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低阶煤基炭材料研究进展
宋文革, 曾红久, 王斌, 黄显虹, 李晓明, 孙国华
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(24)60872-3
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低阶煤由于具有储量丰富、碳含量高、芳烃结构易调整等特点,已被广泛用于制备高性能炭材料的理想前驱体。为进一步实现低阶煤高值化利用与高性能煤基炭材料的可控制备,本文综述了低阶煤在炭材料制备领域的最新研究进展。首先全面分析了低阶煤的物理化学特性,并通过代表性的文献阐述了低阶煤及其衍生物在制备储能炭材料、吸附活性炭及纳米炭材料的方法和改性策略,及煤基炭材料的应用性能。其次,本文深入解析了低阶煤中灰分、伴生杂原子的存在对煤基炭材料应用性能的潜在影响,为高性能煤基炭材料的工艺优化与可控制备提交依据。最后,本文对低阶煤基炭材料的未来所面临的挑战与机遇进行了展望,强调在新型制备技术探索、材料性能深度挖掘以及能源存储、环境净化、催化反应等前沿领域的应用创新的重要性。综上所述,本文综述不仅是对当前研究成果的全面回顾,更是对未来发展趋势的深刻展望,有望为低阶煤基炭材料的结构设计与应用性能优化提供指导。
CNT/CF/环氧树脂界面的原位热拉曼成像与应力分析
HE Jing-zong, CHEN Shi, MA Zheng-kun, LU Yong-gen, WU Qi-lin
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(24)60874-7
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A study of the interfacial behavior and internal thermal stress distribution in fiber-reinforced composites is essential to assess their performance and reliability. CNT/carbon fiber (CF) hybrid fibers were constructed using electrophoretic deposition. The interfacial properties of CF/epoxy and CNT/CF/epoxy composites were statistically investigated and compared using in-situ thermal Raman mapping by dispersing CNTs as a Raman sensing medium (CNTR) in a resin. The associated local thermal stress changes can be simulated by capturing the G' band position distribution of CNTR in the epoxy at different temperatures. It was found that the G' band shifted to lower positions with increasing temperature, reaching a maximum difference of 2.43 cm−1 at 100 °C. The interfacial bonding between CNT/CF and the matrix and the stress distribution and changes during heat treatment (20–100 °C) were investigated in detail. The study is important for studying thermal stress in fiber-reinforced composites by in-situ thermal Raman mapping technology.
氮掺杂构型对超级电容器高频响应的影响机制研究
FAN Ya-feng, YI Zong-lin, ZHOU Yi, XIE Li-jing, SUN Guo-hua, WANG Zhen-bing, Huang Xian-hong, SU Fang-yuan, CHEN Cheng-meng
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(24)60849-8
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Nitrogen doping strategy has been widely used to enhance the performance of carbon electrodes in supercapacitors, particularly in terms of high-frequency response. However, the charge storage and ion response mechanisms of different nitrogen dopants at high frequencies are still unclear. In this study, we employ carbonized melamine foam with an open surface structure as a simplified model electrode material, enabling a comprehensive analysis of their impact on the ionic response behavior of high-frequency supercapacitors. Through a combination of experiments and first-principles calculations, we uncover that pyrrolic nitrogen, characterized by a higher adsorption energy, enhances the charge storage capacity of the electrode at high frequencies. On the other hand, graphitic nitrogen, with a lower adsorption energy, promotes rapid ion response. Furthermore, we propose the use of adsorption energy as a practical descriptor for electrode/electrolyte design in high-frequency applications, offering a more universal approach for optimizing the performance of N-doped carbon materials. This research contributes to the advancement of high-frequency supercapacitor technology and provides guidance for the development of improved N-doped carbon materials.
多孔硅碳复合材料实现高性能锂离子电池
TIAN Zhen-yu, WANG Ya-fei, QIN Xin, Shaislamov Ulugbek, Hojamberdiev Mirabbos, ZHENG Tong-hui, DONG Shuo, ZHANG Xing-hao, KONG De-bin, ZHI Lin-jie
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(24)60850-4
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Silicon anodes are promising candidates for lithium-ion batteries. However, their practical application is severely limited due to their significant volume expansion leading to irreversible material fracture and electrical disconnection. This study proposes a new top-down strategy for preparing microsized porous silicon and introducing polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as nitrogen-doped carbon coating, which is designed to maintain the internal space and alleviate the outward expansion of the silicon anode during the lithiation and delithiation process. Subsequently, we explored the effect of temperature on the thermal transition behavior of PAN and the electrochemical behavior of the composite electrode. After the treatment at 400 °C, the PAN coating retained a high nitrogen doping content of 11.35%, which explicitly confirmed the existence of C―N and C―O bonds that improved the ionic-electronic transport properties. This treatment not only retained a more intact carbon layer structure, but also introduced carbon defects, exhibiting remarkably stable cycling even at high rates. When cycled at 4 A g−1, the optimized anode exhibited a specific capacity of 857.6 mAh g−1 even after 200 cycles, demonstrating great potential for high-capacity energy storage applications.
