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硫掺杂碳材料在钠离子电池负极中的研究进展

谢金明 庄容 杜宇轩 裴永伟 谭德明 徐飞

谢金明, 庄容, 杜宇轩, 裴永伟, 谭德明, 徐飞. 硫掺杂碳材料在钠离子电池负极中的研究进展. 新型炭材料. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60630-9
引用本文: 谢金明, 庄容, 杜宇轩, 裴永伟, 谭德明, 徐飞. 硫掺杂碳材料在钠离子电池负极中的研究进展. 新型炭材料. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60630-9
XIE Jin-ming, ZHUANG Rong, DU Yu-xuan, PEI Yong-wei, TAN De-ming, XU Fei. Advances of sulfur-doped carbon materials as anode for sodium-ion batteries. New Carbon Mater.. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60630-9
Citation: XIE Jin-ming, ZHUANG Rong, DU Yu-xuan, PEI Yong-wei, TAN De-ming, XU Fei. Advances of sulfur-doped carbon materials as anode for sodium-ion batteries. New Carbon Mater.. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60630-9

硫掺杂碳材料在钠离子电池负极中的研究进展

doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60630-9
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金面上项目(51972270),凝固技术国家重点实验室自主研究课题(2021-TS-03),中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金资助.
详细信息
    作者简介:

    #为同等贡献;谢金明,男,本科生. E-mail:2110582943@qq.com

    庄容:庄 容,女,博士研究生. E-mail:13161136166@163.com

    通讯作者:

    谭德明,博士,副教授. E-mail:tandeming@cdu.edu.cn

    徐 飞,博士,研究员. E-mail:feixu@nwpu.edu.cn

Advances of sulfur-doped carbon materials as anode for sodium-ion batteries

Funds: National Natural Scientific Foundation of China (51972270); Research Fund of the State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing (NPU), China (2021-TS-03); Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities.
More Information
  • 摘要: 钠离子电池因资源丰富及成本低等优势,在大规模储能领域备受关注。碳材料作为钠离子电池实用化进程中的关键负极材料,具有高容量、低嵌钠平台、易调控且稳定性好等特点,引起了研究者的广泛关注。掺杂原子可改善碳材料的微观与电子结构,是提升储钠性能的有效途径。常见的杂原子包括氮、硫、氧、磷、硼等,其中硫原子因其较大的半径能显著扩大层间距、增加缺陷与活性位点,被广泛用于碳负极材料的掺杂改性。本文综述了近年来硫掺杂碳材料的设计制备及在钠离子电池负极中的研究进展,分析了硫掺杂对碳结构的调控机理与改善电池性能的作用机制,最后针对目前面临的挑战和可能的解决方案进行了总结和展望,以期推动硫掺杂碳负极材料在钠离子电池中的实用化进程。
  • 图  1  (a)不同种类原子掺杂及(b)硫掺杂碳材料的可能构型示意图

    Figure  1.  Scheme of possible configurations of (a) various heteroatom-doped carbon and (b) sulfur-doped carbon framework.

    图  2  硫掺杂碳负极的结构、储钠机制与性能优势

    Figure  2.  Structure, sodium storage mechanism and performance advantages of sulfur-doped carbon anodes.

    图  3  碳负极材料中储钠机理示意图:(a)“插层-吸附”机制;(b)“吸附-插层”机制[27];(c)“吸附-插层-孔填充”机制[28];(d)“吸附-填孔-插层-填孔”机理[1]

    Figure  3.  The mechanism model of sodium ion storage. (a) "Intercalation-pore filling", (b) "Adsorption-intercalation"[27], (c) "Adsorption-intercalation- pore filling"[28]; (d) "Adsorption-pore filling-intercalation-pore filling"[1].

    图  4  (a)钠离子在石墨、氮掺杂碳和硫掺杂碳材料中的存储示意图[22];(b)钠离子从一个空穴到最近空穴的势垒[30];(c)钠离子从碳层外部向碳层内部的扩散路径[31];(d)层间距离(0.37、0.41 nm)和缺陷对钠离子吸附能的影响[30]

    Figure  4.  (a) Schematic diagrams for Na+ storage in graphite, N-doped carbon, and S-doped carbon[22]. (b) The barrier energy of the Na+ from one hollow site to the nearest hollow site[30]. (c) Diffusion path of Na+ from the outside to the inside of the carbon layers[31]. (d) The influence of interlayer distance (0.37 and 0.41 nm) and defect on Na+ adsorption energy[30].

