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Properties and microstructures of A3-3 matrix graphite for pebble fuel elements after high temperature purification at different temperatures

Zhou Xiangwen Zhang Kaihong Yang Yang Wang Lei Zhang Jie Lu Zhenming Liu Bing Tang Yaping

周湘文, 张凯红, 杨杨, 王磊, 张杰, 卢振明, 刘兵, 唐亚平. 不同温度下高温纯化后球形燃料元件A3-3基体石墨的性能和微观结构研究[J]. 新型炭材料. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60022-7
引用本文: 周湘文, 张凯红, 杨杨, 王磊, 张杰, 卢振明, 刘兵, 唐亚平. 不同温度下高温纯化后球形燃料元件A3-3基体石墨的性能和微观结构研究[J]. 新型炭材料. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60022-7
Zhou Xiangwen, Zhang Kaihong, Yang Yang, Wang Lei, Zhang Jie, Lu Zhenming, Liu Bing, Tang Yaping. Properties and microstructures of A3-3 matrix graphite for pebble fuel elements after high temperature purification at different temperatures[J]. NEW CARBOM MATERIALS. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60022-7
Citation: Zhou Xiangwen, Zhang Kaihong, Yang Yang, Wang Lei, Zhang Jie, Lu Zhenming, Liu Bing, Tang Yaping. Properties and microstructures of A3-3 matrix graphite for pebble fuel elements after high temperature purification at different temperatures[J]. NEW CARBOM MATERIALS. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60022-7

不同温度下高温纯化后球形燃料元件A3-3基体石墨的性能和微观结构研究

doi: 10.1016/S1872-5805(21)60022-7

Properties and microstructures of A3-3 matrix graphite for pebble fuel elements after high temperature purification at different temperatures

Funds: Chinese National S&T Major Project (ZX06901)
More Information
  • 摘要: 为了研究高温纯化对高温气冷堆球形燃料元件用A3-3基体石墨的影响,对不同温度下纯化后A3-3基体石墨的综合性能和微观结构进行了对比分析和表征。结果表明,即使将纯化温度从1900 ℃降低到1600 ℃,高温纯化处理后基体石墨的综合性能均满足技术要求。 X射线衍射分析结果表明,纯化后基体石墨的微观结构得到了显著提升,并且随着高温纯化温度的升高,基体石墨的石墨化有序度逐渐提高,其微观组织结构也逐渐优化,这有利于基体石墨综合性能的提升。当纯化温度从1600 ℃继续升高时,纯化后基体石墨的灰分和杂质含量基本保持不变,在更高温度下纯化后基体石墨的微观结构优化对改善其抗氧化腐蚀性能起到了决定性作用。因此,高温纯化工艺在球形燃料元件的生产中是非常重要和必要的。该研究也为未来将球形燃料元件的高温纯化温度从1900 ℃降至1600 ℃提供了重要依据,有助于在将来的球形燃料元件商业化生产中提高生产效率和降低生产成本。
  • 图  1  不同温度处理后酚醛树脂炭的X射线衍射结果

    Figure  1.  XRD patterns of PRC samples treated at different temperatures

    图  2  压汞法得到的MG-800和MG-1600的孔分布信息

    Figure  2.  Pore information of MG-800 and MG-1600 characterized by mercury porosimetry

    表  1  The ash contents and EBCs of raw materials for A3-3 MG (μg/g)

    Table  1.   The ash contents and EBCs of raw materials for A3-3 MG (μg/g)

    Natural flake graphite powder Artificial graphite powder Phenol resin
    Ash contents 10.0 11.5 43.0
    EBC 0.223 0.087 0.330
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  Specimens information for property and microstructure characterization of MG

    Table  2.   Specimens information for property and microstructure characterization of MG

    Property Shape Dimension (mm) Orientation Amount
    Crush strength Pebble r=59.6-60.2 AX 5
    TR 5
    Thermal conductivity Cylinder Ø12.7×2 AX 3
    TR 3
    Erosion rate Pebble r=59.6−60.2 N/A 20
    Corrosion rate Pebble r=59.6−60.2 N/A 3
    Ash content Pebble r=59.6−60.2 N/A 2
    Mercury intrusion
    porosimetry
    Cylinder Ø12.7×25 Random 1
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  Weight and dimensional changes of MG pebbles through HTP