一种多孔FeOx,N共掺杂碳材料的制备及其在酸和碱电解液中的优异氧还原反应催化性能
GAO Jian, WANG Xinyao, MENG Lingxin, YIN Zhen, MA Na, TAN Xiaoyao, ZHANG Peng
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(24)60876-0
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To replace the precious metal ORR (oxygen reduction reaction) electrocatalysts, many TM (transition metal) and N-doped carbon composites have been proposed in last decade and acquire a rapid development as the promising non-precious metal catalysts. Herein, Ketjenblack carbon (KB) is adopted as the precursor and fully mixed with the polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) of [Hvim]NO3 and Fe(NO3)3. This mixture is thermally calcinated into a porous Fe, N co-doped carbon material denoted as the FeOx-N/C at 900 °C. Due to that the PIL of [Hvim]NO3 can strongly combine and disperse Fe3+ ions, and NO3 will thermally pyrolysis to form the porous structure, the FeOx-N/C catalyst displays high electrocatalytic activity toward ORR in both 0.1 M KOH and 0.5 M H2SO4 electrolytes. Subsequently, the FeOx-N/C is used as the catalyst to assemble a zinc-air battery (ZAB) exhibiting a peak power density of 185 mW·cm−2. Consequently, the superior electrocatalytic activity, wide pH range, and facile preparation approach jointly make the FeOx-N/C a promising electrocatalyst for the fuel cell and metal-air battery in the future.
氮掺杂炭材料综述:制备、性质和储钠应用实例
YUAN Ren-lu, HOU Ruo-yang, SHANG Lei, LIU Xue-wei, LI Ang, CHEN Xiao-hong, SONG Huai-he
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(24)60877-2
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As a powerful technology, defect engineering by heteroatom doping endows carbon materials with some new functions such as unique electronic structure and high activity, showing a great significance for their structure modulation towards high-performance application. N-doping has been widely investigated due to the similar atom radius with carbon, high electronegativity as well as multiplex configuration. In this review, we mainly summarized the preparation methods and properties of N-doped carbon materials and also discussed their application potential with an exemplification for sodium storage. The in-situ and post-treatment preparation strategies were detailly described. The relationship between N content/configuration and crystallinity, electronic conductivity, wettability, chemical reactivity as well as sodium storage ability was discussed. Meanwhile some related researches of our group were also introduced. This review is expected to provide a powerful guidance for the controlled preparation and structure design of N-doped carbon materials.
炭纤维/聚醚酮酮湿法复合诱导非晶态粘附以增强界面剪切强度
ZHANG Feng, LI Bo-lan, JIAO Meng-xiao, LI Yan-bo, WANG Xin, YANG Yu, YANG Yu-qiu, ZHANG Xiao-hua
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60646-2
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Interfacial adhesion between carbon fiber (CF) and polyetherketoneketone (PEKK) is a key factor that affects the mechanical performances of their composites. Therefore, it is of great importance to impregnate PEKK into CF bundles as efficiently as possible. Here we report that owing to the high dissolubility, PEKK can be introduced onto CF surfaces via a wet strategy. The excellent wettability of PEKK guarantees a full covering and tight binding on CFs, making it possible to evaluate the interfacial shear strength (IFSS) with the microdroplet method. Furthermore, the interior of CF bundles can be completely and uniformly filled with PEKK by the solution impregnation, leading to a high interlaminar shear strength (ILSS). The maximum IFSS and ILSS can reach 107.8 and 99.3 MPa, respectively. Such superior shear properties are ascribed to the formation of amorphous PEKK confined in the limited spacing between CFs.
PES-C增韧E51/DETDA环氧树脂及其炭纤维复合材料的研究
WU Rong-peng, ZHANG Xing-hua, WEI Xing-hai, JING De-qi, SU Wei-guo, ZHANG Shou-chun
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(23)60741-3
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A toughener that can effectively improve the interlaminar toughness in carbon fiber composites is crucial for various applications. In this paper, the toughening effects of phenolphthalein-based cardo poly (ether sulfone) (PES-C) on E51/ DETDA epoxy and its carbon fiber composites (CFCs) were investigated. The SEM results showed that PES-C/epoxy blends formed a sea-island phase and bicontinuous phase structure, which was associated with reaction-induced phase separation. After adding 15 g m−2 PES-C, the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the blends was increased by 51.5 °C. Meanwhile, the flexural strength, impact strength and fracture toughness of the blends were improved by 41.1%, 186.2% and 42.7%, respectively. These improvements could be attributed to the phase separation structure of the PES-C/epoxy system. Moreover, PES-C film was used to improve the mode-II fracture toughness (GIIC) of CFCs. GIIC value of the 7 μm PES-C film toughened laminate was improved by 80.3% compared to that of the control laminate. The increase in GIIC could be attributed to the cohesive failure and plastic deformation in the interleaving region.
含氮/氯芳烃制备高性能合成沥青
ZHANG Yu-kun, LIN Xiong-chao, GAO Hong-feng, XI Wen-shuai, WANG Cai-hong, WANG Yong-gang
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(24)60864-4
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Preparation of synthetic pitch using aromatic monomers could easily regulate the oriented structure at molecular level, which is conducive to the fabrication of high-performance carbon fiber. In this study, the isotopically synthetic pitch was successfully prepared using N- and Cl-bearing aromatic hydrocarbon precursors by halogen-induced method. The halogenation- enhanced synthetic process was systematically verified by investigating the structural variation under different synthetic conditions; and the reaction mechanism was thoroughly probed for preparation of high-performance carbon fibers. The result shows that the pyridine N in quinoline has strong electrophilic function, which is found be the effective active site to induce the polymerization reaction by coupling with Cl-bearing aromatic hydrocarbons. The mutual reaction among such free radicals would cause strong homopolymerization and oligomerization. Higher synthesis temperature and longer retention time are beneficial to increase the polymerization degree and thus elevate the softening point of synthetic pitch. Moreover, linear molecular structure was formed by the designated Cl and methyl substitution process, which was available for the preparation of highly spinnable pitch. Consequently, a high-quality spinnable pitch with a softening point of 258.6 °C and as-prepared carbon fiber with a tensile strength of 1163.82 MPa was obtained. This study is expected to provide a relatively simple and safe method for the preparation of high-quality spinnable pitch.
