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2023年  第38卷  第6期

2023 年 6 期中文目次
2023, 38(6).
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2023 年 6 期英文目次
2023, 38(6): 1-5.
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综合评述
Carbon-based photothermal materials for the simultaneous generation of water vapor and electricity
QIU Zi-han, ZHAO Guan-yu, SUN Yang, WANG Xu-zhen, ZHAO Zong-bin, QIU Jie-shan
2023, 38(6): 997-1017. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(23)60785-1
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Solar-driven interfacial vapor generation (SIVG) is increasingly used for fresh water production, having the advantages of low energy consumption, eco-friendliness, and high efficiency. Carbon-based photothermal materials (CPTMs) can introduce temperature and salinity gradients in the SIVG process because of their outstanding photothermal conversion properties, which have given SIVG great potential for both steam and power generation. Various kinds of CPTMs for clean water and electricity generation are discussed in this review. The basic principles and key performance indices of SIVG are first described and the photothermal and SIVG performance of various CPTMs including graphene oxides, carbon nanotubes, carbon dots and carbonized biomass are then summarized. Finally, current research concerning water/electricity cogeneration and ways to deal with the problems encountered are presented, to provide some guidelines for the use of multifunctional CPTMs for simultaneous steam and electricity generation.
生物质炭材料作为金属空气电池阴极的研究进展
卢利来, 李青山, 孙元娜, 匡坤斌, 李植, 王涛, 高颖, 王俊勃
2023, 38(6): 1018-1034. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(23)60784-X
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金属空气电池作为高效的能源转换与存储装置,受到人们广泛关注。然而,阴极反应动力学缓慢及贵金属高昂的成本等一系列问题严重制约了金属空气电池的实用化进程。生物质炭材料因其特殊的电化学性能、环境效益和经济价值,已成为开发高性能金属空气电池阴极材料的重要选择。近年来,生物质炭材料在材料制备和微观结构设计等方面取得了较大进展。本文综述了生物质炭材料在金属空气电池阴极应用的最新研究进展,并从反应机理、合成策略和多维结构(一维、二维和三维)的角度深入阐述其对电催化性能的影响。最后,进一步讨论了生物质炭材料面临的挑战和未来的发展方向。这篇综述为生物质炭材料的结构设计提供了新的视角,旨在为开发高效、廉价和稳定的金属空气电池阴极催化剂提供参考和借鉴。
研究论文
3D porous NiCo2(CO3)3/reduced graphene oxide aerogel with heterogeneous interfaces for high-efficiency microwave absorption
WU Dan-dan, ZHANG Han-xiao, WANG Zheng-yan, ZHANG Yan-lan, WANG Yong-zhen
2023, 38(6): 1035-1049. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(23)60780-2
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Advanced electromagnetic absorbing materials (EAMs) with strong absorption and a wide effective absorption bandwidth (EAB), using innovative microstructural design and suitable multicomponents remain a persistent challenge. Here, we report the production of a material by the hydrothermal reduction of a mixture of graphene oxide (GO), Ni(NO3)2·6H2O, and Co(NO3)2·6H2O, resulting in reduced GO (RGO) with a self-assembled 3D mesh structure filled with NiCo2(CO3)3 . The unique microstructure of this assembly not only solves the problem of NiCo2(CO3)3 particles agglomerating but also changes the electromagnetic parameters, thereby improving the impedance matching and attenuation ability. High electromagnetic wave absorption (EMA) was achieved by combining the 3D interconnected mesh structure and the various interfaces between NiCo2(CO3)3 and RGO. The minimal reflection loss (RLmin) was −58.5 dB at 2.3 mm, and the EAB was 6.5 GHz. The excellent EMA performance of the aerogel can be attributed to the multiple reflection, scattering, and relaxation process of the porous 3D structure as well as the strong polarization of the interfacial matrix.n of the interfacial matrix.
