composites, as the sulfur cathode materials for high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries to further achieve the high value-added transformation of sulfur-containing pollutants. Finally, the outlook of carbon-based materials for room-temperature desulfurization and the key challenges of large-scale application has been prospected, which are expected to provide guidance for the development of this technique.
Preparation and Electrochemical Properties of Ni(OH)2/Graphite Phase Carbon Nitride/Graphene Ternary Composites
LIU Bin, HE Wen-xiu, ZHANG Yong-qiang, CUI Jin-long
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60625-5
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Ni(OH)2/graphite phase carbon nitride(g-C3N4)/graphene(RGO) ternary composites were prepared by hydrothermal method, the effect of mass ratio of Ni(OH)2∶g-C3N4∶RGO on the structure, morphology and electrochemical properties of the composites was investigated. The surface microstructure and degree of reduction of the material were characterized by X-ray diffraction(XRD), scanning electron microscopy(SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR), Physical adsorption and desorption of nitrogen, transmission electron microscope (TEM). The composite properties of the composite were tested by cyclic voltammetry(CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge(GCD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS). The results show that the ternary composite represents three-dimensional slice space interlaced structure when the quality proportion of Ni(OH)2, g-C3N4 and RGO is 16∶1∶1, and the potential difference ΔE between the oxidation peak and the reduction peak is 0.218 V. When the current density was 1 A/g, the specific capacitance of the composite material is 516.9 F/g, After 3000 cycles of charge-discharge, the capacity retention rate reaches 74.3%, which showed good electrochemical performance.
Electrochemical sensing of phenacetin on electrochemically reduced graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrode
MENG Xiao-tong, ZHU De-jing, JIANG Yu-hang, CAO Yue, SI Wei-meng, CAO Jun, LI Qiu-hong, LI Jiao, LEI Wu
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60087-2
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It is known that the electrochemical determination of phenacetin, a widely used analgesic, is challenging for the interference of the electroactive intermediate, acetaminophen. Phenacetin has been proved to be electroactive in 1980s, but its electrochemical determination has not been widely reported. The electrochemical behavior on electrochemical reduced graphene (ERGO) modified electrode was investigated, and its comparison with several nitrogen-doped graphene samples was performed. Results indicate that ERGO possesses higher current response and lower oxidation potential than nitrogen-doped graphene. ERGO modified electrode as a phenacetin sensor has a detection limit of 0.91 μM for phenacetin. The redox mechanism of phenacetin is interfered by electrochemical experiments, and the reactions under different pH values are proposed. Acetaminophen is considered to be the main intermediate and not an interferent in the determination of phenacetin. But phenacetin interfers with the response of acetaminophen obviously, suggesting that simultaneous detection of phenacetin and acetaminophen is not possible. Usual species, such as Cu2+, Al3+, methanol, ethylene glycol, glucose, and ascorbic acid, hardly cause interference in determination of phenacetin.
A correlation of the hydrogen evolution reaction activity to the defects formed by the decomposition of doped phosphorus species in carbon nanotubes
AI Jie, LIU Zi-wu, SUN Mao-mao, LIU Ling, WANG Quan-de
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60052-5
Abstract(219) HTML(115) PDF(14)
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The phosphorus-doped carbon materials as one of novel carbon catalysts towards the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) have attracted considerable attention over the past years. However, the role of C―P species palyed in the HER activity is still not clear up to now. Phosphorus-doped carbon nanotubes (P-CNTs) were prepared by chemical vapor deposition and annealed at 900, 1000 and 1200 °C to remove all or parts of phosporus species, resulting in four samples with different proportions of graphite-, pyridine- and pyrrole-like P species. The correlations between their HER activity and the contents of three types of P species were investigated. Results showed that the content of graphite-like P decreased with the annealing temperature and no graphite-like P was retained at 1200 °C. The HER activity increased with the annealing temperature and the one annealed at 1200 °C had the highest HER activity in an acid medium with an overpotential of 0.266 V at a current density of 10 mA cm−2. Density functional theory calculations revealed that the pentagon- and nine-membered ring defects formed by the destruction of graphite-P species contributed mainly to the HER activity, which gave a deep insight into the active sites for HER.
Isolated cobalt sites confined in graphene matrix for highly efficient electrocatalysis CO2 reduction
ZHANG Hui-nian, WANG Hui-qi, JIA Su-ping, CHANG Qin, LI Ning, LI Ying, SHI Xiao-lin, LI Zi-yuan, HU Sheng-liang
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60061-6
Abstract(460) HTML(150) PDF(44)
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Developing highly selective, economical and stable catalysts for electrochemical converting CO2 into value-added carbon products to mitigate both CO2 emission and energy crisis is still challenging. Here, we report an efficient and robust electrocatalyst for CO2 reduction reaction (CO2RR) by embedding single-atom CoN4 active sites into graphene matrix. These highly dispersed CoN4 sites show an extraordinary CO2RR activity, with a high CO Faradaic efficiency of nearly 95% at −0.76 V (vs. RHE) and remarkable durability. The corresponding overpotential is 0.65 V. Our finding could pave the way for the design of high-efficiency electrocatalyst for CO2RR at the atomic scale.
