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Photodetectors based on graphene/molybdenum dichalcogenide van der Waals heterostructure: A review

ZHANG Xin-hua LIU Wei-di GONG You-pin LIU Qing-feng CHEN Zhi-gang

ZHANG Xin-hua, LIU Wei-di, GONG You-pin, LIU Qing-feng, CHEN Zhi-gang. Photodetectors based on graphene/molybdenum dichalcogenide van der Waals heterostructure: A review. New Carbon Mater.. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(24)60853-X
Citation: ZHANG Xin-hua, LIU Wei-di, GONG You-pin, LIU Qing-feng, CHEN Zhi-gang. Photodetectors based on graphene/molybdenum dichalcogenide van der Waals heterostructure: A review. New Carbon Mater.. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(24)60853-X

doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(24)60853-X

Photodetectors based on graphene/molybdenum dichalcogenide van der Waals heterostructure: A review

Funds: This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51972170), the State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering (SKL-MCE-23A04), the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD), and the Jiangsu Specially-Appointed Professor Program. CHEN Zhi-gang thanks the financial support from the Australian Research Council, and QUT Capacity Building Professor Program. GONG You-pin acknowledges support from the Chongqing Research Program of Basic Research and Frontier Technology (cstc2021jcyj-msxmX0641) and the Doctoral “through train” scientific research project of Chongqing (CSTB2022BSXM-JCX0085)
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  • Figure  1.  Classification and applications of photodetectors[2,4,8-10,13,20,21,27,28]. Copyright, 2018, American Chemical Society[8]. Copyright, 2018, Springer Nature[9].Copyright, 2020, The American Cheramic Society[13]. Copyright, 2020, CellPress[2]. Copyright,2024, Elsevier[22]. Copyright, 2024, Elsevier[11]. Copyright, 2008, Elsevier[4]. Copyright, 2008, American Institute of Physics[20]

    Figure  2.  Detectivity (D*) of graphene-based 2D photodetectors based on van der Waals heterostructures (vdWHs) with different photosensitive materials, including Graphene/ReS2[45], graphene/SnS2[46], Graphene/PtSe2[47], Graphene/PtSe2/β-Ga2O3[48], Graphene/PbSe[49], Graphene/GaSe [51], Graphene/InSe[52], Graphene/PbSe/TiO2[50], Graphene/SnSe2/Graphene[53], Graphene/p-GaSe/n-InSe[54], Graphene/WSe2[55], Graphene/Bi2Te3[56], Graphene/HgTe/ Graphene[57], Graphene/MoS2[58-60], Graphene/h-BN/MoS2[65], Graphene/MoS2/Graphene[64], MoS2/Graphene/MoS2[61,62], MoS2/h-BN/Graphene[66], Graphene/glassy-MoS2[63], Graphene/InSe/MoS2[67], MoS2/Graphene/WSe2[68], Graphene/MoTe2[69], Graphene/MoTe2/Graphene[70], MoTe2 /Graphene/SnS2[71]

    Figure  3.  Schematic band diagram of (a) photoconductive effect, (b) photovoltaic effect and (c) photothermoelectric effect at the graphene/Molybdenum dihalide (MoX2, X= S, Se and Te) interface. Upper and lower diagram represent the interface in the dark state and under the light, respectively

    Figure  4.  Schematic structures of (a) lateral and (b) vertical graphene/molybdenum dihalide (MoX2, X= S, Se and Te) van der Waals heterostructure photodetectors

    Figure  5.  (a) Graphene hexagonal honeycomb crystal structure. (b) 3D representation of the structure of molybdenum dihalide (MoX2, X= S, Se and Te). (c) Crystal structures of MoX2: including 2H and 1 T polytype. (d) Crystal structure of graphene/MoX2 van der Waals heterostructure (vdWH). Copyright, 2015, Elsevier[106]. (e) Electron band structures of graphene, (f) MoS2 and (g) graphene/MoS2 vdWH at the equilibrium interfacial distance. The Fermi level (EF) is set to zero and marked by green dotted lines. Black and color lines respectively for generalized gradient approximation of Per dew, Burke, and Engenho and HSE06 methods. Copyright, 2016, Royal Society of Chemistry[105]

    Figure  6.  Preparation methods of graphene/molybdenum dihalide (MoX2, X= S, Se and Te) van der Waals heterostructures