揭示重质油衍生碳纳米片的储钾性能
ZHAO Qing-shan, LIU Qin-lian, LI Yi-wen, JI Tian, YAO Yu-yue, ZHAO Yi-kun, DENG Wei, HU Han, WU Ming-bo
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(24)60875-9
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As by-products of petroleum refining, heavy oils are characterized by high content of carbon, low cost, and abundant tunability, endowing them as competitive precursors for constructing anodes for potassium ion batteries (PIBs). However, the correlation between heavy oil composition and potassium storage performance remains unclear. In this study, by employing heavy oils with distinct group compositions as carbon sources, namely fluid catalytic cracking slurry (FCCs), petroleum asphalt (PA), and deoiled asphalt (DOA), three carbon nanosheets (CNS) were prepared through a molten salt method as anodes for PIBs. The four-component composition of heavy oils can effectively tailor the lamellar thicknesses, sp3-C/sp2-C ratios, and defect levels, thereby affecting the potassium storage performance. Notably, with a high content of aromatic hydrocarbons and moderate heavy component moieties, the FCCs-derived carbon nanosheets (CNS-FCCs) exhibits a smaller layer thickness, enlarged interlayer spacing (0.372 nm), and increased folding defects, leading to promoted charge/ion transfer, more potassium storage sites, and enhanced reaction kinetics. The CNS-FCCs delivers a remarkable K+ storage capacity (248.7 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at 0.1 A g−1), long cycle lifespan (190.8 mAh g−1 after 800 cycles at 1.0 A g−1), and excellent rate capability, lying among the first echelons. This work sheds light on the influence mechanism of heavy oil composition on carbon structure and electrochemical performance, providing guidance for the design and development of advanced heavy oil-derived carbon electrodes for PIBs.
金属有机框架及其衍生物在锂离子电容器中的应用
ZHAO Sha-sha, ZHANG Xiong, LI Chen, AN Ya-bin, HU Tao, WANG Kai, SUN Xian-zhong, MA Yan-wei
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(24)60873-5
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There is an urgent need for lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) that possess both high energy density and high power density to meet the continuously growing energy storage demands. LICs effectively balance the high energy density of traditional batteries with the superior power density and longevity of supercapacitors (SCs). Nevertheless, the development of LICs is still hampered by the challenges of kinetic processes and capacity mismatch between the cathode and anode. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and their derivatives have garnered significant attention owing to their extensive specific surface area, rich pore structures, diverse topologies, and customizable functional sites, making them compelling candidate materials for achieving high-performance LICs. MOF-derived carbons, known for their exceptional electrical conductivity and extensive surface area, provide improved charge storage and rapid ion transport. MOF-derived transition metal oxides contribute to high specific capacities and improved electrochemical stability. Additionally, MOF-derived metal compounds/carbons provide synergistic effects that enhance both the capacitive and faradaic reactions, leading to superior overall performance. This review systematically examines the latest advancements of MOFs and their derivatives in LICs, emphasizing the correlation linking architecture/composition to electrochemical properties, and providing a future outlook to guide further research and technological developments in energy storage.
高性能锂离子电池硅阳极碳包覆涂层的研究进展
XU Ze-yu, SHAO Hai-bo, WANG Jian-ming
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(24)60871-1
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In recent years, the rapid growth of energy demand has led to great progress in the development of rechargeable lithium batteries (LIBs). Silicon anode has attracted much attention by virtue of its extremely high theoretical capacity, relatively low Li-insertion voltage and availability of silicon resources. Nevertheless, the violent volume expansion and fragile solid electrolyte interface (SEI) film hinder the commercial application of Si-based anodes. To solve the above issues, Si materials are combined with various carbonaceous materials, which is conducive to enhanced structural stability and optimized interface characteristics. Herein, different carbonaceous materials as 3D protective coatings for Si anodes to buffer mechanical strain and isolate electrolyte are presented in this review. The novel preparation methods for integrating silicon particles with various carbon materials are outlined. However, carbon materials as protective layer still have some disadvantages until now, thus showing the necessity for further modification on protective carbon coatings. Recent developments on the modification of protective carbon shells are focused on. The potential substitute for the 3D carbon coating of Si anodes is suggested. It is expected that this review may help researchers to understand the comprehensive information of Si/C composite anodes and promote their success in the related fields.
富勒烯诱导块状中间相沥青形成中间相炭微球
CHEN Wen-sheng, LIU Lan-tao, WANG Zheng, DUAN Chun-feng, ZHANG Xing-wei, MA Zhao-kun, CHEN Xiao-hong, SONG Huai-he
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(24)60866-8
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The controllable transformation of mesophase pitch (MP) exhibits great practical significance for studying the formation mechanism and application of MP. This work accomplished the reversible transformation of the mesophase morphology from bulk to spherical type by heat-treating naphthalene-based mesophase pitch (NMP) uniformly dispersed with fullerenes (C60). The effects of C60 loading and reaction temperature on the morphological transformation of mesophase are investigated by polarizing microscope and scanning electron microscopy. The physical induction of NMP by C60 was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry and Raman spectroscopy. The results show that the bulk type of NMP can be converted to spherical type at 300–320 °C heat treatment temperature with the addition of 5% C60, and the size of mesophase microbeads increases with increasing temperature. Furthermore, a model is established to explain the unique induction effect of C60 in the reversible transformation process. This work makes the morphological transformation of MP controllable, which provides a new idea for the subsequent research on MP morphology.