Structure and Electrochemical properties of coconut shell-based hard carbon as anode materials for potassium ion batteries
HUANG Tao, PENG Da-chun, CHEN Zui, XIA Xiao-hong, CHEN Yu-xi, LIU Hong-bo
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60069-0
Abstract(622) HTML(291) PDF(50)
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Biomorphic hard carbon recently attracted widely interest as anode materials for potassium ion batteries (PIBs) owing to their high reversible capacity, but high preparation cost and poor cycle stability significantly hinder its practical application. In this study, coconut shell-derived hard carbon (CSHC) was prepared from waste biomass coconut shell using a one-step carbonization method, which was further used as anode materials for potassium ion batteries. The effects of carbonization temperature on the microstructure and electrochemical properties of the CSHC materials were investigated by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and cyclic voltammetry, etc. The results suggested that the coconut shell hard carbon carbonized at 1 000 °C (CSHC-10) possessed suitable graphite microcrystallines size, pore structure and surface defect content, which exhibited the best electrochemical performance. Specifically, CSHC-10 presented a high reversible specific capacity of 254 mAh·g−1 at 30 mA·g−1 with an initial Coulombic efficiency of 75.0%, and the capacity retention was 87.5% after 100 cycles and 75.9% after 400 cycles at 100 mA·g−1. The CSHC with high capacity and good cycling stability demonstrates to be an excellent potassium storage material.
Coal-based graphene as a promoter of TiO2 for photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes
LIU Guo-yang, LI Ke-ke, JIA Jia, ZHANG Ya-ting
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60047-1
Abstract(483) HTML(277) PDF(34)
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A reduced graphene oxide (H-rGO)/TiO2-composite (H-TiO2@rGO) as a catalyst for photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (Rh B) and methyl orange (MO) was prepared by hydrothermal treating a dispersant of TiO2 nanoparticles with sizes of 5-10 nm and GO obtained by the Hummers method from coal-based graphite in water. Compared with the M-TiO2@GO and M-TiO2@rGO composites by a wet mixing method, results indicated that the TiO2 nanoparticles in H-TiO2@rGO were uniformly decorated on both sides of rGO sheet, forming a stacked-sheet structure while apparent aggregation of TiO2 nanoparticles was found in both M-TiO2@GO and M-TiO2@rGO. Therefore, H-rGO@TiO2 had the highest catalytic activity towards degradation of Rh B and MO under visible light irradiation among the three, where the incorporation of rGO into TiO2 helps to narrow the band gap of TiO2, inhibit the recombination rate of electron–hole pairs and provide conductive networks for electron transfer.
Preparation of high-performance anthracite-based graphite anode materials and their lithium storage properties
LI Yuan, TIAN Xiaodong, SONG Yan, YANG Tao, WU Shijie, LIU Zhanjun
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60057-4
Abstract(231) HTML(150) PDF(44)
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In this study, cost-effective anthracite and industrial silicon powder were used as precursor and catalyst, respectively, to prepare graphite with various structure, during which the catalytic mechanism was analyzed. The results demonstrate that the as-obtained sample with 5% silicon catalyst (G-2800-5%) exhibits the best overall lithium storage performance. In detail, G-2800-5% display the best graphite structure with graphitization degree of 91.5%. As anode materials, a high reversible capacity of 369.0 mAh g−1 can be achieved at 0.1 A g−1. Meanwhile, the reversible capacity of 209.0 mAh g−1 can be obtained at the current density of 1 A g−1. It also delivers good cyclic stability with a 92.2% retention after 200 cycles at 0.2 A g−1. The highly developed graphite structure, which is favorable to the formation of stable SEI and reduced lithium ion loss should be responsible for the superior electrochemical performance.
KOH Treated Mesocarbon Microbeads as High Rate Anode for Potassium-Ion Batteries
XIAO Nan, GUO Hong-da, XIAO Jian, WEI Yi-bo, MA Xiao-qing, ZHANG Xiao-yu, QIU Jie-shan
 doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60059-8
Abstract(404) HTML(141) PDF(37)
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Graphite is one of the most promising anode materials for potassium-ion batteries (PIBs) due to its low cost and stable discharge plateau. However, its poor rate performance still needs to be improved. Herein, a novel graphitic anode was designed from commercial mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) by KOH treatment. Through limited oxidation and slight intercalation, an expanded layer with enlarged interlayer spacing formed on the surface of MCMB, by which the K+ diffusion rate was significantly improved. When served as the PIB anode, this modified MCMB delivered a high plateau capacity below 0.25 V (271 mAh g−1), superior rate capability (160 mAh g−1 at 1.0 A g−1), excellent cycling stability (about 184 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at 0.1 A g−1), and high initial coulombic efficiency with carboxymethyl cellulose as binder (79.2%). This work provides a facile strategy to prepare graphitic materials with superior potassium storage property.