    Figure  7.  (a) Transmission electron microscope (TEM) image of the transferred graphene/MoS2 van der Waals heterostructure (vdWH. Copyright, 2017, American Chemical Society)[125]. (b) Schematic fabrication process of the transfer-free graphene/MoS2 vdWH. (c) Atomic force microscope (AFM) image of the transfer-free graphene/MoS2 vdWH. Copyright, 2017, American Chemical Society[125]. (d) Schematic diagram of the transfer-free graphene/MoS2 interface band. Copyright, 2017, American Chemical Society[125]. (e) Comparison of time-dependent photocurrent of the transfer-free graphene/MoS2 and transferred graphene/MoS2. Copyright, 2017, American Chemical Society[125]. (f) Comparison of responsivity (R) of the transfer-free graphene/MoS2 and trans-free MoS2/graphene/SiC. Copyright, 2017, American Chemical Society[125]

    Figure  8.  (a) Schematic band diagram of graphene/MoS2. (b) Schematic of the graphene/MoS2/h-BN van der Waals heterostructure (vdWH) device. Copyright, 2018, Elsevier[65]. (c) Comparison of the photoluminescence (PL) intensities of pristine MoS2, graphene/MoS2 and graphene/MoS2/h-BN. Copyright, 2018, Elsevier[65]. (d) Comparison of current- bias voltage (I-VDS) curves of the graphene/MoS2 and graphene/MoS2/h-BN vdWH photodetectors in dark and light illumination. (e) Responsivity (R) of photodetector versus VDS. Copyright, 2018, Elsevier[65]. (f) Noise equivalent power (NEP) and detectivity (D*) of the graphene/MoS2 photodetector versus VDS

    Figure  9.  (a) Energy diagram of the graphene/molybdenum dihalide (MoX2, X= S, Se and Te) hybrid photodetector with asymmetry metal contact under light irradiation. $ \Delta \varphi $Pd and $ \Delta \varphi $Ti represent the difference between the Dirac point energy and the Fermi level (EF) in palladium- and titanium-doped graphene, respectively. Copyright, 2020, American Chemical Society[86]. (b) Difference of current (I) between Dirac point energy and EF in graphene under symmetric metal contact. (c) Difference of I between Dirac point energy and EF in graphene under asymmetry metal contact. (d) Curve of photocurrent and responsivity (R) with gate voltage under asymmetric metal contact. (e) Photocurrent response of graphene/MoS2 phototransistor with asymmetric metal contact. Copyright, 2020, American Chemical Society[86]. (f) Corresponding enlarged figures of (e). Copyright, 2020, American Chemical Society[86]

    Figure  10.  (a) Schematic image of the MoS2 photodetector with graphene gate electrode. Copyright, 2020, American Chemical Society[59]. (b) Band diagram of vertical direction of the device (gate bias (Vgs) << threshold voltage (Vth)). (c) Fowler-Nordheim tunneling (FNT) plots at different incident powers. (d) Band diagram of vertical direction of the device (Vgs >> Vth). (e) Responsivity (R) depending on effective incident power at different Vgs. Copyright, 2020, American Chemical Society[59]. (f) Detectivity (D*) depending on effective incident power at different Vgs. Copyright, 2020, American Chemical Society[59]

