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Synthesis and use of hollow carbon spheres for electric double-layer capacitors

XU Kuang-liang LIU Jing YAN Zhao-xiong JIN Mei XU Zhi-hua

徐匡亮, 刘景, 严朝雄, 晋梅, 徐志花. 空心炭球的制备及在双电层电容器中的应用进展[J]. 新型炭材料, 2021, 36(4): 794-809. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(20)60517-0
引用本文: 徐匡亮, 刘景, 严朝雄, 晋梅, 徐志花. 空心炭球的制备及在双电层电容器中的应用进展[J]. 新型炭材料, 2021, 36(4): 794-809. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(20)60517-0
XU Kuang-liang, LIU Jing, YAN Zhao-xiong, JIN Mei, XU Zhi-hua. Synthesis and use of hollow carbon spheres for electric double-layer capacitors[J]. NEW CARBON MATERIALS, 2021, 36(4): 794-809. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(20)60517-0
Citation: XU Kuang-liang, LIU Jing, YAN Zhao-xiong, JIN Mei, XU Zhi-hua. Synthesis and use of hollow carbon spheres for electric double-layer capacitors[J]. NEW CARBON MATERIALS, 2021, 36(4): 794-809. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(20)60517-0

空心炭球的制备及在双电层电容器中的应用进展

doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(20)60517-0
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(21871111);湖北省杰出青年基金(2019CFA078)
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    晋 梅,博士,副教授. E-mail:hmay7321@126.com

    徐志花,博士,教授. E-mail:xuzhihua78@sina.com

  • 中图分类号: TQ127.1+1

Synthesis and use of hollow carbon spheres for electric double-layer capacitors

Funds: National Natural Science Foundation of China (21871111); Excellent Youth Foundation of Hubei Province of China (2019CFA078)
More Information
  • 摘要: 超级电容器已逐渐成为一种重要的储能装置,依据储能机理可分为赝电容器和双电层电容器(Electric double-layer capacitors,EDLCs)。目前商用超级电容器主要是以炭材料为电极的EDLCs。空心炭球(Hollow carbon spheres,HCSs)具有大比表面积,良好的导电性,优异的电化学稳定性以及良好的机械强度等优点,其在EDLCs电极材料中的应用引起了研究者的广泛关注。本文对常用于HCSs合成的硬模板法、软模板法、无模板法和改进Stöber法以及HCSs在EDLCs中的电化学性能进行了综述,并对HCSs微结构中的比表面积、孔径尺寸和杂原子掺杂等因素与其电化学性能之间的关系进行了分析和归纳,以期为低成本、高活性HCSs应用在超级电容器和其他领域提供思路。
  • FIG. 784.  FIG. 784.

    FIG. 784.. 

    Figure  1.  The overall conception of this work related to the synthesis and electrochemical performance of HCSs in EDLCs[24,29-33].

    Figure  2.  (a) TEM image of amine-functionalized silica colloid and schematic illustration of the formation process of the carbon hollow-spheres, (b) TEM image of porous HCS, (c) plots of potential versus time at different current densities and (d) the variation of specific capacitance with 1000 charge-discharge cycles at the current density of 5 A g−1 and the corresponding coulomb efficiency for the porous HCS electrodes[54].

    Figure  3.  (a) A schematic illustration depicting the synthesis route for N- and O-doped HCSs, (b) TEM image of HCSs-700, (c) GCD curves at the current density of 1 A g−1 and (d) CV curves at the scan rate of 50 mV s−1 of HCSs prepared at different carbonization temperatures[30].

    Figure  4.  (a) A schematic illustration of the synthesis of nitrogen-rich porous carbon spheres, (b) TEM image of NPC800, (c) CV curves at the scan rate of 5 mV s−1 and (d) GCD curves at the current density of 0.5 A g−1 of NPC prepared at different carbonization temperatures[31,79].

    Figure  5.  (a) A schematic illustration of the one-pot, surfactant-free synthesis of mesoporous carbon hollow spheres, (b) TEM image of MCHS, (c) GCD curves of MCHS and (d) cycling stability of MCHS at the current density of 10 A g−1[24].

    Figure  6.  Normalized capacitance versus average pore size for different carbon materials in 1 mol L−1 H2SO4 electrolyte[111].

    Figure  7.  Schematic of functional groups of N-doped HCSs[47].