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2022, 37(3): 1-1.  
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2022, 37(3): 1-5.  
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Reviews
Research progress on recovering the components of spent Li-ion batteries
GAO Shao-jun, LIU Wei-feng, FU Dong-ju, LIU Xu-guang
2022, 37(3): 435-460.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60605-X
Abstract(1026) HTML(85) PDF(87)
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With the recent rapid development of electric vehicles, the use and decommissioning of Li-ion batteries have increased, causing environmental pollution and the waste of valuable materials in spent batteries. Commercial Li-ion batteries are mostly composed of transition metal oxide or phosphate-based cathodes, graphite-based anodes, organic electrolytes containing harmful lithium salts, polymer separators, and plastic or metal shells. After the battery is retired, many precious metals and graphite have a high recycling value. We review the current status of research on recovering these components with an emphasis on the leaching and separation of cathode and anode materials, and electrolytes in these batteries. The problems encountered in the different methods are outlined in terms of recycling cost and secondary pollution. Future research trends are outlined for the commercial full recovery of spent Li-ion batteries.
Design of active sites in carbon materials for electrochemical potassium storage
GENG Chao, CHEN Ya-xin, SHI Li-luo, SUN Zong-fu, ZHANG Lei, XIAO An-yong, JIANG Jiang-min, ZHUANG Quan-chao, JU Zhi-cheng
2022, 37(3): 461-483.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60612-7
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Carbon materials have attracted considerable attention as anodes for potassium ion batteries owing to their low-cost, nontoxicity, and controllable structures. The potassium storage behavior of carbon materials is highly associated with their active sites. In recent years, significant advances have been made in designing the active sites of carbon materials to meet the requirements of different potassium-based storage devices. Here, potassium storage mechanisms (intercalation and adsorption) for guiding the rational design of carbon materials are discussed. Based on these mechanisms, the review provides fundamental insight into the relationship between the structures and potassium storage performance of different carbon materials, including graphite, soft carbon, hard carbon, porous carbon, heteroatom-doped carbon, hybridized carbon and composited carbon. The structural design principles of carbon anode materials for potassium-ion full cell and potassium-ion capacitors are summarized based on the initial coulombic efficiency, capacity, potential plateau, rate performance, and cyclic stability. Finally, the problems and future research directions for the design of active sites in carbon materials for electrochemical potassium storage are considered.
A review of polymer-derived carbon molecular sieve membranes for gas separation
LI Hao-jie, LIU Yao-dong
2022, 37(3): 484-507.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60613-9
Abstract(260) HTML(65) PDF(58)
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Membrane technology for gas separation and purification has unique economic and environmental advantages over conventional purification processes. Carbon molecular sieve membranes (CMSMs) have a higher gas permeability, selectivity, chemical resistance, and better thermal stability than polymer membranes, and have therefore received more attention. CMSMs are commonly fabricated by the pyrolysis of polymer precursors such as polyimides, resins, cellulose and polyetherimide. The reported fabrication process and gas separation performance of CMSMs made from various precursors are summarized and discussed. Both the chemical and physical structures of the precursor membranes affect the carbon structures and gas separation performances of the resulting CMSMs. Overall, the gas separation performance of CMSMs has been significantly improved in the last 20 years, and their possible commercial use is not far away. An in-depth understanding of this progress on CMSMs should provide researchers from different fields an understanding of how to promote their fabrication and applications.
Recent progress in MXene-based nanomaterials for high-performance aqueous zinc-ion hybrid capacitors
ZHANG Ming-hui, XU Wen, WU Li-sha, DONG Yan-feng
2022, 37(3): 508-526.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60611-5
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Aqueous zinc-ion hybrid capacitors (ZHCs) have an intrinsic safety and low cost, and are promising for use in large-scale energy storage devices. However, traditional porous carbon cathodes have inappropriate pore structures for zinc ion storage and diffusion. Moreover, zinc foil anodes suffer from the growth of Zn dendrites and side reactions, so that traditional ZHCs usually have a non-competitive energy density and unsatisfactory service life, seriously inhibiting their practical use. Two-dimensional transition metal carbide/nitride MXenes with a highly conductive matrix and abundant surface functional groups are good choices for constructing high-capacity cathodes and long-life Zn anodes for high-performance ZHCs. Recent progress in MXene-based nanomaterials as electrode materials of advanced ZHCs is summarized. The fundamentals of ZHCs are first introduced, such as working principles and key electrochemical parameters. The use of various MXene-based cathodes and anodes in high-performance aqueous ZHCs are then considered and, finally, the challenges and prospects for MXene-based nanomaterials for next-generation ZHCs are briefly discussed.