催化法制备中间相沥青的研究进展
MA Zi-hui, YANG Tao, SONG Yan, CHEN Wen-sheng, DUAN Chun-feng, SONG Huai-he, TIAN Xiao-dong, GONG Xiang-jie, LIU Zheng-yang, LIU Zhan-jun
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(24)60862-0
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Mesophase pitch, due to its high purity and excellent orientation, is a superior precursor for high-performance carbon materials. However, the preparation of top-notch mesophase pitch faces challenges. Catalytic polycondensation at low temperature is more favorable for synthesizing mesophase pitch, which circumvents the high-temperature free radical reaction of other thermal polycondensation approaches. Besides, the reaction is gentle and could be easily controlled. It has the potential to significantly improve the yield of mesophase pitch and easily introduce the naphthenic characteristics into the molecules, hence, catalytic polycondensation is a preferentially recommended methodology to synthesize highly spinnable mesophase pitch. This paper furnishes a synopsis of the selection pretreatment of raw materials to prepare diverse mesophase pitches, and explains the reaction mechanism and associated research advancements of different catalytic systems in recent years. Ultimately, how to manufacture high-quality mesophase pitch by employing a catalyst-promoter system is summarized and proposed, it is expected to present original concepts and dependable theoretical direction for the design of high-quality pitch molecules in the future.
高比能快充型钠离子电池炭负极:进展与挑战
黎璟泓, 张一波, 贾怡然, 杨晨旭, 褚悦, 张俊, 陶莹, 杨全红
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(24)60870-X
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由于具有优异的快充与低温特性,并且钠元素资源丰富、成本低廉,钠离子电池成为下一代非资源限制型高效储能体系的首选。无定形炭材料是钠离子电池实用化进程的关键负极材料,具备较高首次库伦效率、低嵌钠平台、稳定性好等优点。然而,目前无定形炭负极存在平台储钠动力学差以及高平台容量与高平台电位无法兼得的问题,导致钠离子电池的快充性能、能量密度以及安全特性顾此失彼,严重制约了钠离子电池的产业化进程。本文聚焦制约钠离子电池碳负极发展的关键瓶颈,分析了无定形炭平台储钠各基元步骤的动力学行为,从电极-电解液界面和无定形炭微观结构调控两方面梳理了构建高比能快充型钠离子电池的工作进展,并探讨了影响平台储钠动力学与平台电位的关键要素,最后针对钠离子电池碳负极的发展方向与关键挑战进行了简要评述和展望,以期推动实用型钠离子电池碳负极材料的发展。
高石墨化度多孔炭的制备及其乙烷/乙烯分离性能
刘汝帅, 唐帆, 史晓东, 郝广平, 陆安慧
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(24)60859-0
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乙烷(C2H6)与乙烯(C2H4)的高效分离对于制备聚合物级C2H4至关重要,需要开发选择性高和稳定性好的C2H6/C2H4吸附剂。本文以酚醛树脂为前驱体,FeCl3为铁源,通过在室温下聚合及800 ºC下炭化的方法制备了高石墨化度多孔炭(GC-800),并利用VASP计算证实了石墨化的多孔炭表面与C2H6分子间的结合能更高。石墨化度的增加可以有效提高多孔炭对C2H6的吸附能力,但高温下Fe的催化石墨化过程会破坏多孔炭的微孔结构,从而降低C2H6/C2H4的分离能力。通过调控炭化温度,实现了对多孔炭的石墨化度与孔隙结构的协同优化。拉曼光谱和XPS的数据分析表明,GC-800具有高的石墨化度,且sp2 C的含量高达73%。低温N2物理吸附技术测算出GC-800的比表面积高达574 m2·g−1。在298 K和1 bar的条件下GC-800对C2H6的平衡吸附容量为2.16 mmol·g−1,C2H6/C2H4(1∶1和1∶9,v/v)IAST选择性分别达到2.4和3.8,显著高于大多数报道的高性能C2H6选择性吸附剂。动态穿透实验表明GC-800可以从C2H6和C2H4混合物中一步获得高纯度的C2H4。动态循环测试证实了GC-800具有良好的循环稳定性,含湿条件下GC-800仍然能高效分离C2H6/C2H4
Raman和FTIR光谱半定量分析中间相沥青基泡沫炭的结构演变行为
LIU Yue, CHANG Sheng-kai, SU Zhan-peng, HUANG Zu-jian, QIN Ji, YANG Jian-xiao
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(24)60867-X
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In this work, graphitized carbon foams (GFm) were prepared using mesophase pitch (MP) as a raw material through the foaming (450 °C), pre-oxidation (320 °C), carbonization (1000 °C), and graphitization (2800 °C) processes. Further, the differences in structure and properties of GFm prepared from different MP precursors which were pretreated by ball milling or liquid phase extraction were investigated and compared, and semi-quantitative calculations were conducted on the Raman and FTIR spectra of samples at each preparation stage. Semi-quantitative spectroscopic analysis provided the detailed information on the structure and chemical composition evolutions of MP and its derived GFm. Combined with microscopic observation for confirmation, the evolution mechanism from precursors to GFm during the preparation process was systematically analyzed. The results showed that ball milling could concentrate the mass distribution of aromatics in pitch, which contributed to uniform foaming, obtaining GFm with uniform pore distribution, and fine comprehensive properties. Liquid phase extraction helped to remove light components while retaining large aromatics to form carbonaceous planes with the largest average size during post-treatments, obtaining GFm with the highest graphitization degree and the fewest open holes, thus presenting the best compression resistance (2.47 MPa), the highest thermal conductivity (64.47 W/(m·K)) and the lowest electrical resistance (13.02 μΩ·m). The characterization strategy by combining semi-quantitative spectroscopic analysis with microscopic observation proposed in this work could provide the receivable theory of knowledge for controlling the preparation of MP-derived GFm.