    图  5  (a)两种硫掺杂石墨最稳定的吸附构型。绿色、黄色和黑色的球体分别代表钠离子、硫和碳原子[34];(b)DC-S电极在扫描速率为0.1 mV s−1下的CV曲线;(c)DC-S在完全放电状态下S2p的XPS能谱图[38];(d)硫掺杂碳的变形电荷密度图;(e)未掺杂和硫掺杂碳的态密度图[31]

    Figure  5.  (a) Two of the most stable adsorption configurations of S-doped graphite. The green, yellow, and black balls represent Na+, sulfur dopant, and carbon atoms, respectively[34]. (b) The CV curves of DC-S electrode at a scan rate of 0.1 mV s−1. (c) High resolution XPS of DC-S at the fully discharged[38] (d) Deformation charge density map of S-doped carbon. (e) Density of states of undoped and S-doped carbon[31].

    图  6  (a)DC-S的制备示意图;(b,c)DC和DC-S的SEM图像[38];(d)硫掺杂介孔氮化碳(S-MCN)的制备示意图[44];(e)硫掺杂富氮碳纳米片(S-N/C)的制备示意图[50]

    Figure  6.  (a) Schematic illustration for preparation of DC-S; SEM images of (b) DC and (c) DC-S[38]. (d) Schematic of the synthetic procedure of S-MCN[44]. (e) Fabrication process of S-N/C[50].

    图  7  (a)硫掺杂扩大碳层间距储钠示意图[53];(b)SC0和SC1电极在 100 mA g−1 时的第5圈充放电曲线[54];(c)SC1不同扫描速率下电容和扩散控制过程的贡献率[54];(d)SNC和NC在100 mA g−1的循环性能[55]

    Figure  7.  (a) Schematic illustration of sulfur doping expanding carbon interlayer spacing for sodium storage[53]. (b) The 5th charge-discharge profiles of SC0 and SC1 electrodes at 100 mA g−1[54]. (c) Contribution ratio of the capacitive and diffusion-controlled processes at different scan rates of SC1[54]. (d) Cycling performances at 100 mA g−1 of SNC and NC[55].

    图  8  (a)硫掺杂碳表面主导储钠的示意图;DCs(b)和NSC2(c)的HR-TEM图像和晶格条纹(插图)以及相应的层间距[42];(d)NSC2 在 5 mV s-1 下测量的电容行为分布;(e)5次循环后DCs、NSCs(s=1、2、4,s代表杂原子的比例)的倍率性能[42]

    Figure  8.  (a) Schematic illustration of the surface-dominant sodium storage on sulfur-doped carbon. The HR-TEM images and lattice fringes (inset) of DCs (b) and NSC2 (c) and their corresponding interlayer distances. (d) The distribution of capacitive behaviors of NSC2 measured at 5 mV s−1. (e) The rate performances DCs, NSC1, NSC2, and NSC4 after 5 cycles (s=1, 2, 4, s represents the ratio of heteroatoms), respectively[42].

    表  1  硫掺杂碳材料的SIBs电化学性能总结

    Table  1.   Comparison of electrochemical performance for various S-doped carbon materials in SIBs.

