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Recent advances in 3D interconnected carbon/metal high thermal conductivity composites

GUAN Hong-da HE Xin-bo ZHANG Zi-jian ZHANG Tao QU Xuan-hui

关洪达, 何新波, 张子建, 张涛, 曲选辉. 三维互连炭材料/金属导热复合材料的研究进展. 新型炭材料(中英文), 2023, 38(5): 804-824. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(23)60774-7
引用本文: 关洪达, 何新波, 张子建, 张涛, 曲选辉. 三维互连炭材料/金属导热复合材料的研究进展. 新型炭材料(中英文), 2023, 38(5): 804-824. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(23)60774-7
GUAN Hong-da, HE Xin-bo, ZHANG Zi-jian, ZHANG Tao, QU Xuan-hui. Recent advances in 3D interconnected carbon/metal high thermal conductivity composites. New Carbon Mater., 2023, 38(5): 804-824. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(23)60774-7
Citation: GUAN Hong-da, HE Xin-bo, ZHANG Zi-jian, ZHANG Tao, QU Xuan-hui. Recent advances in 3D interconnected carbon/metal high thermal conductivity composites. New Carbon Mater., 2023, 38(5): 804-824. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(23)60774-7

三维互连炭材料/金属导热复合材料的研究进展

doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(23)60774-7
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(51274040)
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    何新波,教授. E-mail: xbhe@ustb.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TQ127.1+1

Recent advances in 3D interconnected carbon/metal high thermal conductivity composites

Funds: This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51274040)
More Information
  • 摘要: 随着电子设备的产热不断攀升,在确保设备性能和寿命方面,高效散热已成为一个关键的技术问题,高的导热性通常取决于填料在复合材料中形成快速导热通道的能力。近年来,在复合材料中利用高导热性填料开发三维互连结构已成为一种很有前途的方法。与传统的均匀分布和定向排列相比,填料的三维互连结构显著提高了复合材料的热导率。本文综述了三维互连结构的炭材料增强金属基导热复合材料的研究进展,讨论了复合材料的导热机理和导热模型,分析了提高复合材料导热性能的关键因素。本文通过回顾这些独特的构建三维互连炭材料网络的形式及其对复合材料导热性能的影响,旨在为进一步开发高性能金属基导热复合材料提供参考。
  • FIG. 2647.  FIG. 2647.

    FIG. 2647..  FIG. 2647.

    Figure  1.  (a) Thermal conduction in matter by collision of particles. (b) Thermal conductivity mechanism in a crystalline material. (c) Phonon scattering in crystalline materials, due to various defects[41]. Copyright 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

    Figure  2.  Composition, structure model and heat transfer path of 0D-3D carbon filler/metal thermal conductivity composites[5]. Copyright 2020 Elsevier Ltd.

    Figure  3.  Schematic diagram of Rayleigh model, consisting of parallel cylinders embedded in a continuous matrix[50]

    Figure  4.  Schematic diagram of partially connected channels formed by fillers in composites. Black particles represent the fillers that form a continuous heat transfer channel from source to sink. White is for matrix particles, and hatching is for the fillers which do not form a continuous channel[50]

    Figure  5.  Construction of diamond interconnection network. (a) Diamond forms locally connected structure in copper matrix[74]. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd. (b) Microstructure studies have found the formation of diamond frameworks[36]. Copyright 2008 Elsevier Ltd. (c) Thermal conductivity channel model of diamond/Cu composites

    Figure  6.  Construction of 3D carbon fiber network by binder connection. (a) Flowchart of preparing short carbon fiber network structure[79]. Copyright 2019 Elsevier Ltd. (b) Microscopic images of carbon fiber network structure[76]. Copyright 2012 Springer Nature. (c) Diagram of the formation of carbon bonded carbon fiber. (d) Microscopic picture of carbonaceous bond point[77]. Copyright 2018 Elsevier Ltd. (e) Self-bonded 3D porous graphite fiber monolith using asphalt as binder[78]. Copyright 2022 Elsevier Ltd.