    Table  3.   Weight and dimensional changes of MG pebbles through HTP

    Changes / 100% Heat treatment under different temperatures / ℃
    1600 1700 1800 1900
    Weight 0.29 0.30 0.31 0.31
    Axial dimension 0.17 0.23 0.28 0.31
    Transverse dimension 0.14 0.20 0.25 0.29
    Volume 0.45 0.63 0.78 0.89
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  Comprehensive properties of MG treated with different heat treatment temperatures

    Table  4.   Comprehensive properties of MG treated with different heat treatment temperatures

    Property Average±Deviation Specification
    MG-800 MG-1600 MG-1700 MG-1800 MG-1900
    Density (g/cm3) 1.724±0.001 1.727±0.002 1.730±0.002 1.732±0.001 1.734±0.001 1.70-1.77
    AX Crush strength (kN) 22.54±1.29 27.45±0.71 27.18±1.27 27.13±0.86 26.67±0.66 ≥18.0
    TR Crush strength (kN) 17.43±1.20 19.37±0.68 18.99±0.41 19.47±0.34 19.57±0.47
    Corrosion rate a (mg/cm2·h) 1.88±0.07 0.91±0.05 0.75±0.05 0.63±0.05 0.53±0.06 ≤1.3
    Erosion rate (mg/h·Pebble) 7.94±0.48 3.07±0.11 2.03±0.13 1.81±0.16 1.48±0.09 ≤6.0
    AX Thermal conductivity b (W/m·K) 31.73±0.56 35.93±0.78 36.78±0.66 37.40±0.82 37.86±0.98 ≥25.0
    TR Thermal conductivity b (W/m·K) 36.78±0.76 38.90±0.64 39.33±0.83 39.65±0.77 39.88±0.75
    Ash content (ppm) 18.2±1.0 12.3±0.5 11.0±1.0 10.0 ±1.5 10.5±1.0 ≤300
    a 1000 ℃, 10h, atmosphere was He+1 vol% H2O.
    b The value of thermal conductivity at 1000 ℃.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  The ash contents and typical impurity elements of MG pebbles (ppm)

    Table  5.   The ash contents and typical impurity elements of MG pebbles (ppm)

    Element Apparatus MG-800 MG-1600 MG-1700 MG-1800 MG-1900
    Ash content N/A 18.2 12.3 11.0 10.0 10.5
    Al ICP-OES 0.302 0.222 0.256 0.128 0.257
    Ca ICP-OES 1.936 0.849 0.799 0.667 0.711
    Cr ICP-MS 0.185 0.156 0.133 0.113 0.119
    Cu ICP-MS 1.861 0.014 0.011 0.010 0.010
    Fe ICP-OES 4.473 3.151 1.917 1.451 1.387
    Mn ICP-MS 0.128 0.065 0.051 0.027 0.021
    Mo ICP-MS 0.104 0.020 0.027 0.016 0.010
    Ni ICP-MS 1.313 0.523 0.324 0.207 0.194
    Zn ICP-OES 0.260 0.015 0.020 0.014 0.012
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  The d002 values of PRC samples treated at different temperatures by XRD

    Table  6.   The d002 values of PRC samples treated at different temperatures by XRD

    Samples PRC-800 PRC-1600 PRC-1700 PRC-1800 PRC-1900
    d002 / nm 0.3918 0.3694 0.3645 0.3587 0.3581
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  Porosity of MG specimens measured by mercury porosimetry

    Table  7.   Porosity of MG specimens measured by mercury porosimetry

    Specimens MG-800 MG-1600 MG-1700 MG-1800 MG-1900
    Porosity (%) 15.1992 16.0932 16.4126 16.7677 17.0181
    Skeletal density (g/cm3) 2.0674 2.0924 2.1082 2.1243 2.1376
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-01-01
  • 修回日期:  2021-01-01
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-03-16

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