煤基富氧多孔炭纳米片的制备及其超级电容器性能
车晓刚, 靳皎, 张艺潇, 刘思宇, 王满, 杨卷
2023, 38(6): 1050-1058. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(23)60752-8
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多孔炭电极的表面改性与优化是实现超级电容器优异性能的关键。本文以煤化学工业的固体副产物为碳源,利用二维层状双氢氧化物(MgAl-LDH)的刚性约束作用耦合KOH活化工艺成功制备了二维富氧多孔炭纳米材料(OPCN)。系统研究了炭化温度对OPCN样品微观结构和表面特性的影响,通过SEM、TEM、氮气吸脱附测试以及元素分析等表征手段对炭材料的结构/组成和表面特性进行分析表明,经700 °C炭化获得的炭材料样品(OPCN-700)具有较高的氧质量分数(24.4%)和大的比表面积(2 388 m2 g−1),并表现出良好的润湿性。同时,OPCN-700样品丰富的微孔和二维纳米片结构为电解质离子提供了有效的储存和传输途径。作为超级电容器的电极材料,在电流密度为0.5 A g−1时,其比电容高达382 F g−1,并呈现出优异的倍率性能和循环稳定性。该技术策略为富氧原子掺杂二维多孔炭材料的可控制备与水系储能器件的设计构建提供了新思路。
Mott-Schottky heterojunction formation between Co and MoSe2 on carbon nanotubes for superior hydrogen evolution
REN Xian-pei, HU Qi-wei, LING Fang, WU Fei, LI Qiang, PANG Liu-qing
2023, 38(6): 1059-1069. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(23)60782-6
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Molybdenum selenide (MoSe2) has been regarded as an advanced electrocatalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). However, its electrocatalytic performance is far inferior to platinum (Pt). Combining semiconductors with metals to construct Mott-Schottky heterojunctions has been considered as an effective method to enhance HER activity. In this work, we report a typical Mott-Schottky heterojunction composed of metal Co and semiconductor MoSe2 on carbon nanotubes (Co/MoSe2@CNT), prepared by a sol-gel process followed by thermal reduction. The characterization and theoretical calculations show that a Co/MoSe2 Mott-Schottky heterojunction can cause electron redistribution at the interface and form a built-in electric field, which not only optimizes the free energy of hydrogen atom adsorption, but also improves the charge transfer efficiency during hydrogen evolution. Thus, the Co/MoSe2@CNT has excellent catalytic activity with a low overpotential of 185 mV at 10 mA cm−2 and a small Tafel slope of 69 mV dec−1. This work provides a new strategy for constructing Co/MoSe2 Mott-Schottky heterojunctions and highlights the Mott-Schottky effect, which may inspire the future development of more attractive Mott-Schottky electrocatalysts for H2 production.
A 2D montmorillonite-carbon nanotube interconnected porous network that prevents polysulfide shuttling
ZHOU Ming-xia, ZHOU Wen-hua, LONG Xiang, ZHU Shao-kuan, Xu Peng, OUYANG Quan-sheng, SHI Bin, SHAO Jiao-jing
2023, 38(6): 1070-1079. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(23)60783-8
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A commercial polypropylene (PP) separator was modified by a one-dimensional carbon nanotube (CNT) and two-dimensional montmorillonite (MMT) hybrid material (CNT-MMT). Because of the high electron conductivity of the CNTs, and the strong polysulfide (LiPS) adsorption ability and easy lithium ion transport through MMT, the interconnected porous CNT-MMT interlayer with excellent structural integrity strongly suppresses LiPS shuttling while maintaining high lithium-ion transport, producing a high utilization of the active sulfur. Lithium-sulfur batteries assembled with this interlayer have a high lithium-ion diffusion coefficient, a high discharge capacity and stable cycling performance. They had an initial specific capacity of 1373 mAh g−1 at 0.1 C, and a stable cycling performance with a low decay rate of 0.062% per cycle at 1 C after 500 cycles.
A one-pot method to prepare a multi-metal sulfide/carbon composite with a high lithium-ion storage capability
ZHANG Wei-cai, YANG Chao-wei, HU Shu-yu, FANG Ya-wei, LIN Xiao-min, XIE Zhuo-hao, ZHENG Ming-tao, LIU Ying-liang, LIANG Ye-ru
2023, 38(6): 1080-1091. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(23)60781-4
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Because of their high electrochemical activity, good structural stability, and abundant active sites, multi-metal sulfide/carbon (MMS/C) composites are of tremendous interest in diverse fields, including catalysis, energy, sensing, and environmental science. However, their cumbersome, inefficient, and environmentally unfriendly synthesis is hindering their practical application. We report a straightforward and universal method for their production which is based on homogeneous multi-phase interface engineering. The method has enabled the production of 14 different MMS/C composites, as examples, with well-organized composite structures, different components, and dense heterointerfaces. Because of their composition and structure, a typical composite has efficient, fast, and persistent lithium-ion storage. A ZnS-Co9S8/C composite anode showed a remarkable rate performance and an excellent capacity of 651 mAh·g−1 at 0.1 A·g−1 after 600 cycles. This work is expected to pave the way for the easy fabrication of MMS/C composites.
A highly selective and sensitive electrochemical Cu(II) detector based on ion-imprinted magnetic carbon nanospheres
LI Rui-zhen, QIN Lei, FU Dong-ju, WANG Mei-ling, SONG Xing-fu, BAI Yong-hui, LIU Wei-feng, LIU Xu-guang
2023, 38(6): 1092-1103. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(23)60772-3
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An electrochemical sensor for Cu(II) based on ion-imprinted polymers was prepared by combining surface imprinting with electrochemical polymerization deposition. The sensor was modified by ion-imprinted magnetic carbon nanospheres with a specific selectivity and sensitivity for Cu(II). The morphology and structure of the materials were characterized and analyzed. Sensors with the imprinted electrode had a stronger selectivity and higher sensitivity towards Cu(II) compared with their original counterparts. Within relative concentrations of Cu(II) from 10−6 to 10−10 mol L−1, the detection limit of the sensor was as low as 5.138×10−16 mol L−1 (S/N=3). The sensor is resistant to interference, and has good reproducibility, and stability, making it excellent for the electrochemical detection of metal ions.
