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The role, formation and characterization of LiC6 in composite lithium anodes

XUE Zhou-qing WANG Zi-you ZHANG Jun-dong LU Yang HUANG Wen-ze CHEN Ai-bing ZHAO Chen-zi Kuzmina Elena Karaseva Elena Kolosnitsyn Vladimir FAN Li-zhen ZHANG Qiang

薛州晴, 王子游, 张俊东, 卢洋, 黄文泽, 陈爱兵, 赵辰孜, KuzminaElena, KarasevaElena, KolosnitsynVladimir, 范丽珍, 张强. LiC6在复合锂负极中的作用、形成和表征. 新型炭材料(中英文), 2023, 38(4): 641-658. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(23)60773-5
引用本文: 薛州晴, 王子游, 张俊东, 卢洋, 黄文泽, 陈爱兵, 赵辰孜, KuzminaElena, KarasevaElena, KolosnitsynVladimir, 范丽珍, 张强. LiC6在复合锂负极中的作用、形成和表征. 新型炭材料(中英文), 2023, 38(4): 641-658. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(23)60773-5
XUE Zhou-qing, WANG Zi-you, ZHANG Jun-dong, LU Yang, HUANG Wen-ze, CHEN Ai-bing, ZHAO Chen-zi, Kuzmina Elena, Karaseva Elena, Kolosnitsyn Vladimir, FAN Li-zhen, ZHANG Qiang. The role, formation and characterization of LiC6 in composite lithium anodes. New Carbon Mater., 2023, 38(4): 641-658. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(23)60773-5
Citation: XUE Zhou-qing, WANG Zi-you, ZHANG Jun-dong, LU Yang, HUANG Wen-ze, CHEN Ai-bing, ZHAO Chen-zi, Kuzmina Elena, Karaseva Elena, Kolosnitsyn Vladimir, FAN Li-zhen, ZHANG Qiang. The role, formation and characterization of LiC6 in composite lithium anodes. New Carbon Mater., 2023, 38(4): 641-658. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(23)60773-5

LiC6在复合锂负极中的作用、形成和表征

doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(23)60773-5
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    赵辰孜,教授. E-mail:zcz@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn

    张 强,教授. E-mail:zhang-qiang@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TQ152

The role, formation and characterization of LiC6 in composite lithium anodes

Funds: This work was supported by the Beijing Municipal Natural Science Foundation (Z200011), National Natural Science Foundation of China (22108151, 22109084, 22209092, 22061132002), National Key Research and Development Program (2021YFB2500300), S&T Program of Hebei (22344402D), Tsinghua-Jiangyin Innovation Special Fund (TJISF) and the Institute of Strategic Research, Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd
More Information
  • 摘要: 锂金属电池(LMB)被认为是最有前景的下一代储能系统之一。然而,其实际应用存在极大的体积变化和锂枝晶的形成等重大挑战。为了应对这些挑战,引入炭材料的复合锂负极因其优异的化学和电化学稳定性以及在重复循环过程中的优异机械强度引起了极大关注。本文旨在全面概述锂化石墨(LiC6)的形成及其在锂沉积和剥离过程中在体相和界面区域的作用。在体相中,LiC6表现出优异的亲锂性能,降低了锂成核的过电位并促进锂的均匀沉积。当在电极-电解质界面引入LiC6时,它通过充当缓冲层来增强电极和电解质之间的接触,从而降低界面阻抗。最后,本文评述了锂碳复合负极发展的前景和挑战。
  • FIG. 2499.  FIG. 2499.

    FIG. 2499..  FIG. 2499.