    Figure  7.  Construction of 3D carbon material by foam formwork. (a) Construction of 3D carbon nanotubes by melamine foam[38]. Copyright 2019 IOP Publishing, Ltd. (b) Construction of 3D graphite foam modified by multi walled carbon nanotubes by polyurethane foam[80]. Copyright 2022 Elsevier Ltd. (c) Construction of 3D graphite skeleton by polyurethane foam[81]. (d) Graphite foam was prepared by polyurethane foam template[82]. Copyright 2017 Elsevier Ltd.

    Figure  8.  Construction of 3D carbon material by template-directed CVD. (a) 3D graphene constructed by matrix powder template[83]. (b) 3D diamond foam constructed by Cr modified Cu foam template[5]. Copyright 2020 Elsevier Ltd. (c) 3D graphene constructed by porous matrix template[84]. Copyright 2018 Elsevier Ltd.

    Figure  9.  Some related 3D carbon filler construction methods. (a) Construct 3D porous carbon by adding pore forming agents[85]. Copyright 2022 Elsevier Ltd. (b) 3D Cu film network constructed by carbon felt skeleton[86]. Copyright 2020 Elsevier Ltd. (c) 3D interconnected graphene foam constructed by polyurethane sponge template[87]. Copyright 2019 RSC Pub. (d) 3D vertically arranged carbon fiber skeleton constructed by vertical freezing[88]. Copyright 2020 Elsevier Ltd

    Figure  10.  Diagram of high-temperature and high-pressure experimental equipment: (a) High-temperature and high-pressure assembly block physical. (b) Diagram of high-temperature and high-pressure assembly block. (c) Diagram of the chamber of high-temperature and high-pressure equipment[90]

    Figure  11.  Schematic diagram of 3D carbon filler/metal composite prepared by infiltration method. (a) Schematic diagram of the two-step vacuum pressure infiltration technique[95]. Copyright 2014 Springer Nature. (b) Schematic diagram of the gas pressure infiltration process[98]

    Table  1.   Summary of theoretical models for predicting the thermal conductivity of composites