Engineering the interface between separators and cathodes to suppress polysulfide shuttling in lithium-sulfur batteries
LONG Xiang, ZHU Shao-kuan, SONG Ya, ZHENG Min, SHAO Jiao-jing, SHI Bin
2022, 37(3): 527-543.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60614-0
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Lithium-sulfur batteries have attracted extensive attention because of their high theoretical specific energy storage capacity and energy density. However, the shuttling of polysulfides greatly hinders their practical use. Many studies show that engineering the interface between separators and cathodes is an effective strategy to solve this problem. Ways to inhibit the shuttling can be divided into physical blocking, chemical adsorption, and catalysis. Among the interfacial materials, carbon materials have attracted enormous attention due to their high electrical conductivity, large specific area, and high pore volume. However, their non-polarity makes it impossible for them to bind polysulfides tightly and heteroatoms/functional groups are incorporated in them or highly polar materials are composited with them in the design of the interfacial materials. In addition, the catalytic effect of the carbon in the polysulfide conversion is believed to be very important in effectively suppressing the shuttling. This review focuses on the detailed strategies and functions of interfacial engineering in addressing the problems and challenges in the use of lithium sulfur batteries. Finally, practical applications of lithium sulfur batteries are proposed, based on a combination of various measures including interfacial engineering.
A review of the coefficient of thermal expansion and thermal conductivity of graphite
ZHAO Lu, TANG Jiang, ZHOU Min, SHEN Ke
2022, 37(3): 544-555.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60603-6
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Graphite serves as a key material for heat dissipation in electronic devices and nuclear engineering due to its remarkable thermal properties. The thermal expansion and conductivity of graphite have always been major scientific parameters in the field of carbon materials. Therefore, theoretical and experimental research in this area has received extensive attention. Research progress on the thermal expansion coefficient and thermal conductivity of graphite crystals is reviewed. Theoretical and experiment results on the thermal expansion coefficient of graphite are first introduced, followed by a discussion of the methods for measuring graphite thermal conductivity and the special phonon scattering mechanism in graphite. Finally, the uses of graphite in thermal management are summarized, and the development prospects in this field are discussed.
Research articles
A high-frequency flexible symmetric supercapacitor prepared by the laser-defocused ablation of MnO2 on a carbon cloth
ZHAO Guang-yao, WANG Fang-cheng, LIU Ming-jie, SUI Yi-ming, ZHANG Zhuo, KANG Fei-yu, YANG Cheng
2022, 37(3): 556-563.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60600-0
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The rapid development of flexible electronics has produced an enormous demand for supercapacitors. Compared to batteries, supercapacitors have great advantages in terms of power density and cycling stability. They can also respond well on a time scale of seconds, but most have a poor frequency response, and behave more like pure resistors when used at high frequencies (e.g., above 100 Hz). It is therefore challenging to develop supercapacitors that work at a frequency of over 100 Hz. We report a high-frequency flexible symmetrical supercapacitor composed of a MnO2@carbon cloth hybrid electrode (CC@MnO2), which is synthesized by the defocused-laser ablation method. This CC@MnO2-based symmetric supercapacitor has an excellent specific areal capacitance of 1.53 mF cm−2 at a frequency of 120 Hz and has good cycling stability with over 92.10% capacitance retention after 100000 cycles at 100 V s−1. This remarkable electrochemical performance is attributed to the combined effect of the high conductivity of the 3D structure of the carbon cloth and the exceptional pseudo-capacitance of the laser-produced MnO2 nanosheets. The defocused laser ablation method can be used for large-scale production using roll-to-roll technology, which is promising for the wide use of the supercapacitor in high-frequency electronic devices.
Improving electron and ion transport by constructing 3D graphene nanosheets sandwiched between porous carbon nanolayers produced from resorcinol-formaldehyde resin for high-performance supercapacitor electrodes
SUN Bing, TANG Wen, XIANG Hui, XU Wen-li, CONG Ye, YUAN Guan-ming, ZHU Hui, ZHANG Qin, LI Xuan-ke
2022, 37(3): 564-574.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60604-8
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An ideal supercapacitor electrode should contain three-dimensional (3D) interpenetrating electron and ion pathways with a short transport distance. Graphene-based carbon materials offer new and fascinating opportunities for high performance supercapacitor electrodes due to their excellent planar conductivity and large surface area. 3D graphene nanosheets coated with carbon nanolayers of controllable thickness from resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin are constructed and activated by KOH to develop pores. Such a sandwich structure provides abundant transport channels for ions with short paths. The porous carbon nanolayers accelerate ion transport, while the graphene networks improve the conductivity, boosting electron transport. As expected, the prepared porous carbon has a high surface area of 690 m2 g−1 and a high specific capacitance of up to 324 F g−1 in a 6 mol L−1 KOH aqueous electrolyte at a current density of 0.2 A g−1. More than 99% of the capacitance is retained after 8000 charge–discharge cycles at a high current density of 5 A g−1, indicating good cycling stability. This research provides an effective strategy for the development of outstanding electrode materials for the enhanced transport of both electrons and ions.