    Table  1.   A comparison of electrochemical performance of HCSs prepared by different methods.

    HCS sampleSynthetic methodCarbon precursorCarbonization temperature
    (°C)
    Specific surface area
    (m2 g−1)
    Pore size
    (nm)
    Current density
    (A g−1)
    Specific capacitance
    (F g−1)
    ElectrolyteRefs.
    Surface-openings HCSHard templatingResorcinol/
    formaldehyde
    800670.04.18 and 12.55a0.1272.21 M H2SO4[15]
    HCSHard templatingResorcinol/
    formaldehyde
    800555.63.87a0.1210.71 M H2SO4[15]
    N-P-HCMsHard templatingMelamine/
    formaldehyde
    8006492.6 and 3.7a0.52006 M KOH[25]
    N-HPCSHard templatingDopamine700674.918 – 3012576 M KOH[29]
    HPCSHard templatingFurfuryl alcohol90024892 – 40.21676 M KOH[33]
    HCSSgHard templatingGlucose8009340.6 – 60.23862 M KOH[39]
    HPCSHard templatingFurfuryl alcohol8006691.2 – 3.01240.06 M KOH[40]
    Activated HPCSsHard templatingFurfuryl alcohol80012901.5 – 3.01303.96 M KOH[40]
    HCMSCHard templatingPhenol/
    formaldehyde
    90016673.46a0.31621 M Et4NBF4/AN[44]
    MHCSHard templatingC2H48007701.8 – 6.90.2991 M H2SO4[45]
    N-PHCSHard templatingPolyaniline6002134.5b0.52136 M KOH[47]
    HMCSsHard templatingPolystyrene60013214.6a0.51576 M KOH[48]
    HMCSsHard templatingCarbonaceous gas80011892.7a0.21806 M KOH[49]
    Activated HCSsHard templatingPolypyrrole9009230.55 – 150.25356 M KOH[51]
    N-PCSHard templatingPolyacrylamide6506480.5 – 100.5194.76 M KOH[52]
    N-HCSHard templatingResorcinol and hexamethylenetetramine6004051 – 4.50.51206 M KOH[53]
    CHSsHard templatingGlucose80065840a0.52706 M KOH[54]
    HCSsSoft templatingPoly(o-phenylenediamine)6001453.06b--6 M KOH[30]
    HCSsSoft templatingPoly(o-phenylenediamine)7003553.83b0.52106 M KOH[30]
    HCSsSoft templatingPoly(o-phenylenediamine)8002121.19b--6 M KOH[30]
    HCSsSoft templatingPoly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene)7008050.7a0.55612 M KOH[57]
    PCSSoft templatingGlucose80016103.5b0.5801 M TEA-BF4/AN[70]
    PCSSoft templatingGlucose80016103.5b0.52196 M KOH[70]
    N-PCSTemplate-freePorous organic frameworks80052540a0.52305 M KOH[31]
    HCSTemplate-freeCorn starch800517.462 – 101265.46 M KOH[32]
    N-HCSTemplate-freeResorcinol/formaldehyde80094611966 M KOH[73]
    HCSTemplate-freeSucrose110011062a0.11126 M KOH[76]
    N-HCSTemplate-free3-aminophenol/
    formaldehyde
    8009112.7a11946 M KOH[128]
    MCHSModified Stöber methodResorcinol/
    formaldehyde
    70015827.5a1310.46 M KOH[24]
    N-HMCSsModified Stöber methodResorcinol/
    formaldehyde
    60011585.0b11596 M KOH[90]
    Yolk–shell CSModified Stöber methodResorcinol/
    formaldehyde
    8006165.7a0.53306 M KOH[91]
    N-HCSModified Stöber methodPolystyrene/
    polyaniline
    800953.84.1a0.5436.56 M KOH[92]
    HMCSsModified Stöber methodResorcinol/
    formaldehyde
    80014252.1a0.53526 M KOH[93]
    N-HMCSsModified Stöber methodResorcinol/
    formaldehyde
    80020012.4a13001 M H2SO4[105]
    N-HMCSsModified Stöber method3-aminophenol/
    formaldehyde
    60010063a11706 M KOH[129]
    Note:a pore width at the maximum of the pore size distribution;b average pore size; M: mα L−1.
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2019-10-14
  • 修回日期:  2020-05-24
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-03-16
  • 刊出日期:  2021-07-30

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