    Model nameFormulaCharacteriatics
    Maxwell$\dfrac{ {k}_{{\rm{c}}} }{ {k}_{{\rm{m}}} }=1+\dfrac{3{V}_{{\rm{f}}} }{\left(\dfrac{ {k}_{{\rm{f}}}{+}2{k}_{{\rm{m}}} }{ {k}_{{\rm{f}}}-{k}_{{\rm{m}}} }\right)-{V}_{{\rm{f}}} }$• Uniformly distributed spherical filler
    • Low loading
    Maxwell-Eucken$ {k}_{{\rm{c}}}={k}_{{\rm{m}}}\left[\dfrac{2{k}_{{\rm{m}}}+{k}_{{\rm{f}}}+2{V}_{{\rm{f}}}\left({k}_{{\rm{f}}}-{k}_{{\rm{m}}}\right)}{2{k}_{{\rm{m}}}+{k}_{{\rm{f}}}-{V}_{{\rm{f}}}\left({k}_{{\rm{f}}}-{k}_{{\rm{m}}}\right)}\right] $• Uniformly distributed spherical filler
    • Low loading
    Hamilton-Crosser$ {k}_{{\rm{c}}}={k}_{{\rm{m}}}\left[\dfrac{\left(n-1\right){k}_{{\rm{m}}}+{k}_{{\rm{f}}}+\left(n-1\right){V}_{{\rm{f}}}\left({k}_{{\rm{f}}}-{k}_{{\rm{m}}}\right)}{\left(n-1\right){k}_{{\rm{m}}}+{k}_{{\rm{f}}}-{V}_{{\rm{f}}}\left({k}_{{\rm{f}}}-{k}_{{\rm{m}}}\right)}\right]n=\dfrac{3}{\Psi } $• Considering the effect of geometry of fillers
    Lewis-Nielsen$ {k}_{{\rm{c}}}={k}_{{\rm{m}}}\dfrac{1+\dfrac{B\left({k}_{{\rm{f}}}-{k}_{{\rm{m}}}\right)}{{k}_{{\rm{f}}}+B{k}_{{\rm{m}}}}{V}_{{\rm{f}}}}{1-\dfrac{{k}_{{\rm{f}}}-{k}_{{\rm{m}}}}{{k}_{{\rm{f}}}+B{k}_{{\rm{m}}}}\left[1+\left(\dfrac{1-{\varnothing }_{{\rm{m}}}}{{{\varnothing }_{{\rm{m}}}}^{2}}\right){V}_{{\rm{f}}}\right]{V}_{{\rm{f}}}} $• Considering the effect of shape, aspect ratio and
    packing factor of fillers
    Bruggeman$ 1-{V}_{{\rm{f}}}=\dfrac{{k}_{{\rm{f}}}-{k}_{{\rm{c}}}}{{k}_{{\rm{f}}}-{k}_{{\rm{m}}}}{\left(\dfrac{{k}_{{\rm{m}}}}{{k}_{{\rm{c}}}}\right)}^{1/3} $• Uniformly distributed spherical filler
    • High loading
    Rayleigh$\dfrac{ {k}_{{\rm{c}},{\rm{ZZ}}} }{ {k}_{ {\rm{m} } } }=1+\left(\dfrac{ {k}_{ {\rm{f} } }-{k}_{ {\rm{m} } } }{ {k}_{ {\rm{m} } } }\right){V}_{ {\rm{f} } }$
    $\dfrac{ {k}_{ {\rm{c} },{\rm{XX} } } }{ {k}_{ {\rm{m} } } }=\dfrac{ {k}_{ {\rm{c} },{\rm{YY} } } }{ {k}_{ {\rm{m} } } }=1+$
    $\dfrac{2{V}_{ {\rm{f} } } }{ {C}_{1}-{V}_{ {\rm{f} } }+{C}_{2}\left(0.30584{ {V}_{ {\rm{f} } } }^{4}+0.013363{ {V}_{ {\rm{f} } } }^{8}+\cdots\right)}$
    • Considering the thermal interaction between particles
    Hasselman-Johnson${k}_{{\rm{c}}}={k}_{{\rm{m}}}\left[\dfrac{2{k}_{{\rm{m}}}+{ {k}_{{\rm{f}}} }^{eff}+2{V}_{{\rm{f}}}\left({ {k}_{{\rm{f}}} }^{eff}-{k}_{{\rm{m}}}\right)}{2{k}_{{\rm{m}}}+{ {k}_{{\rm{f}}} }^{eff}-{V}_{{\rm{f}}}\left({ {k}_{{\rm{f}}} }^{eff}-{k}_{{\rm{m}}}\right)}\right]{ {k}_{{\rm{f}}} }^{eff}=\dfrac{ {k}_{{\rm{f}}} }{1+\dfrac{ {k}_{{\rm{f}}} }{h\cdot r} }$• Uniformly distributed spherical filler
    • Considering the effect of two-phase interface
    Agari$\lg{k}_{ {\rm{c} } }=\left(1-{V}_{ {\rm{f} } }\right)\lg\left({R}_{1}{k}_{ {\rm{m} } }\right)+{V}_{ {\rm{f} } }{R}_{2}\lg{k}_{ {\rm{f} } }$• Fillers with various shapes and sizes
    • Considering the formation of heat conduction channel
    Foygel$ {k}_{{\rm{c}}}={k}_{0}{\left({k}_{{\rm{f}}}-{V}_{{\rm{c}}}\right)}^{\beta }R=\dfrac{1}{{k}_{0}L{\left({V}_{{\rm{c}}}\right)}^{\beta }} $• Considering the critical volume fraction of fillers
    required for forming 3D heat conduction channel
    3D ROM$ {k}_{{\rm{c}}}=\dfrac{1}{3}{V}_{{\rm{f}}}{k}_{{\rm{s}}}+\left(1-{V}_{{\rm{f}}}\right){k}_{{\rm{m}}} $• Isotropic 3D structure
    Modified 3D ROM$ {k}_{{\rm{c}}}={\mu }_{1}\xi {V}_{{\rm{f}}}{k}_{{\rm{s}}}+{\mu }_{2}\left(1-\xi \right){V}_{{\rm{f}}}{k}_{{\rm{s}}}+\left(1-{V}_{{\rm{f}}}\right){k}_{{\rm{m}}} $• Anisotropic 3D structure
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2023-05-12
  • 录用日期:  2023-08-23
  • 修回日期:  2023-08-23
  • 网络出版日期:  2023-08-28
  • 刊出日期:  2023-10-01

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