Supercapacitors based on nitrogen-enriched crumpled graphene with a high volumetric capacitance and high-mass-loading per area of the electrode
YU Qiong, WANG Yong-zhi, MENG Meng, SHEN Shu-ling, TANG Zhi-hong, YANG Jun-he
2022, 37(3): 575-584.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60599-7
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Abstract:
The low volumetric capacity and sluggish diffusion of ions at high mass loadings of active materials per area limit any improvement of the energy and power densities of supercapacitors. A mixture of graphene oxide (GO) and urea in water was treated by an ultrasonic atomizer to form aerosol droplets, which were dried to obtain crumpled GO/urea particles. Crumpled graphene with a nitrogen content of 11.38% was obtained by the thermal shocking of these particles at 600 °C for 50 s. A volumetric capacitance of 384.0 F cm−3 was achieved when the crumpled graphene was used as supercapacitor electrodes. Even at a high current density (10 A g−1) and a high loading (74.3 mg/cm2 electrode), the specific capacitance retention still remained high. It is proposed that N-doping in the forms of pyrrole, imide, lactam and other types of pyridine-like nitrogen, and high surface area of the sample were key factors in improving the capacitance. The crumpled structure provided high mass transfer and high accessibility of ions to the active surface.
Peat-derived nitrogen-doped porous carbons as photothermal-assisted visible-light photocatalysts for water splitting
BAI Jin-peng, XIAO Nan, SONG Xue-dan, XIAO Jian, QIU Jie-shan
2022, 37(3): 585-594.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60593-6
Abstract(101) HTML(63) PDF(26)
Abstract:
Photocatalytic H2 evolution is considered one of the most important processes for H2 production. Carbon materials are potential candidates for large-scale and cost-effective photocatalytic water splitting, yet their activity needs to be further improved. We report the synthesis of nitrogen-doped porous carbons using peat moss as a precursor and urea as a nitrogen source. The properties of carbons as photothermal-assisted visible-light photocatalysts were investigated. Due to the photothermal effect, the system temperature increased quickly to 55 °C in 15 min under visible light irradiation, which subsequently helps increase the photocatalytic activity by about 25%. It has been found that the crystallinity and nitrogen content of the carbon materials can be changed by changing the carbonization temperature, and these have an impact on their photocatalytic activity. A peat-derived carbon carbonized at 800 °C, with a N content of 4.88 at.% and an appropriate crystallinity has an outstanding photocatalytic activity with a high H2 evolution rate of 75.6 μmol H2 g−1 h−1 under visible-light irradiation.
Hydrothermal synthesis of carbon nanodots from waste wine cork and their use in biocompatible fluorescence imaging
Quang Ngo Khoa, Hieu Nguyen Ngoc, Bao Vo Van Quoc, Phuoc Vo Thi, Ngoc Le Xuan Diem, Doc Luong Quang, Tri Nguyen Minh, Son Le Vu Truong, Son Le Van Thanh, Ha Che Thi Cam
2022, 37(3): 595-602.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60608-5
Abstract(621) HTML(293) PDF(50)
Abstract:
A low-cost and simple method is reported for the synthesis of carbon nanodots (CDs) from waste wine cork using hydrothermal treatment. The structural and optical properties of the CDs were characterized by TEM, FTIR, Raman, UV-Vis absorption, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Results indicate that the CDs have an average diameter of ~ 6.2 ± 2.7 nm and their excitation-dependent PL is related to the functional groups on their surface. The CDs have a quantum yield of 1.54%, estimated using quinine sulfate as a reference. They have been successfully applied in the bioimaging of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). After treatment with the CDs, the MSCs fluoresce green, yellow and red colors under the excitation wavelengths in the ranges 320-380 nm, 450-490 nm, and 515-560 nm, respectively, demonstrating their potential use in the field of fluorescence imaging.
Preparation of MoSi2-modified HfB2-SiC ultra high temperature ceramic anti-oxidation coatings by liquid phase sintering
REN Xuan-ru, WANG Wei-guang, SUN Ke, HU Yu-wen, XU Lei-hua, FENG Pei-zhong
2022, 37(3): 603-614.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60060-4
Abstract(331) HTML(156) PDF(49)
Abstract:
Liquid-phase sintering combining an in-situ reaction method with a slurry method was used to prepare HfB2-MoSi2-SiC coatings of controllable composition and thickness. The effect of the MoSi2 content on the oxidation protection of HfB2-MoSi2-SiC composite coatings in a dynamic aerobic environment from room temperature to 1500 °C and a static constant temperature at 1500 °C in air was investigated. The relative oxygen permeability was used to characterize the oxidation resistance of the coatings. The results of dynamic oxidation test at room temperature~1500 °C show that the initial oxidation weight loss temperature of the samples is increased from 775 to 821 °C, and the maximum weight loss rate is decreased from 0.9×10−3 to 0.2×10−3 mg·cm−2·s−1 with increasing MoSi2 content, the lowest relative oxygen permeability is reduced to 12.2% with the weight loss of the sample being decreased from 1.8% to 0.21%. The mechanism of MoSi2 improving the oxidation protection of the coatings is revealed. With an increase of the MoSi2 content, the amount of SiO2 glass phase in the coating is increased, and the dispersion of Hf-oxide on the surface is improved so that a Hf-Si-O glass layer with high stability is formed and the weight loss of the sample is reduced from 0.46% to 0.08% after 200 h oxidation at 1500 °C in air.