双发射生物质碳量子点的荧光颜色调谐及其在Fe3+和Cu2+检测中的应用
Xue Jia-jia, GAN Mei-heng, LU Yong-gen, WU Qi-lin
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(24)60869-3
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Using simple and eco-friendly solvothermal treatment, dual-emission biomass carbon quantum dots (D-BCQDs) were successfully synthesized from biomass Viburnum awabuki leaves. The resultant dual emission peaks appeared at 490 and 675 nm under a single 413 nm excitation wavelength. Only by changing the reaction temperature (140–240 °C), multicolor D-BCQDs could emit crimson, red, purplish red, purple, and blue-gray fluorescence, respectively. XPS and FTIR characterization indicated that the tunable fluorescence color mechanism was mainly attributed to surface oxidation defects, nitrogen elemental content, and sp2-C/sp3-C hybridized structural domains. D-BCQDs can not only respectively detect Fe3+ and Cu2+, but also quantify the ratio of Fe3+ and Cu2+ in mixed solutions, demonstrating their potential application in the simultaneous detection of multiple ions.
高性能钾离子电池沥青基碳负极材料
JIANG Ming-chi, SUN Ning, YU Jia-xu, WANG Ti-zheng, Razium Ali Somoro, JIA Meng-qiu, XU Bin
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(24)60868-1
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Potassium-ion batteries (PIBs) hold promise for large-scale energy storage, necessitating the development of high-performance anode materials. Carbon with the advantage of structural versatility, is recognized as the most promising anode materials for commercialization. However, the relationship between carbon anode structure and their electrochemical performance remains unclear. Herein, a series of pitch-based soft carbon materials with different structures are fabricated by adjusting the carbonization temperatures at the range of 600–1400 °C, and their electrochemical K-storage performance has been systematically investigated. Among all, MTP700, with a relatively high disordered degree and larger interlayer spacing, exhibits a high reversible capacity of 329.4 mAh g−1 with a high initial coulombic efficiency of 72.81% and a maintained high capacity of 144.2 mAh g−1 at the current rate of 5 C. The study investigated the variation of carbon configurations and K-storage performances in relation to carbonization temperature, elucidating the correlation between the microcrystal size and the low-potential plateau region capacity as well as the structural disordered degree with the sloping region capacity. These findings can enrich the fundamental understanding of the K-storage process in carbon anodes, and thus facilitate the advancement of PIBs.
高韧性低黏度碳纳米管/聚醚酰亚胺/聚醚醚酮纳米复合材料的研究
SONG Jiu-peng, ZHAO Yan, LI Xue-kuan, XIONG Shu, LI Shuang, WANG Kai
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(22)60643-7
摘要(542) HTML(278) PDF(38)
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Polyether ether ketone (PEEK) has favorable mechanical properties. However, its high melt viscosity limits its applications because it is hard to process. In this study, PEEK nanocomposites modified with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and polyether imide (PEI) were prepared using a direct wet powder blending method. The melt viscosity of the nanocomposites decreased by approximately 50%. Under optimal conditions, the addition of CNTs and PEI resulted in a synergistic increase in the toughness of the nanocomposites. The elongation at break increased by 129%, and the fracture energy increased by 97%. The uniformly dispersed CNTs/PEI powder reduces the processing difficulty of PEEK nanocomposites without affecting the heat resistance. The nanocomposites prepared by this method have lower melt viscosity. This improvement of the properties of PEEK would facilitate its use in the preparation of thermoplastic composites by powder impregnation or laser sintering technology.
真空抽滤结合反应熔渗法制备ZrB2-ZrC-SiC改性碳/碳复合材料的力学性能及烧蚀行为
ZHANG Jia-ping, SU Xiao-xuan, LI Xin-gang, WANG Run-ning, FU Qian-gang
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(24)60841-3
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The development of advanced aircrafts relies on high performance thermal-structural materials and composites of carbon/carbon (C/C) with ultrahigh-temperature ceramics are ideal candidates. However, traditional routes of compositing are either inefficient and expensive or lead to non-uniform distribution of ceramics in the matrix. Here, vacuum filtration of ZrB2 was successfully applied to introduce ZrB2-ZrC-SiC into C/C as a supplement for reactive melt infiltration ZrSi2, which contributed to the content increase and uniform distribution of the introduced ceramic phases. The mass and linear ablation rates of the composites were reduced by 68.9% and 29.7%, respectively, compared to those of C/C-ZrC-SiC composites prepared through reactive melt infiltration. The ablation performance was improved because of the volatilization of B2O3, taking a part of the heat away, and more uniformly distributed ZrO2 that could promote the formation of ZrO2-SiO2 continuous protective layer. This efficiently resisted the mechanical denudation and hindered the oxygen infiltration.
炭气凝胶在光热转换领域的研究进展
郎延亭, 何宇, 宋怀河, 易黎明, 邓海军, 陈晓红
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(24)60865-6
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光热转换是指将太阳能转换成热能,能够实现利用太阳能这种清洁可再生资源缓解能源匮乏。炭气凝胶材料具有高度发达的孔隙结构、优异的光捕获能力和高光热转换效率等优点,是当下光热转换领域研究热点。本文首先简单概述了不同光热材料的光热转换原理,然后从炭气凝胶种类入手分别讨论了石墨烯气凝胶、碳纳米管气凝胶、生物质基炭气凝胶和聚合物基炭气凝胶几种炭气凝胶作为光热材料的研究进展,最后介绍了炭气凝胶作为光热材料在太阳能水蒸发、热能储存、光热催化、光热治疗和光热除冰等方面的应用。
基于还原氧化石墨烯与碳化硅的多孔电磁屏蔽薄膜及其多层结构
LI Jing, Qi Yi-quan, ZHAO Shi-xiang, QIU Han-xun, YANG Jun-he, YANG Guang-zhi
当前状态:  doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(24)60855-3
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Development of lightweight and flexible thin films for electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding is of great significance. In this paper, RGO@SiC porous thin films were prepared for EMI shielding. The porous structure was easily obtained by 3 s of solid phase microwave irradiation, which resulted in an efficient reduction of GO and a significant increase of the film thickness from around 20 to 200 μm. The SET of the RGO@SiC porous thin film reached 35.6 dB, while the SER was only 2.8 dB. The addition of SiC whiskers was critical for the multi-reflection, interfacial polarization and dielectric attenuation of EM waves. Further, the multilayer composites with a gradient change from transmission to reflection were constructed by stacking the RGO@SiC porous films and using multi-walled carbon nanotubes buckypaper as the reflection layer. The highest SET reached 75.1 dB with a SER value of 2.7 dB and a thickness of about 1.5 mm. We believe the porous RGO@SiC thin films were promising for designing multilayer or sandwich structure as EMI absorption packaging or lining materials.