    Table  1.   Performance of graphene/photosensitive material-based photodetectors

    Device structureλ/nmR/(mA·W−1)τr/msτf/msD*/JonesRef.
    Graphene/ReS25501.0×10830.030.01.9×1013[45]
    Graphene/SnS2470
    1064
    7.7×105
    2.0×103
    8.9×1013
    1.8×1010
    [46]
    Graphene/PtSe210002.2×10250.537.31.0×107[47]
    Graphene/PtSe2/β-Ga2O324576.21.2×10−30.51.0×1013[48]
    Graphene/PbSe13006.6×10650.0175.01.2×1012[49]
    Graphene/GaSe5323.5×10810.010.01.1×1010[51]
    Graphene/InSe6331.0×108<0.1<0.11.0×1013[52]
    Graphene/PbSe/TiO23505.1×1023.0×1013[50]
    Graphene/SnSe2/
    Graphene
    5321.3×10630.227.21.2×1012[53]
    Graphene/p-GaSe/
    n-InSe
    4102.1×1020.6×10−25.7×10−32.2×1012[54]
    Graphene/WSe25323.5×1055×10−53.0×10−21.0×1013[55]
    Graphene/Bi2Te39401.0×1091.0×1011[56]
    Graphene/HgTe/ Graphene15507.09.0×10−30.7×10−31.0×109[57]
    Graphene/MoS22203.3×1061.0×1012[58]
    Graphene/MoS24322.2×1083.5×1013[59]
    Graphene/MoS25202.1×1061.5×1010[60]
    Graphene/h-BN/MoS25323.6×1025.9×1014[65]
    Graphene/MoS2/
    Graphene
    532
    2000
    4.1×105
    3.8×105
    589.63.2×1010
    2.9×1010
    [64]
    MoS2/Graphene/ MoS21000
    532
    1.0×109
    1.0×1012
    [61]
    MoS2/Graphene/
    MoS2
    1550
    1310
    1.1×102
    11.8
    2.8×10−34.7×10−21.8×1012
    2.0×1012
    [62]
    MoS2/h-BN /Graphene405
    1265
    1.8×105
    1.5×102
    230.02.5×10−22.6×1013[66]
    Graphene/glassy-MoS253212.31.8×1010[63]
    Graphene/InSe/MoS25321.1×1021.1×1010[67]
    MoS2/Graphene/
    WSe2
    5324.3×1065.4×10−23.0×10−22.2×1012[68]
    Graphene/MoTe21064
    808
    9.7×105
    2.2×104
    78.03.7×1021.6×1011
    3.8×1015
    [69]
    Graphene/MoTe2/
    Graphene
    4738.7×10423.01.0×1012[70]
    MoTe2 /Graphene/SnS25002.6×10617.672.31.0×1013[71]
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  2.   Synthesis and performance of typical graphene/molybdenum dihalide (MoX2, X = S, Se and Te) van der Waals heterostructure (vdWH) photodetectors

    Device structureSynthesis of graphene/MoX2λ/nmR/(mA·W−1)D*/Jonesτr /msτf /msEQERef.
    h-BN/MoTe2/Graphene /SnS2/h-BNDry transfer5002.6×1061.0×101317.672.3106 to 105[71]
    MoS2/h-BN /GrapheneDry transfer4051.8×1052.6×1013230250.0[66]
    Graphene/InSe/MoS2Dry transfer5321101.1×101025.7%[67]
    MoS2/Graphene/MoS2Dry transfer1000
    532
    1.0×109
    1.0×1012
    55%[61]
    Graphene/MoTe2/GrapheneDry transfer4738.7×1041.0×101223.0[70]
    Graphene/MoTe2Wet transfer10649.7×1051.6×101178375.0[53]
    MoS2/Graphene/MoS2Wet transfer808
    1550
    1310
    2.2×104
    10.6
    11.8
    3.8×1015
    1.8×1012
    2.0×1012
    2.8×10−34.7×10−2[62]
    MoS2/Graphene/WSe2Wet transfer5324.3×1062.2×10125.3×10−23.0×10−21×106%[68]
    Graphene/MoTe2Wet transfer1265
    1300
    1330
    1.5×102
    50
    20
    1920%[122]
    Graphene/MoTe2/GrapheneWet transfer1064
    473
    110
    205
    2.4×10−24.6×10−212.9%
    53.8%
    [123]
    Graphene/MoS2/WS2Wet transfer400
    1550
    6.6×1010
    1.7×104
    21.97.013.7%[124]
    Graphene/MoS2/GrapheneWet transfer532
    2000
    4.1×105
    3.8×105
    3.2×1010
    2.9×1010
    589.69.7×104%
    2.3×104%
    [64]
    Graphene/MoS2Wet transfer2203.4×1061.0×10121.8×104[58]
    Graphene/MoS2Wet transfer5202.1×1061.5×1010[60]
    Graphene/h-BN/MoS2Wet transfer5323.6×1025.9×101480%[65]
    Graphene/glassy-MoS2Wet transfer53212.31.8×1010[63]
    Graphene/MoS2Inkjet printing5408.4×1052030[125]
    Graphene/MoS2Successive deposition5322.4×103[111]
    Graphene/MoS2Successive deposition4322.2×1083.5×1013[59]
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2024-01-31
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