Preparation and performance of electrocatalytic carbon membranes for treating micro-polluted water
YU Fang-peng, PAN Zong-lin, LI Lin, SONG Cheng-wen, WANG Tong-hua
2022, 37(3): 615-624.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60610-3
Abstract(171) HTML(30) PDF(21)
Abstract:
Porous carbon membranes (PCMs) with three functions of adsorption, electrocatalytic oxidation and membrane filtration were prepared from coconut shell activated carbon using carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC,10 wt%) and benzoxazine resin (BR, 10 wt%-40 wt%) as the binder components. The morphology and microstructure of PCMs were characterized by SEM, XRD, Raman and nitrogen adsorption. An electrocatalytic membrane reactor (ECMR) was constructed using PCMs as the anode materials to investigate their water treatment performance. Results show that the PCMs have well-developed hierarchical macro, meso and micropores, whose macropore size decreases with the particle size of the activated carbon. The mechanical strength and electrical conductivity of the PCMs increased with BR content and carbonization temperature. The water flux decreased as the average particle size of the activated carbon decreased and the iodine value decreased with decreasing BR content. The PCM performed best with an excellent comprehensive performance in adsorption, electrocatalytic oxidation and filtration when it was prepared from an activated carbon of average particle size of 37.9 μm using a BR content of 30 wt% and a carbonization temperature of 950 ℃. For the micro-polluted Lingshui River water in Dalian, the removal of COD, UV254, turbidity and bacteria with the ECMR reached 94.3%, 90.5%, 96.3% and 100%, respectively, and heavy metal ions (Pb2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Ni2+ ) were removed to levels below the detection limits, and the anti-fouling performance was good. The excellent performance in treating micro-polluted water is ascribed to the combined effects of adsorption, electrocatalytic oxidation and filtration.
Research progress on electrode materials and electrolytes for supercapacitors
JIAO Chen, ZHANG Wei-ke, SU Fang-yuan, YANG Hong-yan, LIU Rui-xiang, CHEN Cheng-meng
2017, 32(2): 106-115.  
Abstract(852) PDF(3227)
摘要:
超级电容器具有高功率密度、长循环寿命、良好的低温使用性能和安全性的优点,已经广泛应用到电子产品、能量回收和储能等领域。电极材料和电解液是决定超级电容器性能的两大关键因素,超级电容器常用的电极材料包括碳质材料(活性炭、碳纳米管、石墨烯、炭纤维、纳米洋葱碳等)、金属氧化物(金属氢氧化物)、导电聚合物及复合材料等;电解液主要有水系电解液、有机系电解液与离子液体。本文综述了超级电容器电极材料与电解液的研究现状,详细介绍了电极材料、电解液的性能及优缺点,并对新型电极材料和电解液的研究趋势提出展望。
Influence of graphene oxide additions on the microstructure and mechanical strength of cement
WANG Qin, WANG Jian, LU Chun-xiang, LIU Bo-wei, ZHANG Kun, LI Chong-zhi
2015, 30(4): 349-356.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(15)60194-9
Abstract(778) PDF(431)
摘要:
研究了不同掺量下氧化石墨烯(GO)对水泥石以及胶砂微观结构和力学性能的影响。含16.5%水的水泥浆、0.05%GO及3倍于水泥的沙子共混物作为添加剂制备成砂浆。通过SEM、液氮吸附仪和一系列标准实验分别对水泥石的微观形态、孔隙结构、抗压抗折强度以及水泥净浆的流动度、黏度、凝结时间进行表征;考察不同GO掺量下水泥水化放热的变化情况。结果表明:GO对水泥浆有显著增稠和促凝作用;GO的掺入可以有效降低水泥的水化放热量;GO对水泥石有显著的增强增韧效果,28天龄期时,GO质量分数为0.05%的水泥石,3、7和28 d抗压强度和抗折强度同比对照组分别增加52.4%、46.5%、40.4%和86.1%、68.5%、90.5%,胶砂的抗压强度和抗折强度同比对照组分别增加43.2%、33%、24.4%和69.4%、106.4%、70.5%;GO在水泥硬化过程中对水泥石中晶体产物的产生有促进作用并能规整晶体的排布而形成针状晶体簇,改善水泥石中的孔结构,降低水泥石中微孔的体积,增加水泥石的密实度,对水泥石有显著地增强增韧效果。
Advances in the ablation resistance of C/C composites
FU Qian-gang, ZHANG Jia-ping, LI He-jun
2015, 30(2): 97-105.  