2024 年 3 期中文目次
2024, 39(3): 1-1.  
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2024 年 3 期英文目次
2024, 39(3): 1-7.  
摘要(97) HTML(42) PDF(21)
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综合评述
双金属电催化CO2还原催化剂的合成、表征和机理研究进展
廖银丽, 黄恒波, 邹如玉, 沈淑玲, 刘心娟, 唐志红
2024, 39(3): 367-387.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(24)60860-7
摘要(219) HTML(75) PDF(62)
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The electrocatalytic CO2 reduction reaction (CO2RR) is an environmentally friendly way to convert CO2 into valuable chemicals. However, CO2 conversion is a complex process, which contains 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 electron transfer processes. It is very important to develop efficient catalysts to precisely control the number of electron transfers for the chemicals required. Single-metal catalysts have some deficiencies, including slow reaction kinetics, low product selectivity and inadequate stability. In response to these challenges, bimetallic catalysts have received significant attention owing to their unique structure and improved performance. The introduction of secondary metals alters the catalyst’s electronic structure, and creates novel active sites, as well as optimizing their interaction with the intermediates. This review provides a comprehensive account of atomically distributed bimetals based on carbon materials and non-atomic distributed bimetals such as alloys and heterostructures, including their synthesis methods, characterization, and the outcomes of different catalysts. Catalytic mechanisms of different bimetallic catalysts are proposed and challenges encountered in the CO2RR are considered.
石墨炔在水系离子电池中的研究进展
徐显敏, 封文聪, 任静柯, 罗雯
2024, 39(3): 388-406.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(24)60852-8
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摘要:

石墨炔(Graphdiyne,GDY)是一种全新的炭材料,具有特殊的炭杂化排列方式、独特的化学性质和电子结构以及独特的孔隙结构等优点,在电化学储能领域具有良好的应用前景。新兴的水系离子电池具有低成本和高安全性等优点,然而,高性能电极材料的开发、新型隔膜体系的设计以及稳定界面的策略等仍是水系离子电池面临的主要挑战。石墨炔在负极保护、正极包覆、隔膜设计以及稳定界面pH值等方面,可以改善离子传输与界面沉积行为、电解液不稳定等问题。特别是石墨炔自下而上的分子结构设计策略使其具有易修饰、掺杂的特点,改性的石墨炔类似物具有更加优异的性能,拓宽了其在水系离子电池中的应用。本文系统综述了石墨炔的结构与性质以及合成方法,特别对石墨炔在水系离子电池中的研究进行了总结。此外,对石墨炔在水系离子电池中应用时仍存在的问题与挑战进行了探讨,对石墨炔在水系离子电池中的发展进行了展望。

炭载单原子催化剂在电化学反应中的应用进展
王翊丞, 马晓博, , 王晨旭, 李阳, 杨成龙, 王哲帆, 汪超, 胡超, 张亚婷
2024, 39(3): 407-438.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(24)60863-2
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Recent advances in the use of carbon-supported single-atom catalysts (SACs) for electrochemical reactions are comprehensively reviewed. The development and advantages of carbon-supported SACs are briefly introduced, followed by a detailed summary of the synthesis strategies used, including vapor phase transport, high temperature pyrolysis and wet chemical methods. Advanced characterization techniques for carbon-supported SACs are also reviewed. The use of carbon-supported SACs in different fields, such as the oxygen reduction reaction, carbon dioxide reduction reaction, nitrogen reduction reaction, hydrogen evolution reaction, and oxygen evolution reaction are summarized. Special emphasis is given to the modification strategies used to enable carbon-supported SACs to have an excellent electrocatalytic performance. Finally, the prospects and challenges associated with using carbon-supported SACs for electrochemical reactions are discussed.
石墨烯/钼基二硫族化合物范德华异质结光电探测器的研究进展
张鑫华, 刘伟迪, 龚佑品, 刘庆丰, 陈志刚
2024, 39(3): 439-457.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(24)60853-X
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Graphene is widely used in photodetection because of its high carrier mobility and wide spectral absorption range. However, its high dark current caused by its low light absorption severely limits its performance. Molybdenum dihalide (MoX2, X= S, Se and Te) has a high absorption coefficient, which can compensate for the high dark current in graphene-based photodetectors and result in outstanding photoelectronic properties of those based on a graphene/MoX2 van der Waals heterostructure (vdWH). In this review, we firstly review working principles, performance indicators, and structures of photodetectors. After that, the significance of graphene/MoX2 vdWH photodetectors is highlighted from the fundamental perspective. Preparation methodologies and performance enhancement strategies of graphene/MoX2 vdWH photodetectors are correspondingly summarized. In the end, we highlight the current challenges and future directions of the graphene/MoX2 vdWH photodetectors. This review will guide the design of high-performance vdWH photodetectors.