    Figure  1.  The timeline of typical events in the development stages of LiC6-contained composite anodes in lithium metal batteries[48-49, 61-69]

    Figure  2.  Summary of the roles of LiC6 in lithium composite anodes

    Figure  3.  (a) Schematic of the mechanism of graphite reacted with Li metal to generate LiC6. (b) Different lithiation stages of a carbon-based anode during charging. Reproduced with permission[81]. Copyright 2018 American Chemical Society

    Figure  4.  (a) Schematic illustration for the fabrication of the Li-rGO composite film by lithium metal melting. Reproduced with permission[65]. Copyright 2016, Springer Nature. (b) The construction of the Li-CNT composite anode. Reproduced with permission[95]. Copyright 2013, Royal Society of Chemistry. (c) The fabrication process of Li-graphite composite anode by the stirring and melting method. Reproduced with permission[99]. Copyright 2018, Elsevier. (d) Formation process of Li@LiC6&LiF-x composite anode materials. Reproduced with permission[104]. Copyright 2021 American Chemical Society

    Figure  5.  (a) Lithium process on a three-dimensional carbon modified electrode. Reproduced with permission[105]. Copyright 2019, Elsevier; (b) Schematic diagrams showing the Li nucleation and growth process on the 3D-GF. Reproduced with permission[106]. Copyright 2019, American Chemical Society. (c) Schematic diagrams of lithium plating process on the CMN. Reproduced with permission[107]. Copyright 2017, American Chemical Society

    Figure  6.  (a) Li wettability of PCP, lithiated PCP. ACA measurements of (I, II) PCP and (IV, V) lithiated PCP. Digital photos of a Li droplet on (III) PCP and (VI) lithiated PCP after cooling down to room temperature[68]. (b) Schematic diagrams of electrochemical plating/stripping process of lithium on the CNT sponges. Reproduced with permission[119]. Copyright 2019, American Chemical Society; (c) Schematic diagrams of coralloid layered composite electrode. Reproduced with permission[120]. Copyright 2018, Elsevier. (d) Schematic of the Li-EG composite anode fabrication process. Reproduced with permission[121]. Copyright 2019, Royal Society of Chemistry

    Figure  7.  Diagram of the overpotential and delithium mechanism in composite anode during initial and long cycles. Reproduced with permission[48]. Copyright 2022, American Chemical Society

    Figure  8.  (a) A pencil sketch of the preparation of a graphite-based interfacial layer and a wetting behavior comparison between molten lithium metal on LALZWO ceramics with and without the interfacial layer. Reproduced with permission[122]. Copyright 2018, American Chemical Society. (b) Schematic diagram of the graphite-modified composite solid electrolyte membrane. Reproduced with permission[123]. Copyright 2020, American Chemical Society; (c) Schematic diagram of the preparation process of the heterogeneous interface layer[75]. (d) Schematic diagram of the mechanism of action of carbon-based optimal interlayer[124]

    Figure  9.  (a) Operado optical microscopic image of the Li@CP/LiC6 electrode-electrolyte interface. Reproduced with permission[127]. Copyright 2022, Elsevier. (b) Schematic illustration and high-resolution SEM images for pristine CF, initial Li/CF composite anode, and Li/CF composite anode shelving for 72 h with the formation of LiC6 layers. Reproduced with permission[49]. Copyright 2019, John Wiley and Sons; (c) Removal of cross-sectional SEM and FIB-SEM images of LiC6 and dead lithium backbones in the anterior and posterior Li@G anodes of lithium metal. Reproduced with permission[130]. Copyright 2021, Royal Society of Chemistry. (d) High-resolution cryo-EM image of lithium graphene shell. Reproduced with permission[77]. Copyright 2019, American Chemical Society. (e) Raman spectroscopy of bare lithium, pencil graphite and lithium coated with LiC6. (f) XRD spectra of Li, EG, Li-EG. (g) C 1s XPS spectra for EG and Li-EG. (h) Li and Li-EG for Li 1s XPS spectrum[121]. (i) the C, Li+, and Li2 maps of the graphite electrode after 15 cycles by TOF-SIMS after depth sputtering[48]

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  • 收稿日期:  2023-05-31
  • 录用日期:  2023-07-05
  • 修回日期:  2023-07-04
  • 网络出版日期:  2023-07-28
  • 刊出日期:  2023-08-01

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