Abstract(1113) PDF(1281)
摘要:
C/C复合材料因优异的高温性能被认为是高温结构件的理想材料。然而,C/C复合材料在高温高速粒子冲刷环境下的氧化烧蚀问题严重制约其应用。因此,如何提高C/C复合材料的抗烧蚀性能显得尤为重要。笔者综述C/C复合材料抗烧蚀的研究现状。目前,提高C/C复合材料抗烧蚀性能的途径主要集中于优化炭纤维预制体结构、控制热解炭织构、基体中陶瓷掺杂改性和表面涂覆抗烧蚀涂层等4种方法。主要介绍以上4种方法的研究现状,重点介绍基体改性和抗烧蚀涂层的最新研究进展。其中,涂层和基体改性是提高C/C复合材料抗烧蚀性能的两种有效方法。未来C/C 复合材料抗烧蚀研究的潜在方向主要集中于降低制造成本、控制热解炭织构、优化掺杂的陶瓷相以及将基体改性和涂层技术相结合。
Preparation and properties of reduced graphene oxide/polyimide composites produced by in-situ polymerization and solution blending methods
MA Lang, WANG Guo-jian, DAI Jin-feng
2016, 31(2): 129-134.  
Abstract(870) PDF(1348)
摘要:
利用化学氧化还原法制备出石墨烯。通过原位聚合法及溶液混合法制备出石墨烯/聚酰亚胺复合材料,考察不同复合材料制备方法对其机械性能及导电性能的影响,并对其作用机理进行探讨。结果表明,制备的石墨烯为二维的单层或寡层材料,加入到聚酰亚胺中能够增强其机械性能及电导率。相比溶液混合法,采用原位聚合法时石墨烯在聚酰亚胺基体中分散更均匀,对其团聚作用有更好的抑制作用,制备的复合材料性能更优异。采用该法加入石墨烯的量为1.0 wt%时,拉伸强度达到了132.5 MPa,提高了68.8%;加入量增加到3.0 wt%时,电导率达6.87×10-4S·m-1,提高了8个数量级,对聚酰亚胺的性能有显著的增强作用。
A review of carbon-carbon composites for engineering applications
SU Jun-ming, ZHOU Shao-jian, LI Rui-zhen, XIAO Zhi-chao, CUI Hong
2015, 30(2): 106-114.  
Abstract(1239) PDF(1211)
摘要:
评价了中国40多年来在航天、航空、光伏、粉末冶金、工业高温炉领域成功应用的针刺C/C,正交3D C/C、径编C/C、穿刺C/C、轴编C/C等五类C/C复合材料的物理、力学、热学、烧蚀、摩擦磨损、使用寿命等性能及特点,并与其他国家相应材料性能进行分析对比,为建立工程应用C/C复合材料共享的数据库平台奠定基础。揭示了炭纤维预制体、炭基体类型、界面结合状态与材料性能的关联度。指出炭纤维预制体结构单元精细化研究和其结构的梯度设计,以及炭基体的优化组合匹配技术,仍是C/C复合材料性能稳定化提升的重点研究方向。
Rheological behavior of fresh cement pastes with a graphene oxide additive
WANG Qin, WANG Jian, LU Chun-xiang, CUI Xin-you, LI Shi-yu, WANG Xi
2016, 31(6): 574-584.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(16)60033-1
Abstract(666) PDF(689)
摘要:
采用流变仪和激光共聚焦显微镜对不同氧化石墨烯(GO)掺量的新拌水泥浆体的流变参数以及浆体微观形态进行了定量化研究,并采用Modified-Bingham(M-B)模型和Herschel-Bulkley(H-B)模型对所测数据进行了拟合处理,提出了GO影响新拌水泥浆体的作用机理。结果表明,GO的掺入可以使新拌浆体中在减水剂作用下分散的水泥颗粒发生再次凝聚,形成重组絮凝结构,且随着GO掺量的增加,重组絮凝结构的数量越多,从而使得浆体流变性发生显著变化。一方面,新拌浆体的塑性粘度、屈服应力以及触变性随GO掺量的提高而显著增加。另一方面,GO的掺入提高了新拌浆体的临界剪切速率,使其在较大剪切速率下的流变行为仍然表现为剪切变稀;降低了浆体的剪切增稠程度,提高了浆体的稳定性。
Hydrothermal synthesis of porous phosphorus-doped carbon nanotubes and their use in the oxygen reduction reaction and lithium-sulfur batteries
GUO Meng-qing, HUANG Jia-qi, KONG Xiang-yi, PENG Hong-jie, SHUI Han, QIAN Fang-yuan, ZHU Lin, ZHU Wan-cheng, ZHANG Qiang
2016, 31(3): 352-362.  