A highly efficient, rapid, room temperature synthesis method for coal-based water-soluble fluorescent carbon dots and its use in Fe3+ ion detection
CHENG Zhong-fu, WU Xue-yan, LIU Lei, HE Long, YANG Zu-guo, CAO Chang, LU Yan, GUO Ji-xi
2023, 38(6): 1104-1115. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(23)60706-1
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We report a method for the of coal-based fluorescent carbon dots (CDs) at room temperature using a mixture of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and formic acid (HCOOH) as the oxidant instead of concentrated HNO3 or H2SO4. The CDs have an excitation dependent behavior with a high quantum yield (QY) of approximately 7.2%. The CDs are water soluble and have excellent photo-stability, good resistance to salt solutions, and are insensitive to pH in a range of 2.0-12.0. The CDs were used as a very sensitive probe for the turn-off sensing of Fe3+ ion with a detection limit as low as 600 nmol/L and a detection range from 2 to 100 μmol/L. This work provides a way for the high value-added utilization of coal.
Contribution of surface roughness and oxygen-containing groups to the interfacial shear strength of carbon fiber/epoxy resin composites
LIANG Yi-cai, ZHANG Xing-hua, WEI Xing-hai, JING De-qi, SU Wei-guo, ZHANG Shou-chun
2023, 38(6): 1116-1126. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(23)60720-6
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The interfacial shear strength (IFSS) between carbon fibers (CFs) and the matrix is crucial to the performance of CF-reinforced polymer composites. To evaluate the contribution of mechanical interlocking and chemical anchoring at the interfaces of a polyacrylonitrile-based CF (TORAYCA T800SC-12000-10E)-reinforced epoxy resin (EP: bisphenol A type epoxy resin and tetrafunctional epoxy resin) composites, the surface roughness and content of oxygen-containing functional groups of the CFs were respectively altered by ammonia treatment and electrochemical oxidation. The results showed that ammonia treatment increased the surface roughness without much change to the surface elemental composition, while electrochemical oxidation increased the number of surface oxygen groups without changing the surface roughness. The IFSS of CF/EP composites was tested by the micro-droplet method. The relationships between IFSS, and surface roughness and oxygen content were obtained by linear fitting. The results showed that in the interfacial bonding of CF to epoxy resin, the contribution of chemical anchoring to the IFSS is larger than that of mechanical interlocking.
Effect of chemical vapor infiltration on the flexural properties of C/C-SiC composites prepared by the precursor infiltration pyrolysis method
JIA Lin-tao, WANG Meng-qian, GUO Xiao-feng, ZHU Jie, LI Ai-jun, PENG Yu-qing
2023, 38(6): 1127-1134. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(23)60732-2
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Carbon/carbon-silicon carbide (C/C-SiC) composites were prepared by impregnation, hot-pressing with curing, carbonization at 800 oC and high-temperature heat treatment (800-1600 oC) using a 2D laminated carbon cloth as the reinforcing filler, and furfurone resin mixed with silicon, carbon from furfurone resin and SiC powders as the matrix. The effects of the addition of the three powders as well as subsequent chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) by methane on the density, microstructure and bend strength of the composites were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, density measurements, X-ray diffraction and mechanical testing. Both the SiC powders formed by the reaction at 1600 oC between the added Si and C particles and the added SiC powder, play a role in the reinforcement of the materials. In three-point bending, the composites had a pseudoplastic fracture mode and showed interlaminar cracking. After 10 h CVI with methane, pyrolytic carbon was formed at the interface between some of the carbon fibers and the resin carbon matrix, which produced maximum increases in the density and flexural strength of the composites of 4.98% and 38.86%, respectively.
基于拉曼光谱mapping技术研究低温循环对炭纤维增强聚酰亚胺复合薄膜界面微观力学的影响
贾立双, 吴琪琳, 陈惠芳
2023, 38(6): 1135-1142. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(23)60712-7
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碳纳米管选用(CNT)作为拉曼应力传感器,通过建立拉曼光谱mapping技术研究了经多次低温循环(−198~25 °C,0~300次)的炭纤维增强聚酰亚胺复合薄膜(CF/CNT-PI)的界面微观应力变化。研究发现:聚酰亚胺薄膜(CNT-PI)即使经300次低温循环,树脂内部应力依然为~175 MPa,循环次数对树脂内部应力影响较小,表明该材料具有良好的耐低温性。进一步研究了炭纤维(CF)增强的CNT-PI薄膜的内应力变化,获得了炭纤维、界面、树脂基体区域的微观应力mapping分布,发现CF区域的受力大于基体部分,表明CF在该体系中起到了对应力最主要载体的作用,并发挥了良好的增强效果。在循环次数<250次时,微观应力变化不大;但当循环次数高达300次时,炭纤维及界面区域应力值分别提高了21%和12.9%,应力在材料内部的集中增大会降低材料的力学性能。本研究有效地定量了外界温度循环变化下复合材料的增强材料、基体及界面的微观应力分布,这为检测复合材料服役过程中的使用安全性提供了一种理论依据与评判手段。