碳基材料的Z型和S型异质结光催化清洁能源综述
Sahil Rana, Amit Kumar, WANG Tong-tong, Gaurav Sharma, Pooja Dhiman, Alberto García-Penas
2024, 39(3): 458-482.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(24)60857-7
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Carbon materials, including carbon nanotubes/nanofibers, graphene, graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide, graphyne, graphdiyne, carbon quantum dots and fullerenes, have received considerable attention in recent years because of their unique properties such as high conductivity, excellent stability and biocompatibility. The integration of these materials into Z-scheme and S-scheme heterojunctions has emerged as a transformative strategy to increase their photocatalytic efficiency for energy conversion applications. We first consider the fundamental principles of clean energy generation such as photocatalytic H2 generation and CO2 reduction, elucidating their respective mechanisms and advantages. Various types of carbon materials, their synthesis and construction of Z-scheme and S-scheme heterojunctions are then discussed, emphasizing their role in promoting charge separation, reducing recombination losses and extending the spectral response range. With a focus on solar energy production, recent advances in carbon-based Z-scheme and S-scheme heterojunctions are discussed and summarized for photocatalytic H2 generation and CO2 reduction. Lastly, the current problems in the field of carbon-based photocatalysts are discussed with insights for the future development of this field.
氧化石墨烯和石墨烯的高浓度加工、致密化及应用
王悦, 罗家亮, 鲁哲宏, 狄俊, 王苏炜, 姜炜
2024, 39(3): 483-505.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(24)60856-5
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Dense graphene assemblies, composed of tightly stacked graphene sheets, have outstanding chemical stability and excellent mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties. They also do not have the problems of low density, low mechanical strength, poor electrical conductivity, or poor thermal conductivity found in porous graphene aerogels, making them ideal materials for future portable electronic and smart devices. We summarize work on high-concentration graphene oxide (GO) and graphene dispersions prepared by mechanical dispersion, evaporation concentration, centrifugal concentration, and liquid phase exfoliation, as well as two-dimensional (2D) dense graphene-based films and three-dimensional (3D) dense graphene-based structures prepared by vacuum-assisted filtration, interfacial self-assembly, and press-forming, and evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each method. The applications of dense graphene-based assemblies in energy storage, thermal management, and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding are summarized. Finally, their challenges and prospects in future research are outlined. This review provides a reference for exploring and developing their large-scale, cost-effective manufacture and use.
研究论文
硼氮共掺杂海藻酸钠基多孔炭及其快速高效储锌
卢亚平, 王红星, 刘澜涛, 庞伟伟, 陈晓红
2024, 39(3): 506-514.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(24)60847-4
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In recent years, zinc-ion hybrid capacitors (ZIHCs) have attracted increasing attention due to their environmental friendliness and excellent electrochemical properties. However, their performance is mainly limited by the electrochemical performance of the cathode, so it is necessary to develop an advanced cathode material. N, B co-doped sodium alginate-based porous carbon (NBSPC) was prepared by one-step co-carbonization using sodium alginate as the matrix and NH4B5O8 as the N and B source. This N, B co-doping strategy improves the pore structure of the carbon materials and increases the number of surface functional groups, greatly improving the capacitive behavior of the raw materials and thus improving their electrochemical performance. When used as the cathode in ZIHCs, the NBSPC had an excellent rate performance (85.4 mA h g1 even at ultra-high current density of 40 A g1) and good cycling stability (15 000 cycles at 20 A g1 with a capacity retention rate of 94.5%).
可控生长石墨炔/氢氧化钴异质界面用于高效产氯
刘惠敏, 栾晓雨, 闫佳玉, 卜凡乐, 薛玉瑞, 李玉良
2024, 39(3): 515-525.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(24)60861-9
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The chlor-alkali process plays a key and irreplaceable role in the chemical industry because of its use in various industrial processes. However, the low selectivity and efficiency of the reported chlorine evolution reaction (CER) electrocatalysts obviously hinder its practical use. We report a simple method for the controlled growth of high-performance CER electrocatalysts by first growing cobalt hydroxide on the surface of carbon cloth, followed by the in-situ growth of graphdiyne (GDY/Co(OH)2). As expected, the as-synthesized catalyst has a small overpotential of only 83 mV at 10 mA cm2, a maximum Faradaic Efficiency (FE) of 91.54%, and a high chlorine yield of 157.11 mg h1 cm2 in acidic simulated seawater. Experimental results demonstrate that the in-situ growth of GDY on the Co(OH)2 surface leads to the formation of heterointerfaces with strong electron transfer between GDY and Co atoms, resulting in a higher conductivity, larger active specific surface area and more active sites, thereby improving the overall electrocatalytic selectivity and efficiency.
可控构建分级多孔炭载CoP纳米颗粒催化剂用于高效氧还原反应
闫晓丽, 王奎, 郝姝葳, 周广达, 杨浩伟, 张华, 郭俊杰
2024, 39(3): 526-537.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(24)60848-6
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Exploring cost-efficient and highly-efficient noble metal-free catalysts for the oxygen reduction reactions (ORRs) involved in sustainable energy devices remains a great challenge. Transition-metal phosphides supported on heteroatom-doped carbons have shown potential as alternative candidates for precious metals because of their tunable electronic structures and higher catalytic performance. Phosphating was used to construct CoP nanoparticles (NPs) anchored on a nitrogen-doped porous carbon framework (CoP@NC) from Co NPs loaded on NC, using PH3 gas released from NaH2PO2 during heat treatment. The dodecahedral structure of Co NPs was retained in their transformation to CoP NPs. The CoP@NC electrocatalyst shows a remarkable ORR activity with a half-wave potential up to 0.92 V under alkaline conditions, which is attributed to the combined coupling between the well dispersed CoP nanoparticles on the nitrogen-doped carbon and the efficient mass transport in the porous structure. Zinc-air batteries assembled with the CoP@NC electrocatalyst as a cathode have a high open-circuit voltage of 1.51 V and power density of 210.1 mW cm2. This work provides a novel strategy to develop low-cost catalysts with an excellent ORR performance to promote their practical use in metal-air batteries.