Abstract(689) PDF(673)
摘要:
碳纳米管优异的物理性质和可调的化学组成使其拥有广泛的应用前景。采用低温过程在碳骨架中引入磷原子预期带来可调的化学特性。本研究采用170℃下水热处理碳纳米管-磷酸混合物获得磷掺杂的碳纳米管。磷掺杂的碳管的磷含量为1.66%,比表面积为132 m2/g,热失重峰在纯氧环境下提升至694℃。当掺磷碳纳米管用于氧还原反应时,其起始电位为-0.20 V,电子转移数为2.60,反应电流显著高于无掺杂的碳纳米管。当其用作锂硫电池正极导电材料时,电极的起始容量为1106 mAh/g,电流密度从0.1 C提升至1 C时容量保留率为80%,100次循环的衰减率为每圈0.25%。
Research progress and potential applications for graphene/polymer composites
ZENG You, WANG Han, CHENG Hui-ming
2016, 31(6): 555-567.  
Abstract(679) PDF(1572)
摘要:
随着石墨烯低成本宏量制备技术的突破,石墨烯的工业化应用进程已引起人们广泛关注。本文介绍了石墨烯在聚合物基复合材料领域的研究进展,侧重阐述石墨烯/聚合物复合材料在力学增强、导电/导热网络构建、防腐阻燃等方面的代表性研究成果,同时对商业化石墨烯产品及其复合材料应用进行了简单评述,探讨了石墨烯/聚合物复合材料领域目前存在的主要问题及未来发展趋势。
A review of the control of pore texture of phosphoric acid-activated carbons
ZUO Song-lin
2018, 33(4): 289-302.  
Abstract(627) PDF(630)
摘要:
磷酸活化法是植物纤维原料制备活性炭的主要化学活化方法。笔者系统综述了磷酸活化过程中活性炭孔隙结构的调控机制。从化学的观点,笔者提出植物纤维原料的磷酸活化在本质上是磷酸-生物高分子复合体的形成与热处理两个过程。基于这一概念,分析了植物纤维原料的组成与结构、浸渍条件等因素对磷酸-生物高分子复合体的组成与结构的影响,全面总结了植物纤维原料种类与预处理、植物细胞壁结构和结晶度、浸渍比、浸渍方式、温度和时间等组成、结构与条件对磷酸法活性炭孔隙结构的形成与发展的影响规律。在磷酸-生物高分子热处理过程中,系统总结了炭化温度、升温速率与中间停留温度等加热历程、惰性气体、氧化性气体和水蒸气等气氛对磷酸活化法活性炭孔隙结构的影响规律。最后概述了氧化性气氛和氧化试剂对磷酸活化过程的影响机理,以及磷酸活化过程中固相炭化和气相炭化对活性炭孔隙结构发展的贡献。
The effect of nitrogen and/or boron doping on the electrochemical performance of non-caking coal-derived activated carbons for use as supercapacitor electrodes
LU Qian, XU Yuan-yuan, MU Sha-jiang, LI Wen-cui
2017, 32(5): 442-450.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(17)60133-1
Abstract(300) PDF(440)
摘要:
以新疆不粘煤为原料,三聚氰胺为氮源,硼酸为硼源,通过球磨和后续活化过程合成硼,氮掺杂及硼氮共掺杂煤基活性炭。氮吸附结果显示杂原子掺杂可提高活性炭中介孔的含量。红外和X光电子能谱结果显示,硼、氮原子存在于炭骨架中。循环伏安,恒流充放电及电化学阻抗分析说明硼、氮掺杂活性炭的电化学性能优于非掺杂活性炭。其中,硼氮共掺杂活性炭具有176 F·g-1的高比容量。循环20 000次容量保持率为96%。共掺杂活性炭优异的电化学性能归因于硼氮的协同作用。
Recent progress in the preparation of ordered mesoporous carbons using a self-assembled soft template
HUANG Zheng-hong
2012, 27(05): 321-336.  
Abstract(1850) PDF(15)
Abstract:
The preparation of self-assembled ordered mesoporous carbons (SA-OMCs) using a soft template method has many advantages, such as low cost, ease of preparation and control. This paper review the development periods, the basic principles and preparation procedures with an emphasis on the control of morphology and multi-level pore structure of OMCs based on SA-OMCs. And suggest that further research in this area can be focused on expanding the scope of the precursor, improving the flexibility and conductivity of the shaped products, such as fibers and membranes.
Preparation of graphene by chemical vapor deposition
REN Wen-cai, GAO Li-bo, MA Lai-peng, CHENG Hui-ming
2011, 26(01): 71-80.  
Abstract(2620) PDF(136)
Abstract:
Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is an effective way for the preparation of graphene with large area and high quality. In this review, the mechanism and characteristics of the four main preparation methods of graphene are briefly introduced, including micromechanical cleavage, chemical exfoliation, SiC epitaxial growth and CVD. The recent advances in the CVD growth of graphene and the related transfer techniques in terms of structure control, quality improvement and large area graphene synthesis were discussed. Other possible methods for the CVD growth of graphene were analyzed including the synthesis and nondestructive transfer of large area single crystalline graphene, graphene nanoribbons and graphene macrostructures.