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A review of graphdiyne: A new material for synthesizing effective adsorbents for aqueous contaminants

Gaurav Sharma Yaksha Verma Amit Kumar Pooja Dhiman WANG Tong-tong Florian J. Stadler

GauravSharma, YakshaVerma, AmitKumar, PoojaDhiman, WANGTong-tong, FlorianJ. Stadler. 石墨炔:一种用于合成水污染物有效吸附剂的新型炭材料. 新型炭材料(中英文), 2024, 39(2): 173-200. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(24)60830-9
引用本文: GauravSharma, YakshaVerma, AmitKumar, PoojaDhiman, WANGTong-tong, FlorianJ. Stadler. 石墨炔:一种用于合成水污染物有效吸附剂的新型炭材料. 新型炭材料(中英文), 2024, 39(2): 173-200. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(24)60830-9
Gaurav Sharma, Yaksha Verma, Amit Kumar, Pooja Dhiman, WANG Tong-tong, Florian J. Stadler. A review of graphdiyne: A new material for synthesizing effective adsorbents for aqueous contaminants. New Carbon Mater., 2024, 39(2): 173-200. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(24)60830-9
Citation: Gaurav Sharma, Yaksha Verma, Amit Kumar, Pooja Dhiman, WANG Tong-tong, Florian J. Stadler. A review of graphdiyne: A new material for synthesizing effective adsorbents for aqueous contaminants. New Carbon Mater., 2024, 39(2): 173-200. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(24)60830-9

石墨炔:一种用于合成水污染物有效吸附剂的新型炭材料

doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(24)60830-9
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    Gaurav Sharma. E-mail:gaurav8777@gmail.com

  • 中图分类号: TQ127.1+1

A review of graphdiyne: A new material for synthesizing effective adsorbents for aqueous contaminants

More Information
  • 摘要: 石墨炔(GDY)是一种新生的二维材料,其在去除水溶液中污染物的研究方面引起了广泛关注。GDY是sp和sp2杂化碳原子的框架,其在二维对称网络中存在苯环和二乙基键,因此具有优异的共轭性、独特的可调谐电子性能、以及优异的化学和热稳定性。GDY的分子中有C≡C键,且具有均匀分布的三角形孔,可提供更多的反应位点和多种反应路径。因而,GDY具有吸附性,其作为吸附剂时在去除污染水中的油、有机污染物、染料和金属方面表现优异。在已发表的文献中,GDY被用作吸附剂的报道十分有限。本文综述了GDY的合成方法、GDY作为吸附剂的应用以及GDY基吸附剂的表征,并展望了GDY在污染物修复中的应用前景。
  • FIG. 3057.  FIG. 3057.

    FIG. 3057..  FIG. 3057.

    Figure  1.  Structure of graphdiyne with triangular void

    Figure  2.  Synthesis methods of graphdiyne involving dry and wet chemistry approaches

    .  Reaction 1: Basic cross-coupling reaction

    .  Reaction 2: Glaser homo-coupling reaction

    .  Reaction 3: Glaser coupling reaction using copper as a catalyst with no by-products

    .  Reaction 4: Glaser coupling reaction using palladium as catalyst with by-products

    .  Reaction 5: Eglinton-Glaser coupling reaction

    .  Reaction 6: Glaser-Hay coupling reaction

    .  Reaction 7: Homo-coupling reaction of alkylsilane

    Figure  3.  Graphdiyne synthesis by explosion using HEB as a precursor, involving a cross-coupling effect caused by heating HEB at 120 °C without the use of metal catalyst

    Figure  4.  (a,b) Schematic representation of the self-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth technique to fabricate GDY thin films on ZnO nano-rod arrays. (c) SEM images. Reprinted with permission from[47]

    Figure  5.  (a) Lead ion adsorption in GDY. (b,c) SEM images of GDY. (d) Spectra of an aqueous solution with lead ions and xylenol orange added prior to and thereafter adsorption. Reprinted with permission from[77]

    Figure  6.  (a) Lead ion filtration experimental setup. (b,c) SEM images of GDY filter. (d) Concentration of Pb2+ and effectiveness of removal by GDY after varied numbers of filter operations. (e) Lead ion percentage removal as a function of the volume of aqueous medium with varying lead ion concentrations. (f) Recyclability. Reprinted with permission from[77]

    Figure  7.  Graphdiyne melamine sponge adsorbing oil: (a) chloroform (organic solvent) and (b) gasoline (oil). Reprinted with permission from[80]. Copyright © 2019, American Chemical Society

    Figure  8.  SEM images of melamine sponge (a-c) and graphdiyne coated on melamine sponge (d-f).Reprinted with permission from [80]. Copyright © 2019, American Chemical Society

    Figure  9.  Images of (a) SEM and (b-c) TEM. XPS spectra of (c) orange line (iodosulfuron-methyl sodium), blue line (GDY), (e) C 1s and (f) O 1s. Reprinted with permission from[81]

    Figure  10.  Oxygen-defective GDY (a) Raman spectra, (b) FTIR spectrum, (c) XRD spectra and (d) N2: adsorption-desorption isotherm. Reprinted with the permission from[81]

    Figure  11.  SEM images of GDY produced using various catalysts: (a) CuCl; (b) CuI; (c) Cu(OAc)2; (d) CuSO4; (e) Pd(OAc)2; (f) [(C6H5)3P]2·PdCl2. Reprinted with permission from[82]

    Figure  12.  (a) GDY-sponge extracting an organic solvent from a combination of oil and water. (b) GDY- melamine sponge adsorption capacity. (c) Recyclability of GDY-melamine sponge. Reprinted with permission from[80]. Copyright © 2019, American Chemical Society

    Figure  13.  GDY-melamine sponge as a filtering system for separating oil from water mixtures. Reprinted with permission from[80]. Copyright © 2019, American Chemical Society

    Table  1.   Various characterization techniques to study GDY

    CharacterizationImportanceReference
    1. SEMMorphology[86]
    2. AFMMorphology[93-94]
    3. TEMMorphology, Thickness[95]
    4. XRDCrystal structure[96]
    5. XPSElemental composition[83,97]
    6. Raman spectroscopyRotational and molecular vibration[98]
    7. Uv-visible spectroscopyConjugation, absorbance[99]
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  2.   XPS data for GDY

    XPS peaksBinding energy/eVReference
    1. Two main peaks due to
    i. Carbon (1s)i.284.8 (C)[107]
    ii. Oxygen(1s)ii.532.1 (O)
    2. At high resolution 4 main peaks
    i. sp2 Carbon of benzene ringi. 284.5[107]
    ii. sp carbonii. 285.2
    iii. C=Oiii. 288.5
    iv. C―Oiv. 286.9
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  3.   Raman spectroscopy data for GDY

    Raman peaks calculated Raman spectra peak (6 main peaks)/cm−1SignificanceRef.
    956Oscillation of alkynes and aromatic ring[110]
    1364The scissoring oscillation of atom in benzene
    1478Oscillation of C―C
    triple bond
    1521Oscillation of C=C bonds
    2142Synchronous contracting/ stretching of C≡C
    2221C≡C stretching mode with out of phase vibration
    Experimental Raman spectra
    peaks (4 main peaks)
    1384D band: vibration of sp2 carbon[72]
    1569G band: sp2 carbon (stretching oscillation)
    1940The diyne linkage
    2181Carbon-carbon triple bond
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2023-08-03
  • 录用日期:  2023-11-27
  • 修回日期:  2023-11-25
  • 网络出版日期:  2023-12-04
  • 刊出日期:  2024-04-20

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