磺酰氯促进金属氯化物插层石墨以实现高效钠存储
兰淑琴, 任伟成, 王钊, 于畅, 余金河, 刘迎宾, 谢远洋, 张秀波, 王健健, 邱介山
2024, 39(3): 538-548.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(24)60851-6
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Metal chloride-intercalated graphite with excellent conductivity and a large interlayer spacing is highly desired for use in sodium ion batteries. However, halogen vapor is usually indispensable in initiating the intercalation process, which makes equipment design and experiments challenging. In this work, SO2Cl2 was used as a chlorine generator to intensify the intercalation of BiCl3 into graphite (BiCl3-GICs), which avoided the potential risks, such as Cl2 leakage, in traditional methods. The operational efficiency in the experiment was also improved. After the reaction of SO2Cl2, BiCl3, and graphite at 200 °C for 20 h, the synthesized BiCl3-GICs had a large interlayer spacing (1.26 nm) and a high amount of BiCl3 intercalation (42%), which gave SIBs a high specific capacity of 213 mAh g1 at 1 A g1 and an excellent rate performance (170 mAh g1 at 5 A g1). In-situ Raman spectra revealed that the electronic interaction between graphite and intercalated BiCl3 is weakened during the first discharge, which is favorable for sodium storage. This work broadly enables the increased intercalation of other metal chloride-intercalated graphites, offering possibilities for developing advanced energy storage devices.
石油焦炭基储钠材料层间距扩大与闭孔研究
庄洪坤, 李文翠, 何斌, 吕家贺, 王敬松, 申明远, 陆安慧
2024, 39(3): 549-560.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(24)60858-9
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Petroleum coke (PC) is a valuable precursor for sodium-ion battery (SIB) anodes due to its high carbon content and low cost. The regulation of the microcrystalline state and pore structure of the easily-graphitized PC-based carbon is crucial for creating abundant Na+ storage sites. Here we used a precursor transformation strategy to increase the carbon interlayer spacing and generate abundant closed pores in PC-based carbon, significantly increasing its Na+ storage capacity in the plateau region. This was achieved by introducing a large number of oxygen functional groups through mixed acid treatment and then using high-temperature carbonization to decompose the oxygen functional groups and rearrange the carbon microcrystallites, resulting in a transition from open to closed pores. The optimized samples provide a large reversible capacity of 356.0 mAh g1 at 0.02 A g1, of which approximately 93% is below 1.0 V. Galvanostatic intermittent titration (GITT) and in-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicate that the sodium storage capacity in the low voltage plateau region involves a joint contribution of interlayer insertion and closed pore filling processes. This study presents a comprehensive method for the development of high-performance carbon anodes using low-cost and highly aromatic precursors.
等离子体辅助制备炭布负载大层间距NiCoAl-LDHs及其电化学去离子性能
姜秋彤, 王国庆, 李益, 黄宏伟, 李倩, 杨建
2024, 39(3): 561-572.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(24)60854-1
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电容去离子技术近年来被认为是一种新兴的海水淡化技术,尤其在苦咸水范围内具有经济节能的特点。然而,目前关于除氯电极的研究较少,同时缓慢的除盐动力学也制约了除氯电极的发展。本工作通过在表面酸处理后的柔性炭布(ACC)上原位生长层状氢氧化物NiCoAl-LDHs纳米片阵列并进行Ar等离子体处理,制备了具有扩大层间距的Ar-NiCoAl-LDHs@ACC材料。炭布基底抑制了NiCoAl-LDHs纳米片的团聚并提高了电导率,Ar等离子体处理则进一步扩大了NiCoAl-LDHs层间距并改善了亲水性,提供了快速的氯离子扩散通道,并释放了更多的层间活性位点,实现了高除盐动力学。将Ar-NiCoAl-LDHs@ACC作为除氯电极与活性炭组装了混合式电容去离子器件。在1000 mg L−1 NaCl溶液及1.2 V工作电压下,除盐容量可达到93.26 mg g−1,除盐速率可达到0.27 mg g−1 s−1,电荷效率高达0.97。在300 mg L−1 NaCl溶液及0.8 V工作电压下,经100次循环后容量保持率仍在85%以上。本工作的制备策略为大层间距二维金属氢氧化物材料的可控制备和高性能电化学除氯电极的设计构建提供了新思路。

废旧三元锂电池石墨负极电化学除杂及其性能研究
张锐, 田勇, 张维丽, 宋佳音, 闵杰, 庞博, 陈建军
2024, 39(3): 573-582.   doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(24)60843-7
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随着新能源汽车迅速发展,动力锂离子电池应用越来越广泛,大量锂电池也迎来退役高峰期,废旧锂电池的回收综合利用引起各国高度关注。废旧锂电池石墨负极层状结构基本未变化,因此回收时不需高温石墨化,只需关注其内部杂质的去除。本文将废旧石墨负极进行热处理、超声分离和酸浸处理后,创新性地采用电化学处理将内部金属杂质深度去除。对比不同回收阶段的石墨,发现石墨中有机杂质的存在会严重影响各项电化学性能,微量Cu、Fe等无机杂质的存在对初始放电比容量影响不大,但会降低石墨的循环稳定性。最终回收的石墨内部主要金属杂质含量低于20 mg/kg,在0.1 C倍率下放电比容量达到358.7 mAh/g,循环150圈后容量保持率为95.85%。对比已报道的废旧石墨回收方法,此方法可深度去除石墨负极内部杂质,解决了目前酸碱用量大、除杂不彻底、能耗高等问题,回收再生石墨负极电化学性能较好,为废旧锂电池石墨负极提供了一条新的回收再生路径。