    Electrode
    materials
    S Element
    content
    Mass
    loading
    (mg cm−2)
    ElectrolytePotential range
    (V vs Na+/Na)
    Capacity
    (mAh g−1)
    @Current
    ICE (%)Ref.
    S-doped carbon bulk particles 15.17 wt% - 1 mol/L NaClO4
    in EC/PC (3∶1)
    0.01-2.0 327.8@0.5 A g−1 73.6 [22]
    119.5@5 A g−1
    S-doped carbon nanofibers 15.0 wt% 1.0-2.0 1 mol/L NaFP6 in DME 0.01-3.0 460@0.05 A g−1 ~69.0 [31]
    255@10 A g−1
    S-doped graphene 3.33% 1.5 1 mol/L NaPF6
    in EC/DMC (1∶1)
    0.001-3.0 262@0.1 A g−1 ~58.3 [34]
    83@5 A g−1
    S-doped disordered carbon 26.91 wt% 1.0-1.2 1 mol/L NaPF6 in EC/DEC (1∶1)
    with 5 wt% FEC
    0.01-3.0 360@0.5 A g−1 ~63.0 [38]
    158@4 A g−1
    S-doped porous carbon 6.25 at% 1.0 1 mol/L NaClO4
    in EC/PC (1∶1)
    0.005-3.0 570@0.025 A g−1; ~46.3 [53]
    304@0.5 A g−1
    S-doped activated carbon 6.27% - 1 mol/L NaClO4 in PC
    with 5 vol% FEC
    0.01-3.0 345@0.1 A g−1 56.02 [48]
    100.2@5 A g−1
    S doped micron particles 7.97 at% 1.0-2.0 1 mol/L NaClO4 in PC 0.01-3.0 703@0.05 A g−1 ~44.9 [40]
    225@1 A g−1
    S-doped carbon nanosheets 23.0% 1.0 1 mol/L NaClO4 in EC/DEC (1∶1)
    with 5 wt% FEC
    0.01-3.0 601.2@ 0.05 A g−1 ~58.0 [33]
    133.6@10 A g−1
    S-doped porous carbon 5.9 wt% - 1.25 mol/L NaPF6 in
    EC/DMC (1∶1)
    0.01-3.0 690.9@0.1 A g−1 ~68 [24]
    354@2 A g−1
    N/S-codoped carbon microspheres - - 1 mol/L NaClO4 in EC/PC (2∶1) 0.01-3.0 280@0.03 A g−1 - [30]
    130@10 A g−1
    N/S-codoped carbon nanoparticles S: 6.44 wt%; 1.0-1.5 1 mol/L NaClO4 in EC/DEC (1∶1)
    with 5 wt% FEC
    0.01-3.0 280@0.05 A g−1 - [42]
    N: 24.05 wt% 102@10 A g−1
    N/S-codoped carbon
    nanotubes/nanofibers
    S: 5.92 at% 1.0-1.5 1 mol/L NaClO4 in EC/DEC (1∶1)
    with 5 wt% FEC
    0.01-3.0 395.5@0.1 A g−1 49.1 [57]
    N: 16.86 at% 109.3@10 A g−1
    N/S-codoped graphene
    hollow spheres
    - - 1 mol/L NaClO4 in EC/PC (1∶1)
    with 5 vol% FEC
    0.01-3.0 385@0.5 A g−1 ~37.6 [35]
    308@20 A g−1
    N/S-codoped carbon nanosheets S: 3.49% - 1 mol/L NaClO4 in
    EC/PC (1∶1)
    0.01-3.0 350@0.05 A g−1 ~43.8 [50]
    N: 20.01% 110@10 A g−1
    N/S-codoped ordered
    mesoporous carbon
    S: 0.82 at% - 1 mol/L NaClO4 in EC/PC (1∶1)
    with 5 wt% FEC
    0.01-3.0 487@0.01 A g−1 26.1 [46]
    N: 20.32 at% 233@5 A g−1
    N/S-codoped ordered mesoporous
    carbon nanofibers
    S: 2.3% 1.0-1.2 1 mol/L NaClO4 in EC/DEC (1∶1)
    with 5 wt% FEC
    0.1-3.0 290.3@0.1 A g−1 ~40.6 [51]
    N: 11.7% 160.2@10 A g−1
    N/S-codoped porous
    carbon nanosheets
    S: 9.12% 1.0-1.5 1 mol/L NaClO4
    in EC/DMC (1∶1)
    0-2.9 210@1 A g−1 51.5 [58]
    N: 4.52% 120@5 A g−1
    N/S-codoped mesoporous
    hollow carbon spheres
    S: 2.94 at% 0.3-0.4 1 mol/L NaClO4 in EC/DEC (1∶1)
    with 2 wt% FEC
    1.5-4.5 240@0.5 A g−1 29.0 [52]
    N: 8.56 at% 138@30 A g−1
    下载: